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NINETY-THREE years have elapsed since Aelian’s De 
natura animalium was edited for the Teubner series 
by Rudolf Hercher. His text was a revision of that 
which he had published six years earlier, in 1858, 
in the Didot series. Both these books have long 
been out of print and almost unobtainable. In one 
respect the Teubner edition is inferior to its pre- 
decessor, since the editor gives no more than a bare 
‘Index mutationum praeter codices factarum’ 
without specifying which ‘ codices ᾿ he has used, and 
those who are concerned to know how he explains 
or defends some of his frequent desertions of the 
manuscripts must still turn to the preface and the 
‘ Adnotatio critica’ of the Didot edition. It was 
Hercher’s service to have detected the prevalence 
of glosses and interpolations, although in expelling 
them he is conscious that some will think that he has 
exceeded all bounds (Didot ed., Praef. p. ii). The 
text here printed is substantially that of Hercher’s 
edition of 1864, and divergences from it are shewn 
in the critical notes, which lay no claim to be ex- 
haustive. In 1902 E. L. De Stefani made a survey 
of the manuscripts in Continental libraries! and 

1 The British Museum Burney MS 80 contains only excerpts — 
in a 16th-cent. hand; there is no MS of the NA in Bodley or 
in the Cambridge University Library, and I have not sought 

farther afield. 


arose νροίονν 

τα ρει ασθν το 



established their relations. It is to be regretted 
that no one has yet come forward to complete the 
task which he began and to provide a fresh text, 
with an adequate critical apparatus. 

In rendering the names of Aelian’s birds and 
fishes I have taken as my guides the two Glossaries 
of Sir D’Arcy Thompson, one of Greek Birds (2nd 
ed., 1936), the other of Greek Fishes (1947.) Botanical 
terms are those given on the authority of Sir William 
Thiselton-Dyer in the ninth edition of Liddell and 
Scott’s Greek Lewicon. In identifying Aelian’s 
reptiles and insects the various articles contributed, 
jointly or separately, by H. Gossen and A. Steier, 
by M. Wellmann apd others to Pauly-Wissowa’s 
Real-Encyklopadie have been of service. In 1935 
Gossen published a systematic catalogue of all 

Aelian’s animals, and perhaps Τ shall be blamed for 

not following him more often than I have done. In 
determining the modern equivalents and the 
scientific nomenclature of the fauna and flora of 
Ancient Greece the oracles do not always speak 
with one voice, and the best that a layman can hope 
for is that, when two or more interpretations have 
presented themselves, the result. of his choice may 
be judged, if not correct, at any rate excusable. 

My thanks are due to those who have kindly 
solved for me various problems that arose in the 

-eourse of my work: to Professor H. W. Bailey, 

Professor W. I. B. Beveridge, Professor F. E. 
Fritsch (+), Dr. Ὁ. A. Parry, Dr. M. G. M. Pryor, 
Dr. G. Salt, Mr. A. F. Huxley, Mr. J. E. Raven. 
But my heaviest obligations are to Mr. A. 5. F. Gow, 
who read considerable portions of my translation in 

typescript, saved me from more blunders than I care 



to think of, and besides improvin | i 

a number of corrections τ the at 
have gladly and gratefully adopted. The Syndics of 
the Cambridge University Press have courteousl 
allowed me to reproduce two passages from an editi 
of Nicander published by them in 1953. ks 

Cambridge, A. Ἐ 5. 

ες 1957. 


Life | ᾿ς 

“ΤῊΝ life of Aelian has been sketched by his con- 
temporary Flavius Philostratus (Qnd—3rd cent. a.p.) 
in his Leves of the Sophists (2. 31), and he is the 
subject of a brief notice in ‘Suidas.’ Claudius 
Aelianus was born at Praeneste about the year 
a.p. 170. He came of lbertus stock and assumed the 
name of Claudius. At Rome he studied under 
Pausanias of Caesarea, a noted rhetorician and pupil 
of Herodes Atticus for whom Aelian reserved his 
chief admiration. Although a Roman, as he himself 
is proud to assert (VH 12. 25; 14. 45), he obtained 
such a mastery of the Attic idiom that he came to be 
known as ‘the honey-tongued or honey-voiced,’ 
while his success as a declaimer was rewarded by 
the bestowal of the title of Sophist. (By the end of 
the second century the term had ceased to bear any 
philosophical implications and had come to denote 
one who taught or practised rhetoric.) Neverthe- _ 
less, mistrusting, it may be, his ability to maintain 
his hold over pupils and audiences—for the demands 
on a successful rhetorician were heavy—he devoted 
himself to the writing of ‘ history" (τῷ ξυγγράφειν 
ἐπέθετο, Phil.). He held the office of ἀρχιερεύς 
presumably at Praeneste, but the greater part of 
his time must have been spent in Rome, where he 
had access to libraries and enjoyed the patronage of 



LUESIS TL: τ OLY ENG ᾿ ἀταβϑὀλα ρ Bay ka ta ata Nae ILA nr aia 
ae i ; ES witpsrearsusssconntuesintes 
τ a SBE ᾿ ΣΡ ΣΕ ee 
: : 

ἀμ νιον που ετ ER EASE NILES ESAT MERE 

νος brat FSS SS 


the empress Julia Domna, who had gathered around 
her on the Palatine a circle of learned men that 
included Oppian, Serenus Sammonicus, Galen, 
Philostratus, and others who figure in the Deipno- 
sophists of Athenaeus.* It was his boast that he had 
never been outside Italy, had never been aboard a 
ship, and knew nothing of the sea—statements 
which most readers will find no difficulty in accept- 
ing.2 He was over sixty years of age when he died, 
unmarried. 7 


Besides the De natura animalium (to give it the 
name by which it is commonly referred to) two 
other works by Aelian have survived — Ἐπιστολαὶ 
ἀγροικίαι, a literary exercise in the form of twenty- 
four letters, vignettes of life in the country, some 
with an erotic motive; and Ποικίλη ἱστορία (Varia 
historia) in fourteen books, beginning with some 
chapters on natural history, but consisting in the 
main of anecdotes historical and biographical, with 
excursions into mythology, and_a variety of other 
topics. The greater part as we have it seems to be 
from the hand of an epitomator. It resembles the 
De natura animalium in its deliberate avoidance of 
any systematic order. Fragments of two treatises, 
Περὶ προνοίας and Περὶ θείων ἐναργειῶν have been 

1 J. Bidez in Camb. Anc. Hist. 12. 613; see also Wellmann . - 

in Hermes 51. 1. 
"2 The words ἐθεασάμην ἐν τῇ πόλει τῇ ᾿Αλεξανδρέων (NA 
11. 40) occur in a chapter borrowed wholly from Apion, and 
Wellmann (RE 1. 486) considers that Aelian is simply tran- 
scribing his authority. Μ. Croiset (Hist. de la lit. gr. 5. 774) 
demurs to this view; his explanation seems to me uncon- 
vincing. | : ᾿ 


preserved, most of them in ‘ Suidas.’ So far as we 
can judge they were collections of stories illustratin 
heaven 5 retribution on unbelievers. Aelian has ane 
bitter words for the scepticism of the Epicureans: 
A bare mention is enough for two sets of epigrams 
sae See agin on ‘herms’ of.Homer and 
enander which are i 
Aelian’s house at oo ° od ὑῶν 
‘The De natura animahum is a miscellany of facts: 
genuine or supposed, gleaned by Aeclian from earlier 
and contemporary Greek writers (no Latin writer 
is once named) and to a limited extent from his own 
observation to illustrate the habits of the animal 
world. We are of course prepared to encounter 
much that modern science rejects, but the general 
tone with its search. after the picturesque, the 
startling, even the miraculous, would justify ‘us in 
ranking Aelian with the Paradoxographers rather 
than with the sober exponents of Natural History 
Mythology, mariners’ yarns, vulgar superstitions, 
the ascertained facts of nature—all serve to adorn a 
tale and, on occasion, to point a moral. His religion 
is the popular Stoicism of the age: Aelian repeatedl 
affirms his belief in the gods and in divine Prout: 
dence; the wisdom and beneficence of Nature are: 
held up to veneration; the folly and selfishness of 
man are contrasted with the untaught virtues of the 
animal world. Some animals, to be sure, have their 
failings, but he chooses rather to dwell upon their 
good qualities, devotion, courage, self-sacrifice 
gratitude. Again, animals are guided by Reason: 
and from them we may learn contentment, control 

i See G. Kaibel, ed., Hpi . bas 
conlecta (Berol. 1878), nos. 18. Graeca, ex lapidibus 



έτος τος ΣΟῚ - sc " 5 ἰὸν 




of the passions, and calm in the face of death. 
Suicide is commended as an escape from the ills of 
life, and riches are to be despised. Aelian’s Stoicism 
hardly goes below the surface. His primary object 

is to entertain and while so doing to convey instruction 

in the most agreeable form. He was among the 

first to break away from the age-long tradition of 
the periodic structure of sentences, at least for works 

of a serious nature, and to affect a simpler prose of . 

short, co-ordinated, sometimes paratactic, clauses. 
In this. and in the rich variety of topics and in a 
certain fondness for piquant, not to say earthy, 
stories from the life of men and of animals one may 
trace the influence of the Milesian Tales. Un- 
fettered by any canons of style or language, pica- 
yesque, and sometimes 70s; they pandered to 
popular taste. To adopt their technique while 
refining the style and imparting ἃ moral flavour to 
his narratives may well have seemed to Aelian a 
sure way of gaining a like popularity with educated 
readers: Some might find fault with his random 
and piece-meal handling of his theme—of that he is 
well aware, and in the Epilogue he defends himself 
with the plea that a frequent change of topic helps 
to maintain the reader's interest and saves him 
from boredom, But as to the permanent value of 
his work he has no misgivings, and since. Philo- 
stratus informs us that his writings were much 
admired, we may assume that they appealed to 

cultivated circles’ in a way that the voluminous ~ 

and possibly arid compilations of grammarians did 

1 See W. Schmid, Der Aiticismus, 3. 7 ff. 





. BS 



The principal sources of the De natura animalium 
have been investigated by Max Wellmann and Rudolf 
Keydell in a series of articles which appeared in the 
journal Hermes between the years 1891 and 1937. 
Here it will be enough to state their conclusions and 
to indicate some of the reasons for them. | 
᾿ That the name of Aristotle should occur over fift 
times in a work professing to deal with animals vill 
surprise no one. Yet it is certain that Aelian knew 
Aristotle only at second hand through the epitome 
of his zoological works made by Aristophanes of 
Byzantium (8rd/2nd cent. B.c.). Even so there is 
little enough of genuine descriptive zoology, and it 
was not in any purely zoological work that Aelian 
found his chief inspiration and guide. It is notice- 
able how often his statements regarding the names 
habits, and characteristics of animals reflect in their 
manner of presentation, their content and style, the 

comments of scholiasts and writers like Athenaeus 
Clement of Alexandria, and Pollux, who took their 
materials from grammarians. It became a manner- 
ism with the scholars of Alexandria to cite Homer 
whenever it was possible, and Aelian follows the 
fashion, less (so it would seem) with an aim to estab- 
lishing some fact of natural history than to provin 

Homer's knowledge of the science. Specimens of 
grammarian’s lore meet us in the excursions into 
etymology and lexicography, in the myths and pro- 
verbs relating to animals, with their illustrations 
from dramatists and poets, and in a wealth of other 
matter which a professed zoologist would disregard 
as being irrelevant. Aelian is not, like Athenaeus, 




scrupulous in always naming his authorities, as we | 

shall see later, but from parallel passages in other 
writers ranging from Plutarch and Athenaeus down 
to the Geoponica (5th cent. a.D.) in which Pamphilus 

” ig expressly named as being the source, Wellmann 

concludes that the pattern and the chief source for 
Aelian was Pamphilus of Alexandria. He in his 
turn had based his work upon that most voluminous 
of grammarians Didymus, nicknamed Χαλκέντερος, 
excerpting and abridging into one work a number 
of separate treatises by his forerunner.! The title 
of the work is given by ‘ Suidas’ as Λειμών, and he 
adds ἔστι δὲ ποικίλων περιοχή. Tt must have been 
a miscellany of ample scope embracing mythology, 
natural history, and paradoxa or ‘tales of wonder, 
historical and biographical notices, all derived from 
earlier Greek literature. In a number of places 
Aelian has grouped together, more or less closely, 
chapters derived from one and the same authority : 
thus, 12. 16-20 come from Democritus; 4. 19, 21, 
96-7, 32, 36, 41, 46, 52 from Ctesias; 16. 9-22, from 
Megasthenes ; 17. 31-4 from Amyntas. From this 
++ would seem that his exemplar was arranged partly 
by animals and partly by authors. a 
Aelian has given us accounts of over one hundred 
birds. Many of his accounts correspond with. those 
which we find in Athenaeus ((9. 3878-397c), but since 
Aelian is generally more detailed, the resemblances 

are to be traced to the use of a common source. For 

Athenaeus the principal authority on birds was ‘ that 
best of all ancient ornithologists, Alexander the 

1 Wellmann detects a hidden allusion to its title in some 

words of Aelian’s Epilogue, οἱονεὶ λειμῶνά τινα ἢ στέφανον 


. φήθην δεῖν τήνδε . «. διαπλέξαι τὴν συγγραφήν. 


% ae LAGE 








᾿Ξ BL 


Myndian, 1 whom he cites more often than am 
other writer on natural history, Aristotle ane 
excepted, viz. thirteen times in Book IX and four 
times elsewhere. Photius describes him as havin 
collected ‘ a multitude of marvellous, even incredible, 
tales from earlier writers touching animals trees, 
places, rivers, plants, and the like.’ 3 Relian πάγος 
him five times, and in a chapter (8. 23) relating to 
storks and their transformation into human beings | 
takes occasion to praise his knowledge and to express 
his own belief in the story. It is not stretching 
probability to see in Alexander the source for Acneae 
accounts of similar transformations (e.g. 1.1; 5. 1; 
15. 29), and for much besides, whether of fact oF 
fable, regarding birds, their assignment to special 
gods (1. 48; 2. 32; 4.29; 10. 34-5; 12.4; andc 
Ath. 9.388a), their significance as omens (3. 9; 10. 
34,37; and ep. Plut. Marius 17, Artem. Onezr. 2. 66). 
Nevertheless since Athenaeus and Aelian concur ἃ 
misrepresenting him on the spelling of σκώψ, it ma 
be questioned whether they had direct access to his | 

᾿ς writings and whether their common error is not due 

to Pamphilus; see note on Ael. 15 i 
description of the κατώβλεπον (7. 5) a differ 
from the account given by Alexander in Ath. 5 
2218. _ 
Among ancient writers who treated of poi 
and their antidotes the principal cheney sin 
Apollodorus (8rd cent. B.c.). Two of his works or 
the essence of them, survive in the poems of Nicander 
But though Aelian on seven occasions adduces 
Nicander 85 witness, there are discrepancies which 

1 Ὁ, W. Thompson, Glossar ek bi i . 
; y of Greek birds, p. vi. 
2 Fragments collected by Wellmann in H Ὁ ἐν 26. 546-55. 


carat wesieseen elite 



preclude the idea of a direct use of the poet. There | 
are however indications that Aelian and the scholia 

to Nicander drew from a common source. — Aelian 
states (9. 26) that the Agnus-castus, an antidote to 

snakebites, was used at the Thesmophoria to ensure © 

< ; age In 
hastity: the same note occurs in 2 Nic. T h. 7 1. ὶ 
9. 20 Aelian states on the authority of ‘ Aristotle 

᾿ (Mirab. 841 a 97) that the ‘ Pontic stone’ if burnt ex- 

nakes: Σ Nic. Th. 45 cite the same passage. In 
BI Sostratus,’ we are told, ‘ describes the Dipsas 
as white. Here Aelian has forsaken Apollodorus- 
Nicander, who had written (Th. 337) ὑποζοφόεσσα 
ἐλαίνεται, and he then proceeds to tell the myth 
of the Dipsas and the Ass, adding that it has been 
treated by Sophocles (and other poets): Σ Nic. Th. 
343 state specifically ‘ Sophocles ev Kwdois.’ (Clearly 
Σ did not borrow from Aelian.) The story of the 
Beaver and its self-mutilation is told by Aelian (6. 
34); it is mentioned in Σ Nic. Th. 565, and Sostratus 
is named. as the authority for it. From Ael. 4. 51 
and 6. 37 we learn the difference between olorpos 
and μύωψ : according to & Ap. Rh. 1. 1265 and & 
Theoc. 6. 28 the distinction was first noted by 
Sostratus, though Aelian is the first to mention it. 
It seems then that Sostratus in his two works Περὶ 
βλητῶν καὶ δακετῶν and Περὶ ζῴων treated of 
insects as well as the lower animals and snakes. As 
a zoologist his reputation stood next to Aristotle, 
and we are justified in assuming that both for Aelian 
and for the scholiast on Nicander he was the source 
for more than they have openly acknowledged, in 
the case of Aelian for 1. 20-22; 6. 36-8; 9. 99; 

0. 44: 12. 8. 
᾿ ‘Aelian has much to tell us of elephants, both 


ins σεν ἀ NEE 
San SE νος 







those of Libya and of India. Like Pliny (ΗΝ 8. 
1-34) before him and like Plutarch in his De 
sollertia animalium, Aelian has drawn extensively 
upon Juba II, King of Mauretania (c. 50 B.c.-c. 
Α.Ὁ. 23). He was the first to maintain that the 
elephant’s tusks are horns and not teeth, and Aelian 
follows him (8.10; 11.15; 14.5). And since we learn 
from Pliny (ΠΝ 5. 16) that he wrote about the Atlas 
mountains and their forests, he is a likely source for 
all that Aelian relates touching Mauretania, its 
people, and its animals. The chapters on pearls 
(15. 8) and on Indian ants (16. 15) are to be traced - 
to Juba’s work De expeditione Aralica. 

The knowledge which Aelian displays of Egypt and 
its topography, its local traditions, customs, and 
religious beliefs, especially those relating to birds 
and animals, can come only from a writer well 
acquainted with the land and its people. We are 
given mystical and mythological reasons for the 
reverence or detestation in which certain creatures 
are held (10. 19, 21, 46); there are tales of wonder 
ranging from the merely curious to the impossible; _ 
quotations from Homer are introduced into chapters 
on Egyptian religion. The pattern fits Apion (Ist 
cent. a.D.). Born in the Great Oasis, he became head 
of the Alexandrian school, was a Homeric scholar 
and a pretender to omniscience. His Aegypiaca 
was a compilation dealing with the history and the 
marvels of Egypt and was based upon earlier writers 
with additions from his own experience. One such 
there is which ‘ every schoolboy knows,’ the story of 
Androcles and the Lion (Ael. 7. 48).1 Chapters on 

1 A, Gellius 5.14 [Apion] Hoe . 

. . ipsum sese in urbe Roma 
vidisse oculis suis confirmat. | 


Ael. 9.35 depth of the sea Opp. 1. 83-92 
38 fish in the depths 145-54 
36 Exocoetus 155-67 
41 Mussels 174-8 | 
2.15 Pilot-fish 186-211 
17 Remora 212-43 
9,43 Crabs 285-304 
45 Octopus and fruit-trees 308-11 
47 Sea-urchin 318-19 
7.31 Hermit-crabs 320-37 
9,34 Nautilus 338-59 
49 Sea-monsters 360-72 
1.55 Sharks 373-82 
9.50 Sea-calf, Whale, Sea 398-408 
52 Flying fishes 427-37 
53 fish gregarious 440-45 
57 fish in winter and spring 446-72 
63 generation of fish 473-501 
6.28 generation of Octopus 536-53 
9,66 Moray and Viper 554-79 
10.2 period of procreation 584-90 
4.9 migration to the Huxine 598-611 
10.8 Dolphin and young 660-85 
1.17 Dog-fish and young 734-41 
16 ‘ Blue-fish ’ and young 747-55 
2.22 Sprats : 767-97 | 

In three of the above passages there can be little 
doubt that Aelian has paraphrased Oppian: compare 
Ael. 9. 38 with Opp. 1. 145-52 




ὅδ .» 

In both we find the same fishes in the same order, 
and, what is most significant, since a prose-writer is 

not bound by the exigences of metre, the same use ~ 

now of the singular, now of the plural. These three 
chapters cannot be separated from the other four- 
teen, so that it is at least likely that they too are 
paraphrases of Oppian. Of the remaining nine 




Spat MeM PEE A UR 

. δ 
A z 


TERY Ὁ 5 ἢ 

Ὁ 5.2 Tee 


passages some may have been derived from Oppian 
others more probably from a common source. 

One such source was Leonidas of Byzantium.} 
From him Aelian derived the story of the friendship 
between a boy and a dolphin at Poroselene (2. 6), 
which recurs in Oppian (5. 448-518). In 2. 8 Aelian 
tells how dolphins help men in the catching of other 
fish, and a similar account is given by Oppian (5. 425~ 
AT): it is probable that both drew upon Leonidas. 
A comparison of Aelian’s two chapters on poisonous 
fishes, 2. 44 and 50 (where Leonidas is named), 
with Opp. 2. 422-505 points certainly to him as their 
common source. Other passages indicate despite 
differences that both made use of the same authority 
whether Leonidas or some other: compare | _ 

Ael.1.4 with Opp. 3. 323-6 
5 (τρώκτης) > 144-8 (dpia) 
19 5 2. 141-66 
27 55 241-6 
30 “a 128-40. 

The researches of Leonidas extended as far as the 
Red Sea (Ael. 3. 18). For information on fishes in 
western waters Aelian relied upon one Demostratus 
who differs from Leonidas in being independent of 
any Aristotelian tradition and in concentrating upon 
paradoxa. To him Wellmann would attribute the 
accounts contained in Ael. 13. 23; 15. 9, 12; per- 

1 Keydell (Hermes 72. 430 ff.) puts the date of Leonidas in 
the 2nd cent. 4.D. Leonidas ig coporied as having himself 
seen the boy and dolphin; Pausanias (3. 25. 7) also was a 
witness, and Oppian says that the memory of the event is still 
fresh, for it happened ‘ not long ago but in our own generation,’ 
the last quarter of the 2nd century. Granting that it ig 

incredible that the boy rode ° 
tale may well be pes upon the dolphin, the rest of the 



S Vindobonensis med. gr. 7 _ 8. KV 
ΟΨΟ Parisiensis suppl. gr. 352 

| [formerly Vat. gr. 997 1} 5. xili 

W Vindobonensis med. gr. 51 5. xiv 

From these De Stefani selected seven only as possess- | 

ing value for the constitution of the text, viz. A, F, 
H, L, P, V, and W, the remainder being copies of one 
or other of those seven. | 


1556 C. Gesner (Zurich, F°). Ed. pr. 

1611 P. Gillius and C. Gesner (Geneva, 16°). 
1744 Abraham Gronovius (London, 4°). 
1784 J. E. 6. Schneider (Leipzig, i 
1832 C. F. W. Jacobs (Jena, 8°). 

1858 RB. Hercher (Didot, Paris, la. 8°). 

1864 R. Hercher (Teubner, Leipzig, 8°). 

Gesner provided a parallel Latin translation which — 

was later revised by A. Gronovius and was reprinted 
‘n all editions down to 1858. The only translation 
into a modern language that I know of (but have not 
seen) is the German version by Jacobs (Stuttgart, 
1839-42). Gossen in 1935 announced that he had 
ready for press a fresh translation equipped with full 
notes, indexes, etc., but I have not been able to 

trace it. 

Cobet (C. G.). Novae lectiones (p. 780). Leyden, 
Variae lectiones, ed. 2 (pp- 131, 209, 341). 10., 


Cobet (C. G.).  Aeliani locus [NA 1. 30 , 
ye ἡ ποπιῦε. 7 (1868) 340. i aaaae Sa 
e locis nonnullis apud A. Jb. N.S. 12 (1884) 433 
Baehrens (W. A.). Vermischte eras he gr. 
u. lat. Sprache [NA 7. 8]. Glotta 9 (1918) 171. 
De Stefani (E. L.). 1 manoseritti della Hist. Animal. 
di Eliano. Studs ital. di filol. class. 10 (1902) 175. 
Per l' Epitome Aristotelis De animalibus di Aristofane — 
di Bizanzio. Jb. 12 (1904) 421. | 
ἐν ὦν ΤῊ i (δον de gaa animal de |’ Inde 
chez Palladius. [See NA 5. 3.] 8 ion 4 
(1927-8) 34. | etal 
μὰ “Ὁ [ΠΣ τὰ Tiernamen in A’s... II. €. 
uellen u. Stud. z. Gesch. d. Naturni 
- ει d. rari 4 (1935) 280. τόν ὧι 
rasberger (L.). Zur Kritik des A. Jb. 7. 
, ia? (1867) 185. ere 
aupt .). Conjectanea [NA 2. 22]. 
5 (1871) 321. ! oe 
Pers τὰ 4 (1870) 342. , 
ercher (R.). Zu A.’s Thiergeschichte. 
164) 148 geschichte. Philol. 9 
Zu A.’s Thiergeschichte. Jb. f. οἱ Phi 
rr aa f. class. Philol. Τὶ 
“Sean Philol. 10 (1855) 344. 
nterpolationen bei A. Jb. f. class. 
(ieee) 177 f. class. Philol. 72 
u griech. Prosaikern. Hermes 11 (1876) 223 
Kaibel (G.). [A. and Callimach 
ΠΣ [ limachus.| Hermes 28 
Keydell (R.). Oppians Gedicht von der Fischerei u. 
_A.’s Tiergeschichte. Hermes 72 (1937) 411. 
Klein (J.). Zu A. [NA 6. 21, 46; 12. 33]. Rhein. 
Mus. N.F. 22 (1867) 308. | 


Meineke (A.). Zu griech. Schriftstellern [ΝᾺἅ 4. 12]. . Aristotle. Histori ba ca 
| Hermie 3 (1868) 162. | , | Thome a ἐλ ae [trans.| by D. W. 
Mentz (F.). Die klass. Hundenamen. Philol. 88 Keller (O.). Die antike Tiernel ; 
(1933) 104, 181,415. > | 1909-13. “erwelt. 2 vols. Leipz. 
Morel (W.). | Tologica. Philol. 83 (1928) 345. a Oppian . . . with an Engl. transl | 
Radermacher (L.). Varia. Rhein. Mus. 51 (1896) . (Loeb Cl. Lib.) Lond a . by A. W. Mair. 
463. a Radcliff ee ae | | 
Zu Ieyllos von Epidavros. [NA 18. 1. Philol. Ὁ ee δ earliest times. 
58 (1899) 314.. | | Saint-Deni ; 
Roehl (H.). Zu A. [NA 11. 10]: Jb. f. class. © oe cea ee cee oe nie des animaux 
Philol. 121 (1880) 378. ᾿ taires, 11.) Paris, 1947 s et commen- 
Scott (J. A.). Mise. notes from A. Class. Jl. 24 ᾿ς ᾿ . 
(1929) 374. ᾿ ' Abbreviations used in the critical notes 
Schmid (W.). Der Atticismus . . . Vol. 3: Alian. . Cas[aubon, I.] ἜΣ . 
ΓΑ detailed examination of A.’s vocabulary, | Ges[ner, (ἢ Soh ee F. van] 
syntax, and style.] Stuttgart, 1893. : Gillfius, P.] ae 4 , J. G.] 
Shorey (P.). An emendation of A. Il..¢. (NA 8. 1.] : Gron{ovius, A.] ae ve er, Otto] 
Class. Philol. 3 (1908) 101. | : Hlercher, R.] . ἐξ : τωρ L. K.) 
Thouvenin (P.). Untersuchungen iiber den Modus- ᾿ Hemstlerhusius, 1. ᾿ i Lent ach, D.] 
gebrauch bei A. Philol, 54 (1895) 599. —— Jaclobs, C. F. W.) pe Py). 
Venmans (L. A. W. C.). Lépdos. Mnemos. N.S. 58 ᾿ Mein{eke, 4.1 ἌΝ by]. 
(1930) 58. ᾿ π  γ ἢ: Yy |. 

Λευκοὶ μύρμηκες. 10. 918. ΝΣ 
Wellmann (M.). Sostratos, ein Beitrag z. Quellen- | 

analyse des A. Hermes 26 (1891) 321. 

Alexander von Myndos. Tb. 481. ; 

Juba, eine Quelle des A. Ib. 21 (1892) 389. 

Leonidas von Byzanz und Demostratos. 
(1895) 161. 

Aegyptisches. Ib. 31 (1896) 221. 

Pamphilos. 6.51 (1916) 1. 

In addition to the works named in the Preface, I 
should mention: | 

| XXVill 





seebeiposiene ΡΥ, ΠΣ oe ΜΉΤΕ is 



ἐρρρδ λει gin eisas hein chy iets ti 

iss inte ter. rabid Lt = Shee sping’ ba νας eb aaa ted iat tadg om ight at 



Boox I 

1 The Birds of Diomede 
2 The Parrot Wrasse 
3 The Mullet 
4 The‘ Anthias.’ The Parrot 
5 The Gnawer and Dolphins 
6 Animals in love with hu- 
man beings 
7 The Jackal 
8 Nicias and his Hounds 
9 The Drone 
10 Servitors among Bees 
11 Bees, their ages and habits 
12 The Mullet, how caught 
13 The ‘ Etna-fish,’ its con- 
14 The Wrasse, its paternal 
15 The Wrasse, how caught 
16 The ‘ Blue-grey’ fish and 
17 The Dog-fish and young 
18 The Dolphin and young 
19 The Horned Ray 
20 The Cicada 
21 The Spider and its web 
22 Ants observe a day of rest 
23 The Sargue, how caught 

24 Vipers and their mating 

25 The Hyena 

26 The Black Sea-bream 
27 The Octopus 

28 Wasps, how generated 
29 The Owl 

45 Vulture’s 

30 The Basse and the Prawn 

31 The Porcupine 

32 Mutual hostility of certain 
fishes . 

33 The Moray 

34 The Cuttlefish 

35 Birds use charms against 


36 The Torpedo. The Hal- 
eyon. Causes of numb- 

37 Protective and numbing 
owers of certain herbs 

38 (i) The Elephant, its love of 

beauty and perfumes 
(ii-iv) Various irritants 

39 The Sting-ray, how caught 

40 The Great Tunny 

41 The ‘ Melanurus’ 

42 The Eagle, its keen sight 

43 The Nightingale : 

44 Cranes bring rain 

feathers. The 

46 The Four-toothed Sparus - 

47 The Raven’s thirst 

48 The Raven in divination; 
its eggs 

49 The Bee-eater - 

50 The Moray and the Viper .. 

51 Snakes generated from 
marrow of evil-doers . 

52 The Swallow 

63 The Goat, its breathing 

54 Viper, Asp, etc., their bites 
55 Sharks and Dog-fish 

56 The Sting-ray 

57 The Cerastes and the Psylli 



58 The enemies of Bees 
59 A Bee-hive 
60 The King Bee 

Boox II 

1 Cranes, their migration 
2 * Fire-flies ’ 
3 The Swallow 
4 ‘Ephemera.’ 
5 The Asp. The Basilisk 
6 Dolphin and boy at Poro- 
7 The Basilisk 
8 Dolphins help fishermen 
9 Deer and Snakes 
10 Mating of Mare and Ass 
11 Performing Elephants 
12 The Hare 
13 Fishes and their leaders 
14 The Chameleon 
15 The Pilot-fish 
16 The ‘ Tarandus’ 
17 The Sucking-fish 
18 Medicine in the Heroic Age. 
Elephants and _ their 
19 The Bear and its cub 
20 Oxen of Erythrae 
91 Snakes of Ethiopia and 
22 The Sprat 
23 The Lizard, its vitality 
24 The Asp. Human spittle 
25 Ants store grain 
26 The Eagle and nestlings 
27 The Ostrich 
28 The Bustard and Horses 
29 The Fly 
30 The Cockerel, and how to 
keep him 
31 The Salamander 
32 The Swan and its song 
33 The Crocodile 
34 The Cinnamon bird 
35 The Ibis and clysters 
36 The Sting-ray 


87 The Shrew-mouse 

38 The Ibis 

39 The Golden Hagle 

40 The Eagle and its keepers 

41 The Red Mullet 

42 The Falcon 

43 The Kestrel. Hawks and 
their eyesight. Hawks 
of Egypt 

44 The Rainbow Wrasse 

45 The Sea-hare 

46 The Vulture. The ‘Aegy- 

47 The Kite 

48 Ravens of Egypt, of Libya 

49 The Raven and its young 

50 Poisonous fishes 

51 The 
voice, and diet 

52 Viviparous animals 

53 Hornless Cattle. Bees in 

54 The Parrot Wrasse 

55 The Shark 

56 The Mouseanditsliver. A 
shower of Mice, of Frogs 

57 The Ox, man’s benefactor 

Boox Til 

1 Lions of Mauretania 
2 Horses of Libya. Hounds 
of Crete and elsewhere 
3 India devoid of Pigs 
4 Ants of India 
5 Tortoise and Snake. The 
Pigeon, its conjugal fid- 
elity. The Partridge, its 
amorous nature 
6 Wolves cross 8 river 
7 Animal antipathies | 
8 Mares and foais 
9 The Crow, its conjugal 
. fidelity. Owl and Crow 
10 The Hedgehog 
11 The Crocodile and Egyp- 
tian Plover . 

Raven, tits daring, 






- Re 

ΟΕ, Ἃ 



12 Jackdaws and Locusts 

13 Cranes, their migration 

14 Cranes give warning of 

15 The Pigeon 

16 The Partridge and its 

17 Jealousy in animals 

18 The Inflater fish 

19 The Seal 

20 The Pelican. The Sea- 


21 A Bear and Lions 

22 Ichneumon and Asp 

23 Storks, their mutual affec- 
tion; transformation in- 
to human beings 

94 The Swallow and its nest 

25 The Swallow and its young 

26 The Hoopoe — 

27 No Lions in Peloponnese 

28 The Perseus fish 

29 The Pinna 

30 The Cuckoo 

31 The Cock feared by Basi- 
lisk and Lion 

32 Local peculiarities 

33 The Asp. Nile water pro- 
motes fertility in animals 

34 A wonderful Horn 

35 Partridges, their different 

86 The Grape-spider 

37 Frogs in Seriphus 

38 Local peculiarities 

39 The Goatsucker 

40 The Nightingale 

41 The Unicorn’s horn 

42 The Purple 

43 The Raven in old age 

44 Ringdoves, their conjugal 

45 Pigeons and young; and 
birds of prey 

46 An Elephant and its keeper 

47 Examples of incest 

Coot. The | 

Boox IV 

1 The Partridge. 
2 The Pigeons of Aphrodite 
. at Eryx 
3 Lion and Lioness 
4 The Wolf 
5 Animal enmities 
6 The Horse 
7 Example of animal incest 
8 Groom in love with Mare 
9 Fish in the mating season 
10 Elephants worship the 
i ᾿ ΤΣ Mare 
© Partridge, its youn 
13 The Pariidee, as inaa 
14 Marten and Snake 
15 The Wolf, when full-fed 
16 The Partridge as decoy 
17 The Hedgehog. The Lynx | 
18 Objects poisonous to cer- 
tain animals 
19 The Indian Hound 
20 Peculiarities of -various 
a ae Mantichore 
e power of human spittle 
23 The Willow. The Boa 
24 The taming of Elephants 
25 Oxen treading out the corn 
26 Falconry in India 
27 The Gryphons and the gold 
of Bactria 
28 The Turtle and its eyes 
29 ‘The Cock and its crowing 
30 The Jackdaw 
31 The Elephant, its anatom 
and habits 


32 The Goats and Sheep of 

33 The Chameleon and Snakes 
34 The Lion ; 
35 The Ox and its memory 
36 The Purple Snake of India 



37 The Ostrich 

38 The Sparrow 

39 The Fox and Wasps 

40 The Dog 

41 The ‘ Dikairon ἢ 

42 The Francolin. The « 

43 The Ant. Greek festivals 

44 Animals remember kind ᾿ 

45 The story of a Lion, a Bear, 
and a Dog 
46 (i) The Lac insect 
(ii) The Dog-heads 
47 The Golden Oriole 
48 How tocheck an angry Bull 
49 The Leopard 
50 The Horse, its eyelashes 
51 The Gadfly. The Horse-fly 
52 The Wild Ass of India 
53 A calculating animal 
54 Asp in love with a Goose- 
55 The Camel of Bactria 
56 Seal in love with a Diver 
67 The Water-snake, its bite 
58 The Rock-dove. The 
59 The Biue-fowl 
60 The Chaffinch 

Boox V 
1 The Ruff, the bird of Mem- 
2 Crete hostile to Owls and 
3 A monstrous Snake in the 

4 The Porpoise 

5 The victorious Hen 

6 A captured Dolphin 

7 Monkey and Cats 

8 Places hostile to certain 

9 The Cicadas of Locris and 


10 Bees and their King 
Il The King Bee. Character 
of the Bee 
12 The Bee, its industry 
13 The Bee, its skill, its 
colonies ; as weather-pro- 
phet; its love of song 
14 (i) Rats in Gyarus and 
(ii) Scorpions on mt Latmus 
15 The King Wasp 
16 The Wasp and its poison 
17 The Fly . 
18 The Great Sea-perch 
19 Wolf and Bull 
20 The Hake 
21 The Peacock 
22 Mouse saved from drown- 


23 The Crocodile 

24 The Bustard 

25 The Lamb 

26 The Monkey 

27 Peculiarities of certain ani- 

28 The Purple Coot 

29 Geese in love with hu- 
man beings. Geese and 

30 The Egyptian Goose 

31 Anatomy of the Snake 

32 The Peacock 

33 The Duck 

34 The Swan and death 

35 The Heron and Oysters: 

86 The ‘ Asterias’ 

37 The Torpedo. The Great 

38 The Nightingale 

39 The Lion 

40 The Leopard 

41 Ruminants and their sto- 
machs. The Cuttle-fish 

42 Bees: various kinds. 

43 The ‘ Day-fly’ 

44 The Cuttle-fish . 

45 The Wild Boar 

. Se 

"ESOT ReR snss οουνρα των ρον οὐρουνε δυο γος; λυλιοκήλημαβενόροω 


46 Nature’s medicines for ani- 

47 A Lizard regains its lost 

48 Animal friendships and 

ες enmities . 

49 Animals’ dislike of dead 
bodies . 

50 (i) Confidence and fear in 


(ii) Animals suckling their 
51 Various sounds made by 
52 Reptiles foretell the Nile’s 
. rise 
53 The Hippopotamus 
54 Leopard and Monkeys 
55 The Elephant 
56 Deer crossing the sea . 



\ \ / 4 ~ 
"AvOpwrov μὲν εἶναι σοφὸν καὶ δίκαιον καὶ τῶν. 

οἰκείων παίδων προμηθέστατον, καὶ τῶν γειναμένων 
ποιεῖσθαι τὴν προσήκουσαν φροντίδα, καὶ τροφὴν 
ἑαυτῷ μαστεύειν καὶ ἐπιβουλὰς φυλάττεσθαι καὶ τὰ 
λοιπὰ ὅσα αὐτῷ σύνεστι δῶρα φύσεως, παράδοξον 
ἴσως οὐδέν: καὶ γὰρ λόγου μετείληχεν ἄνθρωπος 
τοῦ πάντων τιμιωτάτου, καὶ λογισμοῦ ἠξίωται, 
ὅσπερ οὖν ἐστι πολυαρκέστατός TE καὶ πολυω- 
φελέστατος" ἀλλὰ καὶ θεοὺς αἰδεῖσθαι οἶδε καὶ 
σέβειν. τὸ δὲ καὶ τοῖς ἀλόγοις μετεῖναι τινος 
ἀρετῆς κατὰ pvow,) καὶ πολλὰ τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων 
πλεονεκτημάτων καὶ θαυμαστὰ ἔχειν συγκεκληρω- 
μένα, τοῦτο ἤδη μέγα. καὶ εἰδέναι ye μὴ ῥᾳθύμως 
τὰ προσόντα αὐτῶν ἰδίᾳ ἑκάστῳ, καὶ omws 
ἐσπουδάσθη οὐ μεῖον τῶν ἀνθρώπων καὶ {τὰν τῶν 
ἄλλων ξῴων, εἴη ἄν τινος πεπαιδευμένης φρενὸς 

ς X ἐν 4 ¢ fF 
καὶ μαθούσης πολλά. ws μὲν οὖν καὶ ετεροιὶς 

' os 2 4 \ 
ὑπὲρ τούτων ἐσπούδασται, καλῶς οἶδα ᾿ ἐγὼ δὲ 
[ἐμαυτῷ 8 ταῦτα ὅσα οἷόν τε ἦν ἀθροίσας καὶ 

“a f “ 9 
περιβαλὼν αὐτοῖς τὴν συνήθη λέξιν, κειμήλιον οὐκ 

> , f . 
1 φύσιν καὶ εἰ μὴ κατὰ THY οἰκείαν κρίσιν. 

ΕΠ Sega oa yey A SE TELS TES SUES UR ΤΥ ED TST Ue So ΣΤ ΒΡ ΟΣ το στο 





Tuere is perhaps nothing extraordinary in the fact 
that man is wise and just, takes great care to provide 
for his own children, shows due consideration for his 
parents, seeks sustenance for himself, protects himself 
against plots, and possesses all the other gifts of 
nature which are his. For man has been endowed 
with speech, of all things the most precious, and has 
been granted reason, which is of the greatest help and 
use. Moreover, he knows how to reverence and wor- 
ship the gods. But that dumb animals should by 
nature possess some good quality and should have 
many of man’s amazing excellences assigned to them 
along with man, is indeed a remarkable fact. And to 
know accurately the special characteristics of each, 
and how living creatures also have been a source of 
interest no less than man, demands a trained in- 
telligence and much learning. Now J am well aware 
of the labour that others have expended on this 
subject, yet I have collected all the materials that I 
could; I have clothed them in untechnical language, 
and am persuaded that my achievement is a treasure 

2 {τάδ add. Jac. 8 [ἐμαυτῷ] del. H. 


ἀσπούδαστον ἐκπονῆσαι πεπίστευκα. εἰ δέ τῷ καὶ 
ἄλλῳ φανεῖται ταῦτα λυσιτελῆ, χρήσθω αὐτοῖς " 
ὅτῳ δὲ οὐ φανεῖται, ἐάτω τῷ πατρὶ θάλπειν τε καὶ 
περιέπειν - οὐ γὰρ πάντα πᾶσι καλά, οὐδὲ ἄξια 
δοκεῖ σπουδάσαι πᾶσι πάντα. εἶ δὲ ἐπὶ πολλοῖς 
τοῖς πρώτοις καὶ σοφοῖς γεγόναμεν, μὴ ἔστω 
ξημίωμα ἐς 1 ἔπαινον ἡ τοῦ χρόνου λῆξις, εἰ, τι καὶ 
αὐτοὶ σπουδῆς ἄξιον μάθημα παρεχοίμεθα καὶ τῇ 
εὑρέσει τῇ περιττοτέρᾳ καὶ τῇ φωνῇ. 

1 εἰς MSS always. 


ESI EB RST SU GSES RT ψ,η».ὡ“ἡ ῇ ἑ Ἅὼ7“γψγ͵Ή͵ι͵..2νι,κ,,,, ρου 1: 



far from negligible. So if anyone considers them 
profitable, let him make use of them; anyone who 
does not consider them so may give them to his father 
to keep and attend to. For not all things give 
pleasure to all men, nor do all men consider all 
subjects worthy of study. Although I was born later 
than many accomplished writers of an earlier day, the 
accident of date ought not to mulct me of praise, if 
I too produce a learned work whose ampler research 
and whose choice of language make it deserving of 

_gerious attention. 








-" ? ΄- \ 3 4 

1. KaAdctrai τις Διομήδεια νῆσος, καὶ ἐρῳδιοὺς 
: Ky / ‘ , 3 

ἔχει πολλούς. οὗτοι, φασί, τοὺς βαρβάρους οὔτε 
3 - 3 > “ f . 3A ὃ λ ὝἭ; . 

ἀδικοῦσιν οὔτε αὐτοῖς προσίασιν - ἐὰν δὲ “Ἕλλην 
Ἁ “. ᾽ 

κατάρῃ ἕένος, οἱ δὲ θείᾳ τινὲ δωρεᾷ προσιασι 

¢ - f 3 

πτέρυγας ἁπλώσαντες olover xelpas τινας ἐς 
- , ξ ,ὔ ~ 

δεξίωσίν τε Kal περιπλοκάς. καὶ ἁπτομένων τῶν 

3 __ A 4 
Ἑλλήνων οὐχ ὑποφεύγουσιν, ἀλλ᾽ ἀτρεμοῦσι Kat. 

4 / 
ἀνέχονται, καὶ καθημένων ἐς τοὺς κόλπους κατα- 
On ; 7 
πέτονται, ὥσπερ οὖν ἐπὶ ξένια κληθέντες. 
>. a a > ‘ 
λέγονται οὖν οὗτοι Διομήδους ἑταῖροι εἶναι καὶ 
~ “Ὁ “ > 4% Ἄ 3 
σὺν αὐτῷ τῶν ὅπλων τῶν ἐπὶ τὴν “Tov μετ- 
? f > Ἁ ~ 3 
εσχηκέναι, εἶτα τὴν προτέραν φύσιν ἐς τὸ τῶν ὁρ- 
“ 7 to Ψ 3 » ~ ὃ 
νίθων μεταβαλόντες εἶδος, ὅμως ἐτι καὶ νῦν ιαφυ- 
‘ ? 
Adrrew τὸ εἶναι “Ἑλληνές τε Kat Φιλέλληνες. 

2. Ὃ σκάρος πόας μὲν θαλαττίας συτεῖται καὶ 
Bova: λαγνίστατος δὲ ἄρα ἰχθύων ἁπάντων ἦν, 
καὶ % γε πρὸς τὸ θῆλυ ἀκόρεστος ἐπιθυμία αὐτῷ 
ἁλώσεως αἰτία γίνεται. ταῦτα οὖν αὐτῷ συνεγνω- 
κότες οἱ σοφοὶ τῶν ἁλιέων, ἐπιτίθενταί οἱ τὸν 
τρόπον τοῦτον. ὅταν θῆλυν συλλάβωσνν, ἐνέδησαν ἃ 
ὁρμιᾷ σπάρτου πεποιημένῃ λεπτῇ τοῦ στόματος 
ἄκρου, καὶ ἐπισύρουσι διὰ τῆς θαλάττης τὸν ἰχθὺν 
ξῶντα - ἴσασι δὲ εὐνάς τε αὐτῶν καὶ διατριβὰς καὶ 

1 Gron: ξενίᾳ. * ἔδησαν, 


si LEO ASU Osh nah ea tone edi it SS ELE ERO Soa I ROU UO 2] 
ἧ Ἷ 

ὋοΠν,,.ς)  πῤρῆῇῤ ΦἈώΦῥΣῥὥΣὥΣ..,͵.͵.,,',...2ὺᾺ7ν.,.,,»..;, ΠΣ ρῶς 




it is the home of many Shearwaters. These, it is said, 
neither harm the barbarians nor go near them. If 
however a stranger from Greece puts in to port, the 
birds by some divine dispensation approach, extend- 
ing their wings as though they were hands, to welcome 
and embrace the strangers. Andifthe Greeks stroke 
them, they do not fly away, but stay still and allow 
themselves to be touched; and if the men sit down, 
the birds fly on to their lap as though they had been 
invited to a meal. They are said to be the com- 
panions of Diomedes ® and to have taken part with 
him in the war against Ilium; though their original 
form was afterwards changed into that of birds, they 
nevertheless still preserve their Greek nature and 
their love of Greece. 3 

2. The Parrot Wrasse feeds upon seaweed and τε oid 

wrack, and is of all fishes the most lustful, and its in- 
satiable desire for the female is the reason why it gets 
caught. Now skilful anglers are aware of this, and 
they set uponitin this way. Whenever they capture 
a female, they fasten a fine line of esparto to its lip 
and trail the fish alive through the sea, knowing as 
they do where the fish lie, their haunts, and where 

« Mod. San Domenico, one of the three ‘ Isole di Tremiti,’ . 

about 15 mi. N of the ‘ spur ’ of Italy. 

> King of Argos; settled later in Daunia, where he died and 
was buried in Diomedea. 



1. There is a certain island called Diomedea,* and ah Birds of 



ὅπου συναγελάζονται. μόλυβδος δὲ αὐτοῖς πεποίη- 
ται βαρὺς τὴν ὁλκήν, περιφερὴς τὸ σχῆμα, καὶ 
ἔχει μῆκος τριῶν δακτύλων, καὶ διείληπται ἐξ 
ἄκρων σχοίνῳ, καὶ ἐπισύρει “ τὸν τεθηραμένον. 
καὶ κύρτον τις τῶν ἐν τῇ πορθμίδι παραρτῆσας 
ἐπάγεται εὐρὺν τὸ στόμα, καὶ ἐς τὸν ἑαλωκότα 
'τέτραπται σκάρον ὁ κύρτος - βαρεῖται δὲ ἡσυχῆ 
οὗτος λίθῳ μεμετρημένῳ. οὐκοῦν οἱ ἄρρενες, 
ὥσπερ οὖν νύμφην ὡρικὴν ὃ νεανίαι θεασάμενοι, 
οἰστροῦνταί τε καὶ μεταθέουσι, καὶ ἐπείγονται 

φθάσαι ἄλλος ἄλλον καὶ γενέσθαι πλησίον καὶ 

-- > Ad 
παραψαῦσαι, ὥσπερ οὖν δυσέρωτες ἄνθρωποι 
5" ; 3} 
φίλημα ἢ κνίσμα θηρώμενοι ἤ τι ἄλλο κλέμμα 
,ὔ ΖΝ ~ 
ἐρωτικόν. ὃ τοίνυν ἄγων τὸν θῆλυν ἡσυχῆ καὶ 
4 " \ 3 4. > 4 “~ 
πεφεισμένως, λοχῶν τε καὶ ἐπιβουλεύων εὐθὺ τοῦ 
κύρτου σὺν τῇ ἐρωμένῃ, φαίης ἄν, τοὺς ἐραστὰς 
ἄγει. γενομένων δὲ ὁμοῦ τῷ κύρτῳ, τὸν μὲν 
“λ 5 θῇ ς θ Α 9 1 3 ς δὲ 
μόλυβδον μεθῆκεν 6 θηρατὴς ἐς τὸ ἐσωδ ὁ OE 
, ~ - “ 
ἄρα ἐμπίπτων σὺν τῇ ὁρμιᾷ κατασπᾷ καὶ τὸν 
θῆλυν. οὐκοῦν συνεσρεύσαντες ἑαλώκασι, καὶ διδό- 
“ ? ? : 
ασι δίκην ὁρμῆς ἀφροδισίου ταύτην οἱ σκάροι. 

,ὔ; “΄- “A 
3. Ὃ ἐχθὺς 6 κέφαλος τῶν ἐν τοῖς ἕλεσι 
ὔ “a 
βιούντων ἐστί, καὶ πεπίστευται τῆς γαστρὸς 

- \ ὃ “- A / , ~ 4 ἐ 
κρατεῖν καὶ διαιτᾶσθαι πάνυ σωφρόνως. ζωῷ 

A s > 2 / 3 ‘ A ? ‘ 
μὲν yap οὐκ ἐπιτίθεται, ἀλλὰ πρὸς πάντας τοὺς 
ra > > 
ἰχθῦς ἔνσπονδος εἶναι πέφυκεν - ὅτῳ δ᾽ ἂν ἐντύχῃ 
~ ε al 
κειμένῳ, TOOTS οἱ δεῖπνόν ἐστιν. οὐ πρότερον δὲ 

~ f 4 μων “-“ “-ο 
αὐτοῦ προσάπτεται, πρὶν ἢ τῇ οὐρᾷ κινῆσαι. και. 

ἀτρεμοῦντος μὲν ἔχει τὴν ἄγραν, κινηθέντος δὲ 
1 ἐπισύρεται. 2 Jac: ἐρωτικήν. 


Se etc ln eS UL 

ΠΤ ἤἁ,,"ο᾽᾿ἁφψἁἉἉφγρΨΨ,,,[, Ὀ.» 


they assemble. They prepare a heavy leaden sinker 
round in shape and three fingers in length; a cord is 
passed through both ends, and it trails the captured 
fish after it. One of the men in the boat attaches to 
the side a weel with a wide mouth; the weelis then _ 
turned towards the captured Wrasse and slightly 
weighted with a stone of appropriate size. Where- 
upon the male Wrasses, like young men who have 

caught sight of a pretty girl, go in pursuit, mad with 

desire, each trying to outstrip the other and to reach 

her side and rub against her, just as love-sick men 

strive to kiss or tickle <a girl) or to play some other 

amorous trick. So then the man who is towing the 

female gently and slowly and planning to entrap <his 

fish, draws the lovers (as you might call them) with 

the loved one straight towards the weel. As soon as 

they come level with the weel, the angler lets the 

lead weight drop into it, and as it falls in it drags the 

female down with it by the line. And as the male 

Wrasses swim in with her, they are captured and pay 

the penalty for their erotic impulse. | 

3. The Mullet is one of those fishes that live in The Mullet 

pools and is believed to control its appetite and to 
lead a most temperate existence. For it never sets 
upon a living creature, but is naturally inclined to 
peaceful relations with all fish. If it comes across 
any dead fish, it makes its meal off that, but will not 
lay hold upon it until it has moved it with its tail: if 
the fish does not stir, it becomes the Mullet’s prey ; 
but if it moves, the Mullet withdraws. 

3 εἴσω MSS always. 4 Cobet: ζῴῳ H. 



: 4 ἃ. 
4, Τιμωροῦσιν ἀλλήλοις ὡς ἄνθρωποι πιστοὶ καὶ 
ἷ / 4 . Ἦν 9 f 
συστρατιῶται δίκαιοι οἱ ἰχθύες, οὔσπερ οὖν ἀνθίας 
΄ ,ὔ - 
οἱ τῆς θήρας ἐπιστήμονες τῆς θαλαττίας φιλοῦσιν 

f 7 “- 
ὀνομάζειν, ὄντας τὰ ἤθη πελαγίους. τούτων γοῦν 

ἕκαστοι, ὅταν νοήσωσι τεθηρᾶσθαι τὸν σύννομον, 
προσνέουσιν ὦκιστα, εἶτα ἐς αὐτὸν τὰ νῶτα 
ἀπερείδουσι, καὶ ἐμπίπτοντες καὶ ὠθούμενοι τῇ 
δυνάμει κωλύουσιν ἕλκεσθαι. 

\ ? A 

> > οὗ ΗΝ 
Καὶ οἱ σκάροι δὲ ἐς τὴν οἰκείαν ἀγέλην εἰσιν. 
? ~ ‘ X ε Ά 
ἀγαθοὶ τιμωροί. προσίασι γοῦν, καὶ THY ὁρμιᾶν 

a ? 4 ¢ 7 2 
ἀποτραγεῖν σπεύδουσιν, ἵνα σώσωσι τὸν ἢρημένον 
2 \ 5 ~ 
καὶ πολλάκις μὲν ἀποκόψαντες ἔσωσαν Kal ἀφῆκαν 
-“ ? ᾿ “ i 
ἐλεύθερον, καὶ οὐκ αἰτοῦσι Cwaypia “πολλάκις δὲ 
7 A 3 “" ¢ os 
οὐκ ἔτυχον, GAN ἥμαρτον μέν, TO δ᾽ οὖν ἑαυτῶν 
᾿ς , ΄ 3 \ ‘ 
πεποιήκασιν εὖ μάλα προθύμως. ἤδη δὲ καὶ ἐς 
: 3 wa: 
τὸν κύρτον τὸν σκάρον ἐμπεσεῖν φασι καὶ τὸ 
~ 4 Ἁ > : f ‘ 
οὐραῖον μέρος ἐκβαλεῖν, Tous δὲ ἀθηράτους Kat 
- ᾿ > 4 3) 4 ε - 
περινέοντας ἐνδακεῖν καὶ ἐς "τὸ ἔξω τὸν ἑταῖρον 
a 3 4 3 / 1 4 f ~ τί οἱ 9 
προαγαγεῖν. εἰ δὲ ἐξείη * TO στόμα, τῶν TIS OL 
¢ x 4 4 ἂν 
ἔξω τὴν οὐρὰν παρώρεξεν, ὁ δὲ περιχανὼν ἠκολού 
ὃ ἐν δὴ ταῦτα dpa ὃ 8 ἄνθρωποι 
θησεν. οὗτοι μὲν δὴ ταῦτα δρῶσιν, ὦ “ avlp ; 
3 3 4 
φιλεῖν οὐ μαθόντες, ἀλλὰ πεφυκότες. 

5. Ὁ ixOds ὁ τρώκτης, τούτου μὲν κατηγορεῖ 

bd \ Ἁ \ 7 : 
τὴν φύσιν καὶ τὸ ὄνομα, ἤδη δὲ καὶ τὸ στόμα 

: ~ - 3 ΄ Α. 
ὀδόντες δὲ αὐτῷ συνεχεῖς τε ἐμπεφύκασι καὶ 

“- 4 “, εχ ’ 
πολλοί, καὶ πᾶν τὸ ἐμπεσὸν διατεμεῖν εὖ μάλα 

~*~ ς 4 3 , la > 7 >: 
καρτεροί. οὐκοῦν ἁλοὺς ἀγκίστρῳ μόνος ἰχθύων ἐς 

1 ἐξίοι κατά. 2 Jac: τίς ὁ. 3 Jac: ws. 






4, As loyal men and true fellow-soldiers come to The 
one another’s aid, so do the fish which men skilled in “75 

sea-fishing call Anthias;* and their haunts are the 
sea. For instance, directly they are aware that a 
mate has been hooked, they swim up with all possible 
speed; then they set their back against him and by 
falling upon him and pushing with all their might 
try to stop him from being hauled in. : 
- Parrot Wrasses too are doughty champions of their T 
own kin. At any rate they rush forward and make 
haste to bite through the line in order to rescue the 
one that has been caught. And many a time have 
they cut the line and set him free, and they ask for no 
reward for life-saving. Many a time however they 
have not contrived to do this, but have failed in spite 
of having done all they could with the utmost zeal. 
And it has even happened, they say, that, when a 
Parrot Wrasse has fallen into the weel and has left 
his tail-part projecting, the others that are swimming 
around uncaught have fixed their teeth in him and 
have dragged their comrade out. If however his 
head was projecting, one of those outside offered his 
tail, which the captive grasped and followed. This, 
my fellow-men, is what these creatures do: their 
love is not taught, it is inborn. 


‘he Parro 

5. Of the fish known as the ‘ Gnawer ὁ its name The Gnawer 

and, what is more, its mouth declare its nature. Its 
teeth grow in an unbroken line and are numerous 
and so strong as to bite through anything that 
comes their way. Therefore, when taken with a 

* Unidentified. 
ὃ Perhaps the fox-shark; see Thompson, Gk. fishes, s.vv. 
ἀλώπηξ, τρώκτης. 




τὸ ἔμπαλιν ἑαυτὸν οὐκ ἐπανάγει, ἀλλὰ ὠθεῖται 
τὴν ὁρμιὰν ἀποθρίσαι * διψῶν. οἱ δὲ ἁλιεῖς σοφίζον- 
ται τἀναντία: τὰς γάρ τοι τῶν ἀγκίστρων λαβὰς 
χαλκεύονται μακράς. ὁ δὲ (καὶ γὰρ πώς ἐστι καὶ 
ἁλτικὸς) καὶ ὑπὲρ ταύτας ἀνέθορε πολλάκις καὶ. 
τὴν τρίχα τὴν ἄγουδαν τεμὼν ἐς ἤθη τὰ τῶν 
ἰχθύων αὖθις ἀπονήχεται. οὗτός τοι καὶ τὴν ἀγέ- 
λην τὴν σύννομον παραλαβὼν σὺν αὐτοῖς ἐκείνοις 
χωρεῖ καὶ τοῖς δελφῖσιν ὁμόσε: καὶ ἕνα ἀποκρι- 
θέντα πως περιελθόντες εἶτα ἐπιτίθενται τῷ θηρίῳ 
καρτερῶς: ἴσασι γὰρ ὅτι τῶν ἐξ αὐτῶν δηγμάτων 


> ¢ f 3 oh « 4 ‘ 3 + ~ nus 
od ῥᾳθύμως ἐπαΐει. οἱ μὲν γὰρ €XOVTAl αὐτοῦ Καὶ 

i 9 ~ € de 3 δᾶ 4 » Ὁ 1 
μάλα ἐγκρατῶς, ὁ 0€ ἀναπηθᾷ Kat κυβιστᾷ," καὶ 
ὡς ὑπὸ τῆς ὀδύνης στρεβλοῦται διελέγχεται:" 
~ 4 
ἀπρὶξ yap ἐμφύντες συνεξαίρονται πηδῶντος. καὶ 
ὁ μὲν ἀποσείσασθαι καὶ ἀποκροῦσαι σπεύδει 
3 ? ξ δὲ 3 > ~ Ἰλλὰ 3 θί ~~ 
αὐτούς, of δὲ οὐκ ἀνιᾶσιν, ἀλλὰ ἐσθίουσι ζῶντα. 
εἶτα μέντοι ὅ τι ἂν ἕκαστος μέρος exTpayy, τοῦτο 
ἔχων ἀπαλλάττεται" καὶ ὁ δελφὶς ἀσμένως 
ie je : 
ἀπονήχεται, δαιτυμόνας, ws ἂν εἰποις, ἀκλήτους 
os ~ 4 3 ; 
ἑστιάσας σὺν τῇ ἑαυτοῦ ὀδύνῃ ἐκείνους. 

6. Γλαύκης ἀκούω τῆς κιθαρῳδοῦ ἐρασθῆναι 

> . wn 
κύνα: of δὲ οὐ κύνα, ἀλλὰ κριόν: ἄλλοι δὲ χῆνα. 


καὶ ἐν Σόλοις δὲ τῆς Κιλικίας * παιδός, ᾧ ὄνομα 

ἣν Ἑενοφῶν, κύων ἠράσθη: ἄλλου δὲ ὅ. ὡραίου 
μειρακίου ἐν Σπάρτῃ κολοιὸς ἐπὶ τῷ εἴδει ἐνόσησεν. 

1 > θ , 

2 “ SHAG ? 

κυβιστῶν δῆλός ἐστιν. 

“-μ Ν᾽ 
8 Jac: εἶτα μέντοι τοῦτο ὅ TL. « . ἐχῶν. 
4 χοῖς Ἱζιλικίοις. 

5 καὶ ἄλλου. 


Ὁ αν μευ Τρ ρὸν 


hook, it is the only fish that does not attempt to 
withdraw, but presses on in its eagerness to cut the 
line. Fishermen however counter this by a device: 
they have their hooks forged with a long shank. 
But the Gnawer, being a powerful jumper in its way, 
chiang oe above the shank, and cutting the hair-line 
that is drawing it, swims away agai 
where fish haunt. ΠΕΡ ΘΕ ΠΟ 
ΤῸ also gathers round it a shoal of its fellows and 
with them also makes an attack upon the Dolphins. 
And if one chance to get separated from the rest, 
the Gnawers surround it and then set upon the 
creature furiously, knowing as they do that the Dol- 
phin is by no means insensible to their bites. For 
the Gnawers cling most tenaciously to it, while the - 
Dolphin leaps upwards and plunges; and it shows 
how it is being tormented by the pain, for the 
Gnawers that have fastened upon it are lifted out of 
the water with it as it leaps. And while the Dolphin 
struggles to shake them loose and beat them off, 
they never relax their hold, but. would eat it alive. 
Then however when each Gnawer has bitten away 
a piece, they go off with their mouthful, and the 
Dolphin is thankful to swim away after having fed 
its uninvited guests (if one may so call them) to its 
own pain. - 

6. I am told that a dog fellin love with Glauce the ‘Animatsin 

harpist. Some however assert that it was not a dog 

but a ram, while others say it was a goose. And at belnes 

Soli in Cilicia a dog loved a boy of the name of 
Xenophon; at Sparta another boy in the prime of 
life by reason of his beauty caused a jackdaw to fall 
sick of love. | 



ὃ “" : - : -- 7 - 
7. Λέγουσι τὸν θῶα τὸ ζῷον φιλανθρωπότατον 

: , > - 
εἶναι. καὶ ὅταν μέν που περιτύχῃ ἀνθρώπῳ, 
ἐκτρέπεται αὐτόν, οἷον αἰδούμενος" ὅταν δὲ 
3 4 7 ¢ 3 3) , Α ᾿ 
ἀδικούμενον θεάσηται ὑπ᾽ ἄλλου θηρίου, τὸ τηνι- 

“ > o~ 
καῦτα ἐπαμύνει αὐτῷ. 

8. Νικίας τις τῶν συγκυνηγετούντων 1 ἀπροό- 
πτως παραφερόμενος ἃ ἐς ἀνθρακευτῶν κάμινον 
κατηνέχθη, οἱ δὲ κύνες οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ τοῦτο 
ἰδόντες οὐκ ἀπέστησαν, ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν πρῶτα 
κνυζώμενοι περὶ τὴν κάμινον καὶ ὠρυόμενοι διέτρι- 


βον, τὰ δὲ τελευταῖα μονονουχὶ τοὺς παριόντας 

2 / 4 f 3 ~ € , Sf 
ἠρέμα καὶ πεφεισμένως KATA τῶν ἱματίων δάκ- 

εν e 3.4 4 7 φ > / ~ 
vovres εἶτα εἷλκον ἐπὶ τὸ πάθος, οἷον ἐπικούρους τῷ 
΄“ ξ 7 
δεσπότῃ παρακαλοῦντες τοὺς ἀνθρώπους οἱ κῦνες. 
καὶ γοῦν εἷς δρῶν τὸ γινόμενον ὑπώπτευσε τὸ 
f \ 3 λ 4θ 4 “Ὁ \ N ὔ 3 on 
συμβάν, καὶ ἠκολούθησε Kat εὗρε Tov ἱνικίαν ev Τῇ 
i ? 3 “ , i ἃ 

καμίνῳ καταφλεχθέντα, ἐκ τῶν λειψάνων συμβαλὼν 

τὸ γενόμενον. 

9, Ὁ κηφὴν ὁ ἐν μελίτταις γεννώμενος μεθ᾽ 
ἡμέραν μὲν ἐν τοῖς ἀνθρηνίοις κατακέκρυπται, 
3.6. Ἢ nv : f , Ἃ 
νύκτωρ δέ, ἡνίκα ἂν παραφυλάξῃ καθευδούσας τὰς 
“μελίττας, ἐπιφοιτᾷ τοῖς ἔργοις αὐτῶν καὶ λυμαΐνε- 

“ 3 

ται τοῖς σίμβλοις. τοῦτο ἐκεῖναι καταμαθοῦσαι, αἱ 

μὲν πλεῖσται τῶν μελιττῶν καθεύδουσιν ἅτε πεπον- 
ηκυῖαι, ὀλίγαι δὲ αὐτῶν ἐλλοχῶσιν. εἶτα ὅταν 
ἕλωσι τὸν φῶρα, παίουσιν αὐτὸν πεφεισμένως καὶ 
ἐξωθοῦσι,)2 καὶ ἐκβάλλουσι φυγάδα εἶναι. ὁ δὲ 
οὐδ᾽ οὕτω πεπαίδευται: πέφυκε γὰρ καὶ ἀργὸς καὶ 
λίχνος, δύο κακώ. ἔξω τοίνυν τῶν κηρίων ἑαυτὸν 
ἀποκρύπτει, εἶτα ὅταν ἐπὶ τὰς νομὰς ἐξορμήσωσιν 


7. Men say that the Jackal is most friendly dis- The Jackal 

posed to man, and whenever it happens to encounter a 

man, it gets out of his way as though from deference; 
but when it sees a man being injured by some other 
animal, it at once comes to his help. 

8. One Nicias unwittingly outdistanced his fellow Nici 
his hounds 

huntsmen and fell into a charcoal-burners’ furnace. 
But his hounds, which saw this happen, did not leave 
the spot, but at first remained whining and baying 
about the furnace, until at length, by Just daring to 
bite the clothes of passers-by gently and cautiously, 
they tried to draw them to the scene of the mishap, 
as though the hounds were imploring the men to 
come to their master’s help. One man at any rate 
seeing this, suspected what had occurred .and fol- 
lowed. He found Nicias burned to death in the 
furnace, and from the remains he guessed the truth. 


as and 

9. The Drone, which is born among bees, hides The Drone 

itself among the combs during the day, but at night, 
when it observes that the bees are asleep, it invades 

their work and makes havoe in the hives. When the - 

bees realise this (most of them are asleep, being 
thoroughly tired, though a few are lying in wait for 
the thief), directly they catch him they beat. him, 
not violently, and thrust him out and cast him forth 
into exile. Yet even so the Drone has not learnt his 
lesson, for he is naturally slothful and greedy—two 

bad qualities! So he secretes himself outside the’ 

combs and later, when the bees fly forth to their 

1 °4 
κυνηγετούντων. 2 φερόμενος. 
8. ἐξωθοῦσι τοῖς πτεροῖς. 


αἱ μέλιτται, ὁ δὲ ὠσάμενος ἔσω τὸ ἑαυτοῦ δρᾷ, 
ἐμφορούμενος καὶ κεραΐζων ἐκεῖνος τὸν θησαυρὸν 
τῶν μελιττῶν τὸν “γλυκύν. καὶ ἐκεῖναι. ἐκ τῆς 
νομῆς ὑποστρέψασαι, ὅταν αὐτῷ περιτύχωσιν, ἐν- 
ταῦθα μὲν οὐκέτι πεφεισμένως αὐτὸν παίουσιν, 
οὐδ᾽ ὅσον ἐς φυγὴν τρέψαι, ἀλλὰ εὖ μάλα 1 βιαίως 
ἐμπεσοῦσαι διαλοῶσι τὸν λῃστήν: καὶ οὐ μεμπτὴν 
ὑπομείνας τὴν τιμωρίαν, ὑπὲρ τῆς γαστριμαργίας 
καὶ ἀδηφαγίας τῇ ψυχῇ “ ἔτισεν. μελιττουργοὶ 
λέγουσι ταῦτα, καὶ ἐμὲ πείθουσιν. 

39. Δ , ΝΣ a , > \ 
10. Eliot δέ τινες καὶ ἐν ταῖς μελίτταις ἀργοὶ 

4 ᾽ 
μέλιτται, οὐ μὴν κηφηνώδεις τὸν τρόπον' οὐ γὰρ 
“A ? ; ~ 
λυμαίνονται τοῖς κηρίοις οὐδ᾽ ἐπιβουλεύουσι τῷ 
aN Ὁ Ἰλλὰ ? 3 > ~ 2 θ 7 +. 
μέλιτι αὗται, ἀλλὰ τρέφονται ὃ ἐκ τῶν ἀνύέων Kat 
αὗται πετόμεναι καὶ σύννομοι ταῖς ἄλλαις οὖσαι. 

4 4 

εἰ δὲ καί εἰσιν ἄτεχνοι περὶ τὴν ἐργασίαν καὶ THY 

δ) \ A Ἢ λλὸ - 3 aoe ee 
KOLLONY TV TOV μέλιτος, ἃ α youv οὐκ εἰσιν 

ἄπρακτοι πάντῃ. at μὲν γὰρ αὐτῶν ὕδωρ τῷ 
βασιλεῖ κομίζουσι καὶ ταῖς πρεσβυτέραις δέ, αἵπερ 
οὖν 4 τῷ βασιλεῖ παραμένουσι καὶ ἐς τὴν δορυφο- 
ρίαν ἀπεκρίθησαν τὴν αὐτοῦ: ἕτεραι δὲ αὐτῶν ὃ 
ἔχουσιν ἐκεῖνο ἔργον, τὰς ἀποθνησκούσας τῶν 
μελιττῶν ἔξω φέρουσι: δεῖ γὰρ αὐταῖς καθαρὰ 
εἶναι τὰ κηρία, καὶ οὐκ ἀνέχονται νεκρὰν ἔσω 
μέλιτταν: ἄλλαι δὲ ὃ νύκτωρ φρουροῦσι, ὥσπερ 

εν 4 Ἁ 7 Ἁ ~ ? 
οὖν πόλιν μικρὰν φυλάττουσαι THY τῶν κηρίων 

> / 3 “ , 
οἰκοδομίαν ἐκεῖναι γε. 

A € \ 
11. Μελιττῶν δὲ ἡλικίαν Siayvoin τις ἂν Tov 
- » / 
τρόπον τοῦτον. αἱ μὲν αὐτοετεῖς στιλπναί τέ εἶσι 
1 εὖ μάλα τοῖς κέντροις. 2 τῆν ψυχήν. 


ἋΣ ἐἔἐὁἌἕἔΨἌΨἀΨέΕΠηπ,ιοὁΕέΠέΕινᾳιἔζῶ ες, 

ON ANIMALS, I. 9-11 

feeding-grounds, pushes his way in and does what is 

natural to him, cramming himself and plundering the | 

bees’ treasure of honey. But they on returning from 
their pasturage, directly they encounter him, no 
longer beat him with moderation nor merely put him 
to flight, but fall upon him vigorously and make an 
end of the thief. The punishment which he suffers 
none can censure: he pays for his gluttony and 
voracity with his life. 

This is what bee-keepers say, and they convince me. 

10. Even among Bees there are some which are 
lazy, though they do not resemble drones in their 
habits, for they neither damage the combs nor have 
designs upon the honey, but feed themselves on the 
flowers, flying abroad and accompanying the others. 
But though they have no skill in the making and the 
gathering of honey, at any rate they are not com- 
pletely inactive, for some fetch water for their king 
and for their elders, while the elders themselves 
attend upon the king and have been set apart to 
form his bodyguard. Meanwhile others of them have 
this for their task: they carry the dead bees out of 
the hive. For it is essential that their honeycombs 
should be clean, and they will not tolerate a dead 
bee in the hive. Others again keep watch by night, 
and their duty is to guard the fabric of honeycombs 
as though it were some tiny city. 

11. Aman may tell the age of Bees in the follow- Bees 

ing way. Those born in the current year are glisten- 

8. φρέφονται μέν. 
4 « - ¢ ἢ - 
| αἵπερ οὖν αἱ πρεσβύτεραι καὶ αὗται τῷ β. 
~ lal 39. 7 .ἢ 
αὐτῶν τῶν ἀτέχνων. 6. Gill: ἀλλὰ καί. 


Bees and 
their various 



"πε ηας titties 



/ φ \ / | 
καὶ ἐοίκασιν ἐλαίῳ τὴν χρόαν 1" αἱ δὲ πρεσβύτεραι 
τραχεῖαι καὶ ἰδεῖν καὶ προσψαῦσαι ® γίνονται, 
“ Ἁ 4 ΄“ > i , 
ῥυσαὶ δὲ ὁρῶνται διὰ τὸ γῆρας". ἐμπειρότεραι δέ 

3 KM 4 ? 

᾿ς 2X: 
Εὐσὺν QUTGE Καὶ TEXVLKWTEPOl, παιδεύσαντος AUTAS 

‘ > ~ “λ ͵ “-“ ? 3 ὃ 4 
τὴν ἐπὶ τῷ μέλιτι σοφίαν τοῦ χρόνου. ἐχοῦσι OE 

~ Ἁ “-. ‘ 7 3 / 
καὶ μαντικῶς, ὥστε καὶ ὑετῶν καὶ κρύους ἐπιδημίαν. 

A 1 Φ ΄ . ὦ Ἂ ᾿ 
προμαθεῖν' καὶ οταν τούτων TO ετέρον ἢ Kat 
, ” 

3 7 3 3.4 7 
ἀμφότερα ἔσεσθαι συμβάλωσιν, οὐκ ἐπὶ μήκιστον 

,ὔ inl 3 \ “- a 
ἐκτείνουσι THY πτῆσιν, ἀλλὰ περυποτῶνται τοῖς 
e 4 

ors a x ς 
σμήνεσι, καὶ οἱονεὶ περιθυροῦσιν. ἐκ δὴ τούτων οἱ 

μελιττουργοὶ οἰωνισάμενοι προλέγουσι τοῖς γεωρ- 
γοῖς τὴν μέλλουσαν ἐπιδημίαν τοῦ χειμῶνος. δε- 
δοίκασι δὲ ἄρα οὐ τοσοῦτον τὸ κρύος at μέλυτται, 
ὅσον τὸν ὄμβρον τὸν πολὺν καὶ τὸν νιφετόν. ἐναν- 
τίαι δὲ πολλάκις τοῦ πνεύματος πέτονται, καὶ βρα- 
χεῖαν λίθον ἐν τοῖς ποσὶ κομίζουσι καὶ τοσαύτην 
ὅσην εὔφορον αὐταῖς πετομέναις εἶναι, καὶ τρόπον 
τινὰ τοῦτο ἕρμα ἑαυταῖς ἐπιτεχνῶνται πρὸς τὸν 
ἐμπίπτοντα ἄνεμον τά τε ἄλλα καὶ ἵνα μὴ παρατ- 
ρέψῃ τῆς δδοῦ ἡ αὔρα αὐτάς. 

12. Ἔρωτος δὲ ἰσχὺν καὶ ἰχθύων γένη πολλὰ 
ἔγνω, τοῦ τοσούτου θεοῦ μηδὲ τοὺς κάτω καὶ ἐν 
“ a 4 “a A r # ς δό \. 3 / 
τῷ βυθῷ ὁ τῆς θαλάττης ὑπεριδόντος καὶ ἀτιμά- 
σαντος. λατρεύει γοῦν τῷδε τῷ δαίμονι ὃ καὶ 
᾿ / > 3 > ~ 3 “- \ @ > 3 4 
κέφαλος, ἀλλ᾽ οὐ πᾶς, ἐκεῖνος δὲ ὅνπερ οὖν ἅπο 
τοῦ ὀξέος προσώπου καλοῦσιν οἱ γένη τε καὶ 
διαφορὰς ἰχθύων κατεγνωκότες. ἁλίσκονται δέ, ὡς 
> ? A 4 / \ ? oe AN i \ 
ἀκούω, περὶ τὸν κόλπον τὸν ᾿Αχαϊκὸν πολλοί, καὶ 
an \ 3 > ‘ ey) δ... . , ? , 
τῆς μὲν κατ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἁλώσεως διαφορότης ἐστι" 
LA de > »" 4 λ ὃ 4 3 \ > δί 
μάλιστα δὲ αὐτῶν τὸ λυττῶδες τὸ ἐς τὰ ἀφροδίσια 

1 χροιάν. 2 Gron: ἅψασθαι. 3 πτῆσιν ἐκ τῆς νομῆς. 

ON ANIMALS, I. 11-12 

ing and are the colour of olive oil; the older ones are 
rough to the eye and to the touch and appear 
wrinkled with age. They have however greater 
experience and skill, time having instructed them in 
the art of making honey. They have too the faculty 
of divination, so that they know in advance when rain 
and frost are coming. And whenever they reckon 
that either or both are on their way, they do not 
extend their flight very far, but fly round about their 
hives as though they would be close to the door. 
It is from these signs that bee-keepers augur the 
approach of stormy weather and warn the farmers. 
And yet Bees are not so afraid of frost as they are 
of heavy rain and snow. Often they fly against the 
wind, carrying between their feet a small pebble of 
such size as is easy to carry when on the wing. 
This is a device which they use to ballast themselves 
against a contrary wind, and particularly so that the 
breeze may not deflect them from their path. 

12. Even among fishes there are many kinds 
which know how strong is love, for that god, powerful 
as he is, has not ignored and disdained even the 
creatures that dwell below in the depths of the ocean. 
One at any rate that pays service to this god is the 
Mullet, but not every species, only that to which 
men who have observed the different species of fish 
have given a name derived from its sharp snout. 
These, I am told, are caught in great numbers round 
about the Gulf of Achaia, and there are’ various ways 
of catching them. But the following method of 
capture proves how madly amorous they are. 

+ σι “- s 
4 ἐν τῷ βυθῷ καὶ κάτω. 5 δαιμονίῳ. 


as weather- 

The Mullet 


TE ea aL Ls oer cha χυτεταςς στ ρμεοτμ 



κατηγορεῖ ἥδε ἡ ἄγρα. θηράσας ἀνὴρ ἁλιεὺς 

θῆλυν, καὶ ἐνδήσας ὦ καλάμῳ μακρῷ ἢ σπάρτῳ 
καὶ τούτῳ μακρῷ, κατὰ τῆς ἠόνος ἡσυχῆ βαδίζων 
παρανηχόμενον τὸν ἰχθὺν καὶ ἀσπαίροντα ἐπισύρει" 
κατ᾽ ἴχνια δὲ αὐτοῦ τις ἕπεται φέρων δίκτυον, καὶ 
τὸ μέλλον ὅπῃ τε καὶ ὅπως ἀπαντήσεται φυλάττει 
φιλοπόνως ὁ δικτυεὺς οὗτος. οὐκοῦν ἡ μὲν ἄγεται, 
ὁπόσοι δὲ ἂν ἴδωσι τῶν ἀρρένων, οἷα δήπου νεανίαι 
ἀκόλαστοι μείρακος παραθεούσης εὖ μάλα ὡρικῆς 
ἐποφθαλμιάσαντες, ἵενται κατὰ μίξιν ὃ οἰστρούμε- 
νοι. ὃ τοίνυν τὸ δίκτυον ἔχων ῥίπτει τὸν βόλον, 
καὶ πολλάκις ἰχθύων εὐερμίᾳ περιτυγχάνει τῇ τῆς 
ἐπιθυμίας ὁρμῇ προσερχομένων. δεῖ δὲ τῷ πρώτῳ 
θηρατῇ τὴν αἱρεθεῖσαν ὡραίαν τε εἶναι καὶ εὖ 

“ a σ ἢ , », 3. 3 ν᾿ ἐ 7ὕ : 
YKOVOGY OapPKWYV, ὑνὰ Kab πλείους ΕἼ GUTHV ορμήησω- 

»“- a , > 4 

ow, τὸ τῆς ὥρας ἐφολκὸν δέλεαρ λαβόντες. εἰ δὲ 
ὔ ‘ 

ἄσαρκος εἴη, οἱ πολλοὶ ὑπερφρονήσαντες ᾧχοντο 
ἀπιόντες" ὅστις δὲ αὐτῶν ἐστι δύσερως, οὐκ 

“--οΟ 3 “ lon 
ἀπαλλάττεται, οὐ TH ὥρᾳ, μὰ Δία, ἀλλὰ τῷ τῆς 

μίξεως πόθῳ δεδουλωμένος. 

13. Ἦσαν δὲ ἄρα καὶ σωφρονεῖν ἰχθύες ἀγαθοί. 
ὃ γοῦν αἰτναῖος οὕτω λεγόμενος, ἐπὰν τῇ ἑαυτοῦ 
συννόμῳ οἷονεὶ γαμετῇ τινι συνδυασθεὶς κληρώση- 
ται τὸ λέχος, ἄλλης οὐχ ἅπτεται, καὶ οὐ δεῖται 
συμβολαίων ἐς πίστιν, οὐ προικός, οὐδὲ μὴν δέδοικε 
κακώσεως δίκην 6 αἰτναῖος, οὐδὲ αἰδεῖται Σόλωνα. 
ὦ νόμοι γενναῖοι καὶ πολύσεμνοι," οἷς ἀκόλαστοι 
ἄνθρωποι οὐκ αἰδοῦνται μὴ πείθεσθαι. 

2 Reiske: ἐκ-. 

8 A Ν a 
κατὰ τὴν νῆξιν. 

28 - 




ON ANIMALS, I. 12-13 

A fisherman catches a female Mullet and fastens it now caught 

to a long rod or a cord (this too must be long); as he: 

walks slowly along the sea-shore he draws the fish, 
swimming and gasping, after him. In his footsteps 
there follows one with a net, and this net-fisherman 

‘watches diligently to see what is going to happen 

and where. So the female Mullet is towed along, 
and all the males that catch sight of her, like (one 
might say) licentious youths ogling a beautiful girl 
as she hurries by, come swimming up, mad with 
sexual desire. Thereupon the man with the net 
casts it and frequently has good luck, thanks to the 
urgent lust of the fish that approach. It is essential 
for the first fisherman’s purpose that the captured 
female should be at her prime and well-fleshed, so 
that a greater number may be ardent after her and 
may take the bait which her enticing beauty offers. 
But should she be lean, most of them will scorn her 

and go away. Still, if any one of them is madly in 

love, he will not leave her, because he has been 
enslaved not by her beauty (that I will swear) but 
by his desire for sexual intercourse. 

13. It seems however that fish are also models of The 

continence. At any rate when the ‘ Etna-fish ’,* as *Etna-fish ’ 

it is called, pairs with its mate as with a wife and 
achieves the married state, it does not touch another 
female; it needs no covenants to maintain its 
fidelity, no dowry; it even stands in no fear of an 
action for ill-usage, nor is Solon® to it a name of 
dread. What noble laws, how worthy of veneration! 
-__And man, the libertine, feels no scruple at dis- 
obeying them. 

@ Unidentified. δ᾽ See 2. 42 n. 



14. ἹΚοσσύφῳ δὲ τῷ θαλαττίῳ ἤθη τε Kai διατρι- | 

at αἱ πέτραι καὶ at onpayywoes ὑποδρομαί. 
αμοῦσι δὲ οὗτοι ἕκαστος πολλάς, καὶ τῶν ὁπῶν 
οἱονεὶ θαλάμων {ταῖς »; νύμφαις ἀφίστανται. καὶ 
τοῦτο μὲν τὸ τοῦ γάμου θρυπτικὸν καὶ τὸ ἐς πολλὰς 
ἔχειν τὴν ὁρμὴν νενεμημένην φαίης * ἂν εἶναι τρυ- 
φώντων ἐς εὐνὴν βαρβάρων καί, ὡς ἂν εἴποις σὺν 
παιδιᾷ σπουδάσας, βίον Μηδικόν τε καὶ Ἰ]ερσικόν. 
ἔστι δὲ ἰχθύων ζηλοτυπώτατος καὶ τὴν ἄλλως 
μέν, οὐχ ἥκιστα δὲ ὅταν αἱ νύμφαι τίκτωσιν αὐτῷ. 
εἰ δὲ λαμυρώτερον ταῦτα τῇ καταχρήσει ἃ τῶν 
ὀνομάτων εἴρηται, δίδωσιν ἡμῖν τὰ ἐκ τῆς φύσεως 
πραττόμενα τὴν τῶν τοιούτων ἐξουσίαν. αἱ μὲν 
γὰρ ὠδίνων ἤδη πειρώμεναι ἠρεμοῦσί τε καὶ ἔνδον 
μένουσιν, ὃ δὲ ἄρρην, οἷα δήπου γαμέτης, περιθυρῶν 
τὰς ἐπιβουλὰς φυλάττει τὰς ἔξωθεν φόβῳ τῶν 
βρεφῶν. ἔοικε γὰρ καὶ τὰ μήπω γεννώμενα φιλεῖν 
καὶ δέει πατρικῷ ἁλισκόμενος ἐντεῦθεν ὀρρωδεῖν 
ἤδη, καὶ διημερεύει μὲν ἐπὶ τῇ φρουρᾷ πάντων 
ἄγευστος, καὶ ἡ φροντὶς αὐτὸν τρέφει: δείλης δὲ 
ὀψίας γενομένης ἀφεῖται τῆς ἀνάγκης τῆσδε, καὶ 
μαστεύει τροφήν, καὶ οὐκ ἀτυχεῖ αὐτῆς. καὶ 
ἑκάστη δὲ ἄρα εὑρίσκει τῶν ἔνδον, εἴτε ἐπ᾿ ὠδῖσιν 
εἴη εἴτε ἤδη λεχώ, φυκία πολλὰ τῶν ἐν ταῖς ὀπαῖς 
καὶ περὶ τὰς πέτρας, & οἱ δεῖπνόν ἐστιν. 

16. ᾿Ἐπιβουλεύειν ὃ κοσσύφῳ δ΄ δεινὸς ἁλιεὺς 
, / ? f 7 4 +. 3 fA 
ἐφαρμόσας ἀγκίστρῳ μόλυβδον βαρὺν Kat eveipas 

τῷ ἀγκίστρῳ καρίδα μεγάλην καθίησι τὸ δέλεαρ. 

1 ¢rais> add. H. 2 φαίην most MSS. 
8 σηνάλλως A, καὶ ἄλλως μὲν οὖν most MSS, 
4 Kayser: κράσει. 


ON ANIMALS, I. 14-15 

14. The Wrasse has its haunts and resorts among The Wrasse 

the rocks and near cavernous burrows. The males 
all have many wives and resign the hollow places, as 
though they were women’s chambers, to their brides. 
This refinement in their mating, and the propensity 
which they enjoy for having many wives one might 
describe as characteristic of barbarians who luxuriate 
in the pleasures of the bed, and (if one may jest on 
serious subjects) as living like the Medes and Per- 
sians. It is of all fishes the most jealous at all times, 
but especially when its wives are producing their 
young. (If by excessive use of these expressions 
I make my discourse too wanton, the facts of 
nature permit me to do things of that sort.) So the 
females which are actually facing the strain of birth- 
pangs remain quiet in their homes, while the male, 
after the manner of a husband, stays about the 
entrance to prevent any mischief from outside, being 
anxious for his offspring. For it seems that he loves 
even those that are yet unborn, and it is his fatherly 
concern that causes him these early fears; he even 
spends the whole day without touching food: his care 
sustains him. But as the afternoon grows late, he 
relinquishes his forced watch and seeks for food, 
which he does not fail to find. But of course each of 
the females within, whether in the act of giving birth 
or after it, finds a quantity of seaweed in the hollow 

places and about the rocks, and this is their meal. 

15. A fisherman who is skilled in angling a Wrasse The Wrasse, 

fastens a heavy piece of lead to his hook, wraps 
round it a large prawn, and drops the bait. And then 

5 Jac: ἐπιβουλεύων. 6 κοσσύφου θήρᾳ. 



καὶ ὁ μὲν ὑποκινεῖ τὴν ὁρμιὰν «ἐγείρων τε καὶ 
θήγων ἐ ἐς τὴν τροφὴν τὸ θήραμα, ἡ ἡ καρὶς δὲ κινου- 
μένη εἶτα μέντοι δόξαν τινὰ ἀποστέλλει μελλούσης 
ἐς τὰς ὁπὰς τὰς τοῦ κοσσύφου παριέναι. τῷ δὲ 
ἄρα. τοῦτο ἔχθιστον" καὶ διὰ ταῦτα αἰσθανόμενος, 
ὡς ἔχει θυμοῦ,“ ὃ ἵεται ἀφανίζειν τὴν ἐχθίστην ὃ (οὐ 
γάρ οἱ μέλει τῆς γαστρὸς τηνικαῦτα), καὶ συνθλά- 
σας αὐτὴν ἀπαλλάττεται, προτιμότερον τροφῆς καὶ 
πρεσβύτερον τὸ μὴ. κατακοιμίσαι τὴν φυλακὴν πεπι- 
στευκὼς εἶναι. τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ὅταν τι μέλλῃ τῶν 
προσπιπτόντων ἐσθίειν, ὑποθλάσας εἶτα εἴασε 
κεῖσθαι: καὶ ἰδὼν τεθνηκός, 5 ἐξ αὐτοῦ τρώγει ἤδη. 
οἱ δὲ θήλεις κόσσυφοι, ἕως μὲν ἄρρενα ὁρῶσι προ- 
ασπίζοντα, ὡς ἂν εἴποις, μένουσιν ἔνδον καὶ τὸ 
τῆς οἰκουρίας φυλάττουσι σχῆμα. ὅταν δὲ ἀφανι- 
σθῇ, ἀλύουσιν αἵδε, προάγει TE αὐτὰς καὶ ἐξάγει ἡ ἡ 
ἀθυμία καὶ ἐνταῦθα ἑαλώκασι. τί πρὸς ταῦτα 
(οἷ) Ξ ποιηταὶ λέγουσιν οἱ τήν τε Εὐάδνην ἡμῖν 
β τὴν Ἴφιδος καὶ τὴν ΓΑλκηστιν τὴν Πελίου παῖδα 
ἐνδόξως θρυλοῦντες ὅ; 

16. Πατὴρ δὲ ἐν ἰχθύσιν 6 γλαῦκος οἷός ἐστι. 
τὰ γεννώμενα ἐκ τῆς συννόμου παραφυλάττει 5 

τοῦ θυμοῦ. 

ἀφανίζειν τὴν ἐχθίστην] νομίζων ἐχθράν. 
τεθνηκὸς ὅ ὅτε μὴ σπαίρει. 

<ot> add. Jac. 

Haupt: θρηνοῦντες. 

6. Schn: παραφυλάττεται. 

σι pm ΜΡ 

4 Evadne, wife of Capaneus, one of the ‘Seven against 
Thebes.” He was slain by Zeus, and when his body was on 
the funeral pyre, E. leapt into the flames and perished at his 


ON ANIMALS I. 15-16 

he moves the line a little, rousing and egging on his 
prey to take the food, while the prawn by its move- 
ment conveys the impression that it intends to enter 

‘the Wrasse’s den. Now this the Wrasse greatly 

resents, and therefore, as soon as he observes it, he 
longs, such is his fury, to demolish the object of 
his abhorrence, for he is not thinking of his appetite 
at the moment; and when he has-crushed it, he. 
moves off, considering it more honourable and more 
important that the watchman should not be caught 
napping than that he should be fed. But when he 
intends to eat any other creature that comes his way, 
he crushes it lightly and then lets it lie. As soon as 
he sees that it is dead, then at length he nibbles 
at it. But the female Wrasses, so long as they see 
the male acting as their shield, so to say, ‘ remain 
within and with the care of their household’ are 
occupied. If however the male disappears, they 
become distraught; their despondency leads them 
to venture forth, and then they are caught. 

What have the poets to say to this—our poets who 
are for ever extolling Evadne,* the daughter of 

Iphis, and Alcestis,? the daughter of Pelias ? | 

16. Among fishes the ‘ Blue-grey’¢ is a model The 
father. He maintains a strenuous watch over his ; fish Beaty 

> Alcestis, wife of Admetus, undertook to die in ines of her 
ee but was rescued by Heracles from the clutches of 


° Not certainly identified. 


VOL. I. Cc 


ἰσχυρῶς, ἵνα ἀνεπιβούλευτά τε Kal ἀσινῆ ἧ. καὶ 
ἕως μὲν φαιδρὰ καὶ ἔξω δέους διανήχεται, ὁ δὲ 
τὴν φρουρὰν οὐκ ἀπολιμπάνει, ἀλλὰ πῇ μὲν οὐραγεῖ, 
πῇ δὲ οὔ, ταύτην δὲ παρανήχεται τὴν πλευρὰν ἢ 
ἐκείνην: ἐὰν δὲ τι δείσῃ τῶν + νηπίων, 6 δὲ χανὼν 
ἐσεδέξατο τὸ βρέφος. εἶτα τοῦ φόβου παραδρα- 
μόντος τὸν καταφυγόντα ἀνεμεῖ οἷον ἐδέξατο, καὶ 
ἐκεῖνος πάλιν νήχεται. 

“-ο ' , ’ 
17. Κύων δὲ θαλαττία τεκοῦσα ἔχει συννέοντα 
4 7 32 λ 3 > 3 ἉἋ ὔ oA δὲ 
7a σκυλάκια ἤδη καὶ οὐκ ἐς ἀναβολάς. ἐὰν δὲ 
3 ͵ > 4 
Selon τι τούτων, ἐς τὴν μητέρα ἐσέδυ αὖθις κατὰ 
> vn , νον 
τὸ ἄρθρον: εἶτα τοῦ δέους παραδραμόντος τὸ δὲ 
x , > 
πρόεισιν, ὥσπερ οὖν ἀνατικτόμενον αὖθις. 

18. Θαυμάζουσιν ἄνθρωποι τὰς γυναῖκας ὡς 
ἄγαν φιλοτέκνους- ὁρῶ δὲ ὅτι καὶ τεθνεώτων υἱῶν 
ἢ θυγατέρων ἔζησαν μητέρες, καὶ τῷ χρόνῳ τοῦ 
πάθους εἰλήφασι λήθην τῆς λύπης μεμαρασμένης. 
δελφὶς δὲ ἄρα θῆλυς φιλοτεκνότατος ἐς τὰ ἔσχατα 

Ἁ Ἁ 7 Ὡ, 4 

ξῴων ἐστί. τίκτει μὲν yap δύο... . ὅταν δὲ 

“ : + oA “ f bh) - 

ἁλιεὺς ἢ τρώσῃ τὸν παῖδα αὐτῆς τῇ τριαίνῃ ἢ τῇ 
> oF ,ὔ 

ἀκίδι βάλῃ. . 3 ἡ μὲν ἀκὶς τὰ ἄνω τέτρηται, καὶ 

ἐνῆπται σχοῖνος μακρὰ αὐτῇ, οἱ δὲ ὄγκοι ἐσδύντες 
ἔχονται τοῦ θηρός. καὶ ἕως μὲν ὦ ἔτι ῥώμης ὁ 
δελφὶς ὁ τραυματίας μετείληχε, χαλᾷ ὁ ηρατὴς 
τὴν σχοῖνον, ἵνα μή ποτε ἄρα ὑπὸ τῆς βίας ἀπορ- 
᾿ ρήξῃ αὐτήν, καὶ γένηταί οἱ δύο κακώ, ἔχων τε 
ἀπέλθῃ τὴν ἀκίδα 6 δελφὶς καὶ ἀθηρίᾳ περυπέσῃ 

1. δείσῃ τῶν τι: ἢ. 
~ ~ 7 
2 καὶ συνεῖδε τῆν αἰτίαν add. L, del. H. 



ON ANIMALS, I. 16-18 

mate's offspring, to ensure that they are not attacked 
or injured. And all the while that they are swim- 
ming the sea happily and without fear he never 
relaxes his vigilance, and sometimes brings up the 

rear and sometimes does not, but swims by them now 

on this side now on that. And if any of his young is 
afraid, he opens his mouth and takes the baby in. 
Later, when its fear has passed, he disgorges the one 
that took refuge exactly as he received it, and it 
resumes its swimming. 

17. Directly the Dog-fish has produced its young, The Dog- 

it has them swimming by its side, and there is no 
delay. But if any one of them is afraid, it slips back 
into its mother’s womb. Later, when its fear has 
passed, it emerges, as though it were being born 
again. | 

18. Men admire women for their devotion to The Dolphin 

their children, yet I observe that mothers whose sons 
or whose daughters have died, continued to live and 
in time forgot their sufferings, their grief having 

abated. But the female Dolphin far surpasses all 

creatures in its devotion to its offspring. It pro- 
duces two....And when a fisherman either 
wounds a young Dolphin with his harpoon or strikes 
it with his barb ... The barb is pierced at the 
upper end, and a long line is fastened to it, while 
the barbs sink in and hold the fish. So long as the 
wounded Dolphin still has any strength, the fisher- 
man leaves the line slack, so that the fish may not 
break it by its violence, and so that he himself may 
not incur a double misfortune through the Dolphin 

3 Lacunae. 4 μὲν ἀλγῶν. 


PA EASENED ESL EHSEAM σον ἀρομυυνν σφ ιύενφε ο. 

χίστου : 


αὐτός" ὅταν δὲ αἴσθηται καμόντα καί πὼς παρει- 
μένον ἐκ τοῦ “τραύματος, ἡσυχῆ παρ᾽ αὐτὴν ἄγει 
τὴν ναῦν, καὶ ἔχει τὴν ἄγραν. ἡ δὲ μήτηρ οὐκ 
ὀρρωδεῖ τὸ “πραχθέν, οὐδὲ ἀναστέλλεται δείσασα, 
ἀλλ᾽ ἀπορρήτῳ φύσει τῷ πόθῳ τοῦ παιδὸς ἑ ἕπεται" 
καὶ δείματα ὁπόσα ἐθέλεις εἰ ἐπάγοις, ἡ δὲ οὐκ 

ἐκπλήττεται, τὸν παῖδα οὐχ ὑπομένουσα ἀπολιπεῖν 

ἐν ταῖς φοναῖς 1 ὄντα, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐκ χειρὸς αὐτὴν 
πατάξαι πάρεστιν" οὕτως ὁμόσε χωρεῖ τοῖς βάλ- 
λουσιν, ὥσπερ οὖν ἀμυνουμένη. καὶ ἐκ τούτων 
συναλίσκεται τῷ παιδί, σωθῆναι παρὸν καὶ ἀπελ- 
θεῖν αὐτήν. εἰ δὲ ἄμφω τὰ ἔκγονα αὐτῇ παρείη, 
καὶ νοήσειε τετρῶσθαι τὸν ἕτερον καὶ ἄγεσθαι, ὡς 
προεῖπον, διώκει τὸν ὁλόκληρον καὶ ἀπελαύνει τὴν 
τε οὐρὰν 3 ἐπισείουσα καὶ δάκνουσα τῷ στόματι, 
καὶ φυσᾷ φύσημά τι. ἄσημον * μέν, A δύναται, 
σύνθημα δὲ τῆς φυγῆς ἐνδιδοῦσα σωτήριον. καὶ ὃ 
μὲν ἀπαλλάττεται, μένει δὲ αὐτὴ ὅ ἔστ᾽ ἂν αἱρεθῇ, 
καὶ συναποθνήσκει τῷ ἑαλωκότι. 

19. Ὃ βοῦς ὁ θαλάττιος ἐν πηλῷ τίκτεται, καὶ 
ἔστιν ἐξ ὠδίνων βράχιστος, γίνεται δὲ ἐκ βρα- 
μέγιστος. καὶ τὰ μὲν ὑπὸ τὴν νηδὺν 
λευκός ἐστι, τὰ νῶτα δὲ καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον. καὶ τὰς 
πλευρὰς μέλας δεινῶς. στόμα δὲ αὐτῷ ἐμπέ- 

| pure σμικρόν, οἱ "δὲ ὀδόντες, μεμυκότος ὃ οὐκ ἂν 

αὐτοὺς ἴδοις. ἔστι δὲ 9 μήκιστος καὶ πλατύτατος. 

1 2. 3 LA 
τοῖς φόνοις. ἀμυνομένη. 

3 σῇ τε οὐρᾷ. 
4 Reiske : φυσήματι ἀσήμῳ. 
5 Schn: αὕτη. 
6 Boaxtratos . . . τοῦ Bpaxtorov. 



Se 28 i LTD ESET ΣΟ 


ON ANIMALS, I. 18-19 

escaping with the barb and himself failing to catch 
anything. As soon as he perceives that the fish is 
tiring and is somewhat weakened by the wound, he 
gently brings his boat near and lands his catch. But 

the mother Dolphin is not scared by what has 

occurred nor restrained by fear, but by a mysterious 
instinct follows in her yearning for her child. And 
though one confront her with terrors never so great, 

she is still undismayed, and will not endure to desert 
her young one which has come to a bloody end; 

indeed, it is even possible to strike her with the hand, 
so close does she come to the hunters, as though she 
would beat them off. And so it comes about that 
she is caught along with her offspring, though she 
could save herself and escape. But if both her off- 
spring are by her, and if she realises that one has 

-been wounded and is being hauled in, as I said 

above, she pursues the one that is unscathed and 
drives it away, lashing her tail and biting her little 
one with her mouth; and she makes a blowing sound 
as best she can, indistinct, but giving the signal to 
flee, which saves it. So the young Dolphin escapes, 
while the mother remains until she is caught and dies 
along with the captive. 

19. The Horned Ray is born in the mud, and The Hornea 
though at the time of birth it is very small, it grows ree 

from that size to be enormous. Its belly beneath is 
white; its back, its head, and its sides are a deep 

black; its mouth however is small, and its teeth— 
when it opens its mouth, you cannot see them. 

? δεινῶς καὶ ἄναλκίς ἐστι. 

8 Jac: μεμυκότες. 
9 A fa 
δὲ καί, 





σιτεῖται μὲν οὖν καὶ τῶν ἰχθύων πολλούς, μάλιστα 
δὲ σαρκῶν ἀνθρωπείων ἐσθίων ὑπερήδεται. σύνοιδε 
δὲ αὑτῷ ὅτι ῥώμην ἥκιστός ἐστι, μόνῳ δὲ ἐπιθαρ- 
pel τῷ μεγέθει. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ὅταν ἴδῃ τινὰ ἢ 
νηχόμενον ἢ ὑποδυόμενον 1 ἐν ταῖς ὑδροθηρίαις, μετε- 
ὠρίσας ἑαυτὸν καὶ ἐπικυρτώσας ἐπινήχεταί ot? 
βαρὺς ἄνω ἐγκείμενός τε καὶ πιέζων καὶ ἐπαρτῶν 

"ὃ “ 7 8 δ 7 4 ~ - - 7 
ειμᾶ Tt, υπερτετασας TO Tav OWL TH δειλαίῳ 

e 7 > ~ ld A > ~ 

ὡς στέγην, avadivat τε καὶ ἀναπνεῦσαι κωλύων 
f rr = / ΄- 

αὐτόν. οὐκοῦν ἐπισχεθέντος οἱ τοῦ πνεύματος, ὃ 

g ,ὔ = > f > θ 7 ε ὃ \ 5 4 37 ~ 
μέν, οἷα εἰκὸς, ἀποῦνησκει, O OE ἐμπεσὼν EXEL TNS 

παραμονῆς μισθὸν ὃ μάλιστα λιχνεύει * δεῖπνον. 

20. Τὰ μὲν ἄλλα τῶν φδικῶν ὃ [ὀρνέων] ὃ εὐστομεῖ 

; “ ᾽ 

καὶ τῇ γλώττῃ φθέγγεται δίκην ἀνθρώπου: οἱ δὲ 

τέττιγες κατὰ τὴν ἰξύν εἰσι λαλίστατοι. καὶ συτοῦν- 

\ ao ὃ ‘4 ‘ δὲ > ]- >. AHO 

ται μὲν τῆς δρόσου, τὰ δὲ ἐξ ἕω ἐς πλήθουσαν 
> Ἁ ~ ΜᾺ 

ἀγορὰν σιωπῶσιν, ἡλίου δὲ ὑπαρχομένου τῆς 

᾿ ΄-ὦ 4 > ~ “ 

ἀκμῆς, τὸν ἐξ ἑαυτῶν μεθιᾶσι κέλαδον, φιλόπονοί 

τινες ὡς ἂν εἴποις χορευταί, ὑπὲρ κεφαλῆς καὶ 
al ? A ~ “~ 

τῶν παρανεμόντων Kal τῶν ὁδῷ. χρωμένων καὶ 
~ 3 ~ 

τῶν ἀμώντων KaTddovTes. καὶ τοῦτο μὲν TO 

7 3} “ ele e / 7 A 
φιλόμουσον ἔδωκε τοῖς ἄρρεσιν ἡ φύσις: τέττιξ δὲ 
θήλεια ἄφωνός ἐστι, καὶ ἔοικε σιωπᾶν δίκην νύμφης 


21. Ὑφφαντικὴν καὶ ταλασίαν τὴν θεὸν τὴν 
a ; 

Ἔργάνην ἐπινοῆσαί φασιν ἄνθρωποι: τὴν δὲ apax- 
᾿ A > ; 
viv ἡ φύσις σοφὴν ἐς ἱστουργίαν ἐδημιούργησε. 
καὶ φιλοτεχνεῖ οὐ κατὰ μίμημα, οὐδὲ ἔξωθεν 
1 ὑποδυόμενον Post, cp. 1. 44, πονούμενον Mss, H. 

2 ξ 4 3 “ “ 3 fa 
οἱ καὶ ἐλλοχᾷ. Jac: δείματι. 




1 AE STIS REN ES EEN Sich lot tannin Σι υνκύνυνν δε κτλ, ba sip 

a 7 er at Ἂ ; ἘΣ 


ON ANIMALS, I. 19-21 

Further, it is exceedingly long and flat. While on 
the one hand it feeds upon a great number of fish, 
yet its chief delight is to eat the flesh of man. It is 
conscious of its very small strength: only its great 
size gives it courage. Hence when it sees a man 
swimming or diving to catch something in the water, 
it rises and arching its body attacks him, pressing 
upon him from above with all its weight; and while 
causing terror to fasten upon him, the Ray extends 
all its body over the wretched man like a roof and 
prevents him from reaching the surface and breath- 
ing. When therefore his breathing is arrested, the 
man naturally dies, and the Ray falls upon him and 
in the feast which it most greedily desires reaps the 
reward of its persistence. 

20. All other songsters sing sweetly and use their The Cicada 

tongue to utter, as men do, but Cicadas produce 
their incessant chatter from their loins. They feed 
upon dew, and from dawn until about midday remain | 
silent. But when the sun enters upon his hottest 
period, they emit their characteristic clamour—in- 
dustrious members of a chorus, you might call them 
—and from above the heads of shepherds and 
wayfarers and reapers their song descends. This 
love of singing Nature has bestowed upon the males, 
whereas the female Cicada is mute and appears as 
silent as some shamefast maiden. | ᾿ 

91. Men say that it was the goddess Ergane who 
invented weaving and spinning, but it was Nature 
that trained the Spider to weave. The practice of 
its craft is not due to any imitation, nor does it 


5 Bochart: ᾿Ινδικῶν. 

4 Reiske: ἀνιχνεύει. 
? Reiske: νῆμα. 

8 (épvéwr] del. Warmington. 



λαμβάνει {τὸ} νῆμα, ἀλλ᾽ ἐκ τῆς οἰκείας νηδύος 
τοὺς μίτους ἐξάγουσα εἶτα μέντοι τοῖς κούφοις τῶν 
πτηνῶν θήρατρα dmodaiver, ὡς δίκτυα ἐκπεταν- 
νῦσα. καὶ dv ὧν ἐξυφαίνει παρὰ τῆς γαστρὸς 
λαβοῦσα." διὰ τῶνδε ἐκείνην ἐκτρέφει πάνυ pia ερ- 
γοῦσα, ὡς καὶ τῶν γυναικῶν τὰς μάλιστα εὔχειρας 

καὶ νῆμα ἀσκητὸν EK TOV OL δεινὰς μὴ ἀντιπαρα- | 

| βάλλεσθαι: νενίκηκε γὰρ τῇ λεπτότητι καὶ ὙΠ 


22. Βαβυλωνίους τε καὶ Χαλδαίους. σοφοὺς τὰ 
οὐράνια ᾷδουσιν οἱ συγγραφεῖς: μύρμηκες. δὲ οὔτε 
ἐς οὐρανὸν ἀναβλέποντες οὔτε 3 ras “τοῦ μηνὸς 
ἡμέρας ἐπὶ δακτύλων ἀριθμεῖν ἔ ἔχοντες. ὅμως δῶρον 
ἐκ φύσεως εἰλήχασι παράδοξον" τῇ γὰρ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ 
μηνὸς τῇ νέᾳ ἔσω τῆς ἑαυτῶν στέγης οἰκουροῦσι, 
τὴν ὀπὴν οὐχ ὑπερβαίνοντες ἀλλὰ ἀτρεμοῦντες. 

23. Οἰκία τῷ σαργῷ τῷ ἰχθύι πέτραι ὁ τε καὶ 
σήραγγες, ἔχουσαι μέντοι ᾿διασφάγας μικρὰς, ὡς 
αὐγὴν ἡλίου 6 κατιέναι καὶ , φωτὸς ὑποπιμπλάναι 
τὰς διαστάσεις τάσδε' χαίρουσι γὰρ of σαργοὶ 
φωτὶ μὲν παντί, τῆς δὲ ἀκτῖνος τοῦ ἡλίου καὶ 
μᾶλλον Subdow. οἰκοῦσι δὲ ἐν ταὐτῷ πολλοί: 
δίαιται δὲ αὐτοῖς καὶ ἤθη 1 τὰ τῆς θαλάττης 
βράχη, καὶ τῇ γῇ γειτνιῶσι μάλα ἀσμένως. 
φιλοῦσι δέ πως ὃ αἶγας ἰσχυρῶς. ἐὰν “γοῦν πλησίον 
τῆς ἠόνος νεμομένων ἡ σκιὰ “μιᾶς 7 δευτέρας ἐν 
τῇ θαλάττῃ φανῇ, οἱ δὲ ἀσμένως προσνέουσι καὶ 

1 ςτόΣ add. Η. ΝΣ Reiske : ἕλκουσα. 

ὃ οὐδέ. - 4 πέτρα. 
5 μικρὰς καὶ τὰς διαστάσεις, v.1. μ. καὶ διεστώσας. 




ON ANIMALS, I. 21-23 

obtain spinning matter from any external source, but 
produces the threads from its own belly and then 
contrives snares for flimsy winged creatures, spread- 
ing them like nets; and it derives its nourishment 
from the same material that it extracts from its belly 
and weaves. It is so extremely industrious that not 
even the most dextérous women, skilled at elaborat- 
ing wrought yarn, can be compared to it: its web is 
thinner than hair. 

22. Historians praise the Babylonians and Chal- The Ant 

daeans for their knowledge of the heavenly bodies. 
But Ants, though they neither look upwards to the 
sky nor are able to count the days of the month on 
their fingers, nevertheless have been endowed by 
Nature with an extraordinary gift. Thus, on the 
first day of the month they stay at home indoors, 
never quitting their nest but remaining quietly 
within. , 

23. The fish known as the Sargue has its home The Sargue 

among rocks and hollows, which however have in 
them narrow clefts so that the rays of the sun can 
penetrate within and fill these fissures with light. 
For Sargues like all the light there is, but have an 
even greater craving for the sunbeams. They live 
in great numbers in the same place, and their usual 
haunts are the shallows of the sea, and they particu- 
larly like to be near the land. For some reason they 

have a strong affection for goats. At any rate if the 

shadow of one or two goats feeding by the sea-shore 

fall upon the water, they swim in eagerly and spring 

8 ἡλίου τε. ? ἕλη. 8 πῶς τῶν ἀλόγων. 



Ε] Fon! 6 δὸὃ 7 ᾿ A FA ᾿ θ ~ ' 

ἀναπηδῶσιν, ὡς ἡδόμενοι, καὶ προσάψασθαι τῶν 

αἰγῶν ποθοῦσιν ἐξαλλόμενοι, καίτοι οὐ πάνυ τι 

of ζ 4 X ¥ 7 x \ e \ 

ὄντες ἁλτικοὶ THY ἄλλως: νηχόμενοι. δὲ καὶ ὑπὸ 

“ “ ~ > A 3 “~ 7 ξ 

τοῖς κύμασιν ὅμως τῆς τῶν αἰγῶν ὀσμῆς ἔχου- 
3 λ΄. 485 “ὃ ΄' : λθ “ 1 > 3 > A 

ow αἴσθησιν, καὶ ὑφ᾽ ἡδονῆς προελθεῖν * ἐπ΄ αὐτὰς 
, 3 > -' 

σπεύδουσιν. ἐπεὶ τοίνυν δυσέρωτές " εἰσιν, ἐξ ὧν 
“ Ἁ A 

ποθοῦσιν ἐκ τούτων ἁλίσκονται. ἁλιεὺς yap ἀνὴρ 

“A 4 road a 

αἰγὸς Sopa ἑαυτὸν περιαμπέχει, σὺν αὐτοῖς τοῖς κέ- 
~ / i δ᾽ \ 

pact δαρείσης αὐτῆς" λαμβάνει <dé>% apa τὸν 

' , ¢ x ~ ᾿; 

ἥλιον κατὰ νώτου ἐπιβουλεύων ὁ θηρατὴς TH ἄγρᾳ, 

“A ft > ,ἃ 9 lon e 

εἶτα καταπάττει τῆς θαλάττης, bp ἣν οἰκοῦσιν οἱ 

προειρημένοι, ἄλφυτα αἰγείῳ ζωμῷ διαβραχέντα. 
, , “- 

ἑλκόμενοι δὲ Of σαργοὶ ὡς ὑπὸ τινος ἴυγγος τῆς 

ὀσμῆς THs προειρημένης προσίασι, Kal συτοῦνται μὲν 

τῶν ἀλφίτων, κηλοῦνται δὲ ὑπὸ τῆς Sopas.* αἱρεῖ ® 

on - 4 “a 
δὲ αὐτῶν πολλοὺς ἀγκίστρῳ σκληρῷ Kat ὁρμιᾷ 
,ὔ —- Laan ; Xv > \ / > A 
λίνου λευκοῦ: ἐξῆπται δὲ οὐχὶ καλάμου, ἀλλὰ 
ῥάβδου κρανείας" δεῖ γὰρ τὸν ἐμπεσόντα ἀνασπά-. 

ta Ὁ A 4 LAA > (ξ θ - = 
σαι ῥᾷστα, wa μὴ τοὺς ἄλλους ἐκταράξῃ. Unpwy 

ται δὲ καὶ ἀπὸ χειρός, ἐάν τις τὰς ἀκάνθας, ἃς 
ἐγείρουσιν ἐς τὸ ἑαυτοῖς ἀμύνειν, ἐς τὸ κάτω μέρος 
ἀπό γε τῆς κεφαλῆς ἡσυχῆ κατάγων εἶτα κλίνῃ 
καὶ πιέσας τῶν πετρῶν ἐκσπάσῃ, ἐς ἃς ἑαυτοὺς 
ὑπὲρ τοῦ λαθεῖν ὠθοῦσιν. 

24. Ὃ ἔχις περιπλακεὶς τῇ θηλείᾳ μίγνυται: ἡ 
δὲ ἀνέχεται τοῦ νυμφίου καὶ λυπεῖ οὐδὲ ἕν. ὅταν 
δὲ πρὸς τῷ τέλει τῶν ἀφροδισίων ὦσι, πονηρὰν 

~ ’ 
ὑπὲρ τῆς ὁμιλίας τὴν φιλοφροσύνην ἐκτίνει ἡ 
2 ἐς τὰ προειρημένα δυο-. 

1 Abresch: προσ-. 
4 ὃ, βλεπομένης ὡς αἰγός. 

8. δέ» add. Η. 

5 αἱρεῖται. 


ΤΟΣ Shine wae 5.5; δὴν Sy Etats ΣΟ δὴν ἀν τ; 

SSUES ον τς ΩΣ ΩΣ Ως ELSI ay 

τε ieee RITA ETA Sac Sis endchenmetite ober ot ein ΠΣ τας: 

ON ANIMALS, I. 23-24 

up as though for joy, and in their desire to touch the 
goats they leap out of the water, though they are 
not in a general way given to leaping. And even 
when swimming below the waves they are sensible 
of the goats’ smell, and for delight in it press in to 
be near them. Now since they are thus love-sick, 
the object of their love is the means of their capture. 

Thus, a fisherman wraps himself in a goatskin which how caught 

has been flayed with the horns. Stalking his prey, 
the hunter gets the sun behind him and then sprinkles 
on the water beneath which the aforesaid fish live, 

_barley-groats soaked in broth of goats’ flesh. And 

the Sargues, attracted by the aforesaid smell as 
though by some charm, approach and eat the barley- 
groats and are fascinated by the goatskin. And 
the man catches them in numbers with a stout 
hook and a line of white flax attached not to a 
reed but to arod of cornel-wood. For it is essential 
to haul in the fish that has taken the bait very 
quickly so as to avoid disturbing the others. They 
are even to be caught by hand, if by gently 
stroking the spines, which they raise in self-pro- 
tection, from the head downwards one can lay them, 
or by pressure draw the fish out of the rocks 
into which they thrust themselves to avoid being 

24,.The male Viper couples with the female by vipers ana 

wrapping himself -round her. And she allows her 
mate to do this without resenting it at all.” When 
however they have finished their act of love, the 


their mating 





νύμφη τῷ γαμέτῃ: ἐμφῦσα yap αὐτοῦ τῷ τραχήλῳ, 
διακόπτει αὐτὸν αὐτῇ κεφαλῇ καὶ 6 μὲν τέθνηκεν, 
ἡ δὲ ἔγκαρπον ἔχει τὴν μίξιν καὶ κύει. τίκτει δὲ 
οὐκ wa, ἀλλὰ βρέφη, καὶ ἔστιν ἐνεργὰ ἤδη 
(κατὰ)! τὴν αὑτῶν φύσιν τὴν κακίστην. διε- 
σθίει γοῦν τὴν μητρῴαν νηδύν, καὶ πρόεισι πάραυ- 
τα ὃ τιμωροῦντα τῷ πατρί. τί οὖν οἱ ᾿Ορέσται 
καὶ ot ᾿Αλκμαίωνες πρὸς ταῦτα, ὦ τραγῳδοὶ 


‘ v “~ . 
25. Τὴν ὕαιναν τῆτες μὲν ἄρρενα εἰ θεάσαιο, τὴν 
> ἃ 3 , 2, “~ “~ - 
αὐτὴν ἐς νέωτα ὄψει θῆλυν: εἰ δὲ θῆλυν νῦν, μετὰ 
~ » -- 
ταῦτα ἄρρενα" κοινωνοῦσί τε ἀφροδίτης ἑκατέρας, 
" > 3, ἶ 

4 a of ~ ~ 
καὶ yapovot Te Kat γαμοῦνται, ava ἔτος πᾶν ἀμεί- 
; 4 7 3 “~ 
Bovoat τὸ γένος. οὐκοῦν τὸν Kawéa καὶ τὸν Tes- 

i > ? > / A ~ A 2 

ρεσίαν ἀρχαίους ἀπέδειξε τὸ ζῷον τοῦτο οὐ 

t 7, 4 A a ᾿ ᾿ 
κόμποις ἀλλὰ τοῖς ἔργοις αὐτοῖς. 

20. Μάχονται μὲν ὑπὲρ τῶν θηλειῶν ὡς ὑπὲρ 
ὡραίων γυναικῶν καὶ ot τράγοι πρὸς τράγους καὶ 
ot ταῦροι πρὸς ταύρους καὶ ὑπὲρ οἰῶν οἱ κριοὶ 
πρὸς τοὺς ἀντερῶντας" ὀργῶσι δὲ ἐπὶ τὰς θηλείας 
καὶ οἱ θαλάττιοι κάνθαροι. γίνονται δὲ ἐν τοῖς 
καλουμένοις ἀσπροῖς ὃ χωρίοις, καὶ εἰσὶ ζηλότυποι, 
καὶ ἴδοις ἂν μάχην ὑπὲρ τῶν θηλειῶν καρτεράν. 
καὶ ἔστιν ὃ ἀγὼν οὐχ ὑπὲρ πολλῶν, ὡς τοῖς 

1 «κατά add. H, 2 κατ᾽ αὐτά, v.l. κατὰ ταὐτά. : 
8 λεπροῖς H after Jac. | 

* Orestes slew his mother Clytemnestra in revenge for her 
having slain his father Agamemnon.—Alemaeon slew his 
mother Eriphyle who had ‘brought about the death of his 
father Amphiaraus. | | ἜΣ 




= aN Leaked ABREU UE IE nih ce bm ante 

BE ncn ney pinbdtnhanteh AM t—Plrte bth OA MAO. πῶς ὩΣ 

ON ANIMALS, I. 24-26 

bride in reward for his embraces repays her husband 

with a treacherous show of affection, for she fastens 
on his neck and bites it off, head and all. So he dies, 
while she conceives and becomes pregnant. But she 
produces not eggs but live young ones, which imme- 
diately act in accordance with their nature at its 
worst. At any rate they gnaw through their 
mother’s belly and forthwith emerge and avenge 
their father. 

What then, my dramatist friends, have your 
Oresteses * and your Alemaeons to say to this? | 

25. Should you this year set eyes on a male Hyena, 
next year you will see the same creature as a female ; 

The Hyena 

conversely, if you see a female now, next time you 

will see a male. They share the attributes of 
both sexes and are both husband and wife, chang- 
ing their sex year by year. So then it is not 
through extravagant tales but by actual facts 
that this animal has made Caeneus ® and Teiresias 
old-fashioned. - 

96. As men fight for beautiful women, so do 
animals fight for their females, goats with goats, bulls 

The Black 

with bulls, and rams with their rivals in love for. 

sheep. Even the Black Sea-bream wax wanton for 
their females. They are born in what men call 

rough places, and are jealous, and one may see them 

fighting vigorously for their females. And they do 
not contend for several, in the way that Sargues do, 

> Caeneus, originally a girl named Caenis, was changed by 
Poseidon into a man; after death he resumed his female 
form. Teiresias likewise changed his sex twice, but the Hyena 

does this every year. 




po te ma 



“A > 2 Κι᾿ 
σαργοῖς, ἀλλ᾽ ὑπὲρ τῆς ἰδίας συννόμου, ὡς ὑπὲρ 
γαμετῆς τῷ Μενέλεῳ πρὸς τὸν Ἰ]άριν. 

27. “Ἑστιᾶται μὲν (ἄλλαις »5 καὶ ἄλλαις τροφαῖς 
¢€ / ~ 
6 πολύπους" ἔστι yap Kal φαγεῖν δεινὸς καὶ ἐπι- 

βουλεῦσαι σφόδρα πανοῦργος" τὸ δὲ αὔτιον, παμβο-- 


ρώτατος θηρίων θαλαττίων ἐστί. καὶ ζὴἡὴ 55 ἀπό- 
δειξις, εἴ τις αὐτῷ γένοιτο ἀθηρία, τῶν ἑαυτοῦ 
πλοκάμων παρέτραγε, καὶ τὴν γαστέρα κορέσας 
τὴν σπάνιν τῆς ἄγρας ἠκέσατο' εἶτα ἀναφύει τὸ 
ἐλλεῖπον, ὥσπερ οὖν τῆς φύσεως τοῦτό 4 οἱ ἐν τῷ 

ἴω ᾽ 4 al 
᾿ λιμῷ παρασκευαζούσης ἕτοιμον τὸ δεῖπνον. 

28. Ἵππος ἐρριμμένος σφηκῶν γένεσίς ἐστιν. ὃ 
μὲν γὰρ ὑποσήπεται, ἐκ δὲ τοῦ μυελοῦ ἐκπέτονται 
οἱ θῆρες οὗτοι, ὠκίστου ζῴου. πτηνὰ ἔκγονα, τοῦ 
ἵππου οἱ σφῆκες. 

29. Αἱμύλον ζῷον καὶ ἐοικὸς ταῖς φαρμακίσιν ἡ 
~ \ “A 
γλαῦξ. Kal πρώτους μὲν αἱρεῖ τοὺς ὀρνιθοθήρας 

? / ~ \ 
ἡρημένη. περιάγουσι γοῦν αὐτὴν ὡς παιδικὰ ἢ 

καὶ νὴ “Δία περίαπτα ἐπὶ τῶν ὦὥμων. καὶ νύκτωρ 
μὲν αὐτοῖς ἀγρυπνεῖ καὶ τῇ φωνῇ οἷονεί τινι 
ἐπαοιδῇ γοητείας ὑπεσπαρμένης αἱμύλου τε καὶ 
θελκτικῆς τοὺς ὄρνιθας ἕλκει καὶ καθίζει πλησίον 
ἑαυτῆς" ἤδη δὲ καὶ ἐν ἡμέρᾳ θήρατρα ἕτερα τοῖς 
ὄρνισι προσείει μωκωμένη καὶ ἄλλοτε ἄλλην ἰδέαν 
προσώπου στρέφουσα, ὑφ᾽ ὧν κηλοῦνται ὅ καὶ 
παραμένουσιν ἐνεοὶ 6 πάντες ὄρνιθες, ἡρημένοι δέει 
καὶ μάλα γε ἰσχυρῷ ἐξ ὧν ἐκείνη μορφάζξει. 

1 Reiske: o. ὁ πόλεμος. 2 <dhAas> add. H. 



nN tt EES ELLER A δεν a a Fat ON ne δὴν 


ON ANIMALS, 1. 26-29 

but each for its own mate, just as Menelaus fought 
for his wife with Paris. 

27. The Octopus feeds first on one thing and then 
on another, for it is terribly greedy and for ever 
plotting some evil, the reason being that it is the 
most omnivorous of all sea-animals. The proof of 
this is that, should it fail to catch anything, it eats 
its own tentacles, and by filling its stomach so, finds 
a remedy for the lack of prey. Later it renews its 
missing limb, Nature seeming to provide this as a 
ready meal in times of famine. | 

28. A horse’s carease is the breeding-place of The Wasp, 
Wasps. For as the carcase rots, these creatures fly generated Ὁ 

out of the marrow: the swiftest of animals begets 
winged offspring: the horse, Wasps. 

99. The Owl is a wily creature and resembles a The Ow! 

witch. And when captured, it begins by capturing 
its hunters. And so they carry it about like a pet 
or (I declare) like a charm on their shoulders. By 
night it keeps watch for them and with its call that 
sounds like some incantation it diffuses a subtle, 
soothing enchantment, thereby attracting birds to 
settle near it. And even in the daytime it dangles 
before the birds another kind of lure to make fools of 
them, putting on a different expression at different 
times; and all the birds are spell-bound and remain 
stupefied and seized with terror, and a mighty terror 
too, at these transformations. 
| | 

3 <4> add. H. 4 καὶ τοῦτο. 

5 αἱροῦνται. 5. Hemst: ot νέοι. 







APSA eS thaadndn shinee cs 





30. Ὃ λάβραξ Kapidos ἥττηται, Kai εἴη adv, ἵνα 
T καὶ παΐσας εἴπω, ἰχθύων ὀψοφαγίστατος. 
οὐκοῦν ἕλειοι ὄντες τὰς ἑλείους ἐλλοχῶσιν. εἰσὶ 
γὰρ τῷ γένει τριτταί: καὶ αἱ μὲν αὐτῶν οἵας 
προεῖπον, at δὲ ἐκ φυκίων, πετραῖαί γε μὴν at 
τρίται. ἀμύνεσθαι δὲ αὐτοὺς ἀδυνατοῦσαι αἱροῦν- 
ται συναποθνήσκειν. καὶ τό γε σόφισμα εἰπεῖν 
οὐκ ὀκνήσω αὐτῶν. ὅταν γοῦν αἴσθωνται λαμβανό- 
μεναι, τὸ ἐξέχον τῆς κεφαλῆς (ἔοικε δὲ τριήρους 
ἐμβόλῳ καὶ μάλα γε ὀξεῖ, καὶ ἄλλως ἐντομὰς ἔχει 
δίκην πριόνος) τοῦτο τοίνυν at γενναῖαι σοφῶς 
ἐπιστρέψασαι πηδῶσί τε καὶ ἀναθόρνυνται κοῦφα 
καὶ ἁλτικά. κέχηνε δὲ ὁ λάβραξ μέγα, καὶ ἔστιν 
οὗ τὰ τῆς δέρης ἁπαλά. οὐκοῦν 6 μὲν συλλαβὼν 
τὴν καρίδα καμοῦσαν οἴεται δεῦπνον ἕξειν, ἡ δὲ ἐν 
ἐξουσίᾳ τε καὶ εὐρυχωρίᾳ σκιρτᾷ τῆς φάρυγγος ὡς 
ἂν εἴποις καταχορεύουσα' εἶτα ἐμπήγνυται τῷ 
δειλαίΐῳ θηρατῇ τὰ κέντρα, καὶ ἑλκοῦταί of τὰ 
ἔνδον καὶ ἀνοιδήσαντα αἷμα ἐκβάλλει πολὺ καὶ 
ἀποπνίγει, καὶ καινότατα δήπου ἀποκτείνασα 

91. ᾽Ονύχων ἀκμαῖς καὶ ὀδόντων διατομαῖς θαρ- 
ροῦσι καὶ ἄρκτοι καὶ λύκοι καὶ πάρδοι καὶ λέοντες" 
τὴν δὲ ὕστριχα ἀκούω ταῦτα μὲν οὐκ ἔχειν, οὐ 
μὴν ὅπλων ὑπὸ τῆς φύσεως ἀμυντηρίων ἀπολε- 
λεῖφθαι ἐρήμην. τοῖς γοῦν ἐπιοῦσιν ἐπὶ λύμῃ 
τὰς ἄνωθεν τρίχας οἱονεὶ βέλη ἐκπέμπει, καὶ 
εὐστόχως βάλλει πολλάκις, τὰ νῶτα φρίξασα" 


¢ YY ? ‘ , 2. αὶ 
Va. οι εἴπω) cl Καὶ ΠΤαιϊσαξς ἐρὼ. 

καὶ μέγα. 


Ser Sorte ana nscegteiienternrettonnenatcie 

ON ANIMALS, I. 30-31 

30. The Basse is a victim of the Prawn and is in- 
clined to be (if I may be allowed the jest) the greatest 
gourmet among fish. So being lake-dwellers they 

lie in wait for the lake Prawns. These are of three 

kinds: the first are such as J have already mentioned ; 
the second subsist on seaweed, while the third kind 
live on the rocks. Being incapable of self-defence 
against the Basse, they prefer to die along with it. 

‘And I shall not hesitate to use the word ‘ stratagem’ 

ofthem. For instance, directly they realise that they 
are being caught, these precious creatures adroitly 
turn outwards the projecting portion of their head, 
which resembles the beak of a trireme and is exceed- 
ingly sharp and has moreover notches in it-like a 
saw, and spring and leap lightly and nimbly about. 

But the Basse opens its mouth wide, and the flesh 

of its throat is tender. So the Basse seizes the 
exhausted Prawn and fancies is going to 
make a meal of it. The Prawn however in this 

ample space gambols about and dances in triumph, 

so to say, over the Basse’s throat. Then it plants its 
spikes in its unfortunate pursuer, whose inward 
parts are thereby lacerated, so that they swell up 
and discharge much blood and choke the Basse, until 
in most novel fashion the slayer is himself slain. 

31. Strength of claws and sharpness of fangs make 

bears, wolves, leopards, and lions bold, whereas the 

Porcupine, which (I am told) has not these advan- 

_tages, none the less has not been left by Nature 

destitute of weapons wherewith to defend itself. 
For instance, against those who would attack it with 
intent to harm it discharges the hairs on its body, 

like javelins, and. raising the bristles on its back, 


Basse and 

The — 


ee a 4 > f 
καὶ ἐκεῖναί ye πηδῶσιν, ὥσπερ οὖν ἔκ τινος 
"3 “~ 
ἀφειμέναι νευρᾶς. 

2. Ἦ δεινὸν κακὸν καὶ νόσημα ἄγριον ἔχθρα 
καὶ μῖσος συμφυές, εἴπερ οὖν καὶ τοῖς ἀλόγοις 
ἐντέτηκε καὶ αὐτοῖς ἐστι δυσέκνιπτα. μύραινα 
γοῦν πολύποδα “μισεῖ, καὶ πολύπους καράβῳ πολέ- 
μιος, καὶ, μυραίνῃ κάραβος ἔχθιστός ἐ ἐστι. μύραινα 
μὲν γὰρ ταῖς ἀκμαῖς τῶν ὀδόντων τὰς πλεκτάνας 
τῷ πολύποδι διακόπτει, εἶτα “μέντοι καὶ ἐς τὴν 
γαστέρα ἐσδῦσα αὐτῷ τὰ αὐτὰ δρᾷ, καὶ εἰκότως" 
ἡ μὲν γὰρ νηκτική, ὃ δὲ ἐ ἔοικεν ἕρποντι: εἰ δὲ καὶ 
τρέποιτο τὴν χρόαν κατὰ τὰς πέτρας, ἔοικεν αὐτῷ 
τὸ σόφισμα συμφέρειν + οὐδὲ ἕν τοῦτο' ἔστι γὰρ 
συνιδεῖν ἐκείνη δεινὴ τοῦ ξῴου τὸ παλάμημα. 
τούς γε “μὴν καράβους αὐτοὶ = συλλαβόντες ἐς 
πνῖγμα, ὅταν νεκροὺς ἐργάσωνται, τὰ κρέα ἐκμυ- 
ζῶσιν αὐτῶν. κέρατα δὲ τὰ ἑαυτοῦ ὁ κάραβος 
ἀνεγείρας καὶ θυμωθεὶς ἐς αὐτά, προκαλεῖται μύ- 
ραιναν οὐκοῦν ἡ μὲν τοῦ ἀντιπάλου τὰ κέντρα, 
ὅσα οἱ προβέβληται, ταῦτα οὐκ ἐννοοῦσα κατα- 
δάκνει: ὃ δὲ τὰς χηλὰς οἷονεὶ χεῖρας προτείνας, 
τῆς δέρης παρ᾽ ἑκάτερα ἐγκρατῶς ἐχόμενος οὐ 
μεθίησιν: ἡ δὲ ἀσχάλλει καὶ ἑαυτὴν ἑλίττει καὶ 
περιβάλλει τῶν ὀστράκων ταῖς ἀκμαῖς, ὧνπερ οὖν 
ἐς αὐτὴν πηγνυμένων μαλκίει * τε καὶ ἀπαγορεύει, 
Kat τελευτῶσα παρειμένη κεῖται: 6 δὲ τὴν 
ἀντίπαλον ποιεῖται δεῖπνον. 

3. Triller: αἱρεῖν. 
2 αὐτοί corrupt, H. 
3 uw. Kal ὡς εἶναι κατὰ γυναῖκα ὠργισμένην. 


ON ANIMALS, I. 31-32 

frequently makes a good shot. And these hairs leap 

forth as though sped from a bowstring. 

32. Enmity and inborn hate are a truly terrible Mutual 
affliction and a cruel disease when once they have yous,” 
sunk deep into the heart even of brute beasts, and snd Gr a 
nothing can purge them away. For instance, the ἡ 
Moray loathes the Octopus, and the Octopus is the 
enemy of the Crayfish, and to the Moray the Cray- 
fish is most hostile. The Moray with its sharp teeth 
cuts through the tentacles of the Octopus, and then Moray and 
boring into its stomach does the same thing—and °?"s 
very properly, for the Moray swims, while the 
Octopus is like some creeping thing. And even 
though it changes its colour to that of the rocks, 
even this artifice seems to avail it nothing, for the 
Moray is quick to perceive the creature's stratagem. 

As to the Crayfish, the Octopuses strangle them Octopus an 
with their grip, and when they have succeeded in ~~ ue 
killing them, they suck out their flesh. But against 
the Moray the Crayfish raises its horns and with Morey and 
fury in them challenges it. Thereupon the Moray “%** 
imprudently tries to bite the prickles which its 
adversary has thrust forward in self-defence. But 
the Crayfish reaches out its claws like two hands, and 
clinging firmly to the Moray’s throat on either side, 
never relaxes its hold, while the Moray in its distress 
writhes and transfixes itself on the points of the Cray- 
fish’s shell; and as these are planted in it, it grows ᾽ 
numb and gives up the struggle, finally sinking in’ 
exhaustion. And the Crayfish makes.a meal off its 

4 μαλακιεῖ. 


, 38. Τὴν μύραιναν ᾿ τὸν ἰχθὺν τρέφει τὰ πελάγη. 
ὅταν δὲ αὐτὴν τὸ δίκτυον περιλάβῃ, διανήχεται 
καὶ ζητεῖ ἢ βρόχον ἀραιὸν ἢ ῥῆγμα τοῦ δικτύου 
πάνυ σοφῶς: καὶ ἐντυχοῦσα τούτων τινὶ καὶ διεκ- 
δῦσα ἐλευθέρα νήχεται αὖθις: εἰ δὲ τύχοι μία 

- - > , \ ¢ “. ~ 
τῆσδε τῆς εὐερμίας, καὶ at λοιπαὶ ὅσαι τοῦ αὐτοῦ 

] | 

γένους συνεαλώκασι κατὰ τὴν ἐκείνης φυγὴν 
e «Q 7 “~ 

ἐξίασιν, ws ὅδόν τινα λαβοῦσαι παρ᾽ ἡγεμόνος. 

84, Τὴν σηπίαν ὅταν μέλλωσιν αἱρεῖν ὃ ot τούτων 
ἀγαθοὶ θηραταί, συνεῖσα ἐκείνη παρῆκε τὸ ἐξ ἑαυ- 
τῆς ἀπόσφαγμα," καὶ καταχεῖται ἑαυτῆς, καὶ περι- 
λαμβάνει καὶ ἀφανίζει πᾶσαν, καὶ κλέπτεται τὴν 

yw ¢ ¢ 
ὄψιν ὃ ἁλιεύς: καὶ ἡ μὲν ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ἐστιν, 6 δὲ οὐχ 

¢ nw o~ ~ 

ὁρᾷ. τοιοῦτόν τι καὶ τῷ Αἰνείᾳ νέφος περιβαλὼν 
4 3 ~ 

ἠπάτησε τὸν ᾿Αχιλλέα ὁ Ποσειδῶν, ws” Ὅμηρος λέγει. 

35. Βασκάνων ὀφθαλμοὺς καὶ γοήτων φυλάτ- 
τεται καὶ τῶν ζῴων τὰ ἄλογα φύσει τινὶ ἀπορρήτῳ 
καὶ θαυμαστῇ. ἀκούω γοῦν ὃ βασκανίας ἀμυντή- 
ρίον τὰς. φάττας δάφνης κλωνία ἀποτραγούσας 
λεπτὰ εἶτα μέντοι ταῖς ἑαυτῶν καλιαῖς ἐντιθέναι 
τῶν νεοττίων φειδοῖ" ἰκτῖνοι δὲ ῥάμνον, κίρκοι δὲ 
πικρίδα, αἵ γε μὴν τρυγόνες τὸν τῆς ἴρεως καρπόν, 
ἄγνον δὲ κόρακες, οὗ δὲ ἔποπες τὸ ἀδίαντον, ὅπερ 
οὖν καὶ καλλίτριχον καλοῦσί τινες, ἀριστερεῶνα δὲ 
κορώνη, καὶ κιττὸν ἅρπη, καρκίνον δὲ ἐρῳδιός, 

1 Ges: σφύ a Ἵ 
3 Reise? Une “λαμβάνειν. eee 
4 ὑπόσφαγμα H, cp. Hippon. 24(D?). 5 "οὖν. 

4 The genus picris embraces a wide variety of plants; it 
may here signify ox-tongue or chicory or endive or Urospermum 


ON ANIMALS, I. 33-35 

33. The fish known as the Moray lives in the sea, The Moray 

and when the net encircles it, it swims hither and 
thither, seeking with great cleverness some weak 
mesh or some rent in the net. And when it has 
found such a place, it slips through and swims free 
once again. And if one of them has this good for- 
tune, all the others of its kind that have been caught 
along with it escape in the same way, as though 
taking their direction from a leader. | 

34. Whenever fishermen who are skilled in these The 

matters plan to catch a Cuttlefish, the fish on realising 
this emits the ink from its body, pours it over itself 
and envelops itself so as to be entirely invisible. 
The fisherman’s sight is deceived : though the fish is 
within view, he does not see it. It was by veiling 
Aeneas in such a cloud that Poseidon tricked Achilles, 
according to Homer [1]. 20. 321-]. | 

35, Even brute beasts protect themselves against 
the eyes of sorcerers and wizards by some inexplic- 
able and marvellous gift of Nature. For instance, I 
am told that as a charm against sorcery ring-doves 
nibble off the fine shoots of the bay-tree, and then 
insert them in their nests as a protection for their. 
young. Kites take buck-thorn, falcons picris, * while 
turtle-doves take the fruit ® of the iris, ravens the 
agnus-castus tree, but hoopoes maidenhair fern, 
which some call ‘lovely hair’; the crow takes 
veryain, the shearwater ¢ ivy, the heron a crab, the 

> From Thphr. HP 8. 3. 4 ‘it appears that the buds of the 
poplar were mistaken for fruit,’ Hort ad loc. So here perhaps 

καρπός should be understood as the bud of the iris. 
¢* "Anan... prob. shearwater, L-S?; but the meaning 

is quite uncertain, cp. 12. 4. 


Birds and 
their pro- 

ΟΣ ΚΔ): ον δεν OS EOE Ae Ae a a SA 


πέρδιξ δὲ καλάμου φόβην, θαλλὸν δὲ αἱ κίνλα 
; ; ν, at κίχλ 
μυρρίνης. προβάλλεται δὲ καὶ κόρυδος i ee 

1 4 
ἄετοι 1 <de>*® τὸν λίθον, ὅσπερ οὖν ἐξ αὐτῶν. 

5 7 , f 

ἀετίτης κέκληται. λέγεται δὲ οὗτος ὃ λίθος καὶ 

γυναιξὶ κυοῦσαις ἀγαθὸν εἶναι, ταῖς ἀμβλώσεσι 

πολέμιος ὦν. 

36. Ὁ ἰχθὺς ἡ νάρκη ὅτου ἃ 
᾿ ς ἡ νά ὲ Lehn? 
ae ἰχθῦς ἢ νάρκη ὅτου dy καὶ προσάψηται 
Ὡ αὐτῆς ὄνομα ἔδωκέ τε καὶ ναρκᾶν ἐποίησεν 
\ ~ ‘ 
ἡ ἐᾷ ἐχενηὶς ἐπέχει τὰς ναῦς, καὶ ἐξ οὗ ποιεῖ 
καλοῦμεν αὐτήν. j ἐ ἀλκυό 
oi de Ὁ ὦ ἣν. κυούσης δὲ ἁλκυόνος ἵσταται 
a δως ἄγη εἰρήνην δὲ καὶ φιλίαν ἄγουσιν 
. Κύει Ὁ 0 
: ᾿ , Κύει Oe ἄρα χειμῶνος μεσοῦντος, καὶ 
Ἰ 5. ἢ τοῦ ἀέρος γαλήνη δίδωσιν εὐημερίαν, καὶ 
ἀλκυονείας * τηνικάδε τῆς ὥρας & ἡμέ 
πὰ ΟΣ é js wpas ἄγομεν ἡμέρας. 
Xvos ve Λύκου πατεῖ κατὰ τύχην ἵππος, καὶ νάρκη 
> 7+ r 
περιείληφεν αὐτόν. εἰ δὲ ὑπορρίψειας ἀστράγαλον 
ὕκου τετρώρῳ * θέοντι, τὸ δὲ ὡς πεπηγὸς ἑστήξε- 
ται, τῶν ἵππων τὸν ἀστράγαλον ΐ 
New Be bo pay πατησάντων. 
: ὕλλοις πρίνου τὸ ἴχνος ἐπιβάλλει, καὶ 
φ } ᾿ 
ναρκᾷ' .. .° δὲ καὶ 6 λύκος, εἰ καὶ ud 
σπελάσειε πετήλ ns. eae 
τῷ “πετήλοις σκίλλης. ταῦτά τοι καὶ αἱ 
λώπεκες ῷ Tas evvas τῶν λύκων ἐμβάλλουσι, καὶ 
εἰκότως" id ‘ ‘ 3 >A 3 ͵ : 
i διὰ γὰρ τὴν ἐξ αὐτῶν ἐπιβουλὴν νοοῦσιν 
ἔχθιστα αὐτοῖς. 

e 4 | 
37. rs πελαργοὶ λυμαινομένας αὐτῶν τὰ φὰ τὰς 
νυκτερίδας ἀμύνονται πάνυ σοφῶς" αἱ μὲν γὰρ 
1 αἰετοί MSS always. | 
2 (δέ) add. Jac. 
4 ὧν 
| εὐημ. καὶ ἀλκ.] σωτηρίαν ἀλκυονίας. 
Jac: καὶ τετρώρῳ. | 



ON ANIMALS, I. 35-37 

partridge the hairy head of a reed, thrushes a sprig 
of myrtle. The lark protects itself with dog’s-tooth 
grass; eagles take the stone which is called after 
them aétite (eagle-stone). This stone is also said to 
be good for women in pregnancy, as a preventive of 


36. The fish known as Torpedo produces the effect The |, 
implied in its name on whatever it touches and 
makes it ‘torpid’ or numb. And the Sucking-fish 
clings to ships, and from its action we give it its 
name, Ship-holder. | 

While the Halcyon is sitting, the sea is still and the The 
winds are at peace and amity. It lays its eggs about “*°™" 
mid-winter; nevertheless, the sky is calm and brings | 
fine weather, and it is at this season of the year that 
we enjoy ‘ haleyon days.’ 3 

If a horse chance to tread on the footprint of a Objects 
Wolf, it is at once seized with numbness. If you Dea 
throw the vertebra of a Wolf beneath a four-horse 
team in motion, it will come to a stand as though 
frozen, owing to the horses having trodden upon the 
vertebra. Ifa Lion put his paw upon the leaves of an 
ilex, he goes numb. <And the same thing happens 
to) a Wolf, should he even come near the leaves of a 
squill. And that is why foxes throw these leaves 
into the dens of Wolves, and with good reason, 
because their hostility is due to the Wolves’ designs’ 

upon them. 

37, Storks have a very clever device for warding Prophyl- ὦ 
off the bats that would damage their eggs: one by birds. 

5. Lacuna: ναρκᾷ πατῶν δὲ MSS, <vapka> Jac, ζὁμοίως» Η. 


ον hon bt ean heen 



? , > A \ 
προσαψάμεναι μόνον ἀνεμιαῖα ἐργάξονται καὶ 
ἄγονα αὐτά. οὐκοῦν τὸ ἐπὶ τού ἕρμακον 

y . οὐκοῦν τὸ ἐπὶ τούτοις φάρμακον 

3 a + > 
ἐκεῖνό ἐστι. πλατάνου φύλλα ἐπιφέρουσι ταῖς 

mAh δ 4 é @ n~ 5 
καλιαῖς" at δὲ νυκτερίδες ὅταν αὐτοῖς γειτνιάσωσι, 
᾿ - ᾿ , - , 
ναρκῶσι καὶ γίνονται λυπεῖν ἀδύνατοι. δῶρον δὲ 

“ἢ e , 7 a 
apa ἡ φύσις Kat ταῖς yeAddow ἔδωκεν οἷον. af 

σίλφαι καὶ τούτων τὰ Wa ἀδικοῦσιν. οὐκοῦν af 
μητέρες σελίνου κόμην προβάλλονται τῶν βρεφῶν, 
καὶ ἐκείναις τὸ ἐντεῦθεν aBard ἐστι. πολύποσι δὲ 
εἴ τις ἐπιβάλοι : πήγανον, ἀκίνητοι μένουσιν, ὡς 
λέγει τις λόγος. ὄφεως δὲ εἰ καθίκοιο καλάμῳ, 
μετὰ τὴν πρώτην πληγὴν ἀτρεμεῖ. καὶ νάρκῃ ? 
πεδηθεὶς ἡσυχάζει: εἰ δὲ ἐπαγάγοις 8 δευτέραν ἢ 
τρίτην, ἀνέρρωσας αὐτόν. καὶ μύραινα δὲ πληγεῖσα 
νάρθηκι ἐς ἅπαξ ἡσυχάζει: εἰ δὲ πλεονάκις, ἐς 
θυμὸν ἐξάπτεται. λέγουσι δὲ ἁλιεῖς καὶ πολύποδας 

> + Dae “ wf 3 ’ - 
ἐς τὴν γῆν προϊέναι, ἐλαίας θαλλοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς ἠόνος. 

’ὔ ὔ 4 > > 
κειμένου. θηρίων δὲ ἀλεξιφάρμακον ἦν dpa πάν- 
7 ἃ 2 ᾿ ; Ἢ 
των πιμελὴ ἐλέφαντος, ἣν εἴ τις ἐπιχρίσαιτο, καὶ εἰ 
“~ > 7 
γυμνὸς ὁμόσε χωροΐη τοῖς ἀγριωτάτοις, ἀσινὴς 

38. ᾿Ορρωδεῖ ὁ ἐλέφας κεράστην κριὸν καὶ χοί- 
ρου βοήν. οὕτω ty καὶ “ i ss σὺν 
οὐ βοήν. οὕτω τοι, φασί, καὶ “Ῥωμαῖοι τοὺς σὺν 
Πύρρῳ τῷ Ηπειρώτῃ ἐτρέψαντο ἐλέφαντας, καὶ 
iy vikn ody Tols Ῥωμαίοις λαμπρῶς ἐγένετο. 
γυναικὸς <de>* ὡραίας τόδε τὸ ζῷον ἡττᾶται καὶ 
: ἐπιβάλλει. ο 3 τῇ γάρκῃ. ᾿ 
τ Πρ ἢ ἐπάγοις. ᾿  φδέΣ add. H. - 
“© Ld (vedere “ odckroach’ ‘in’ 1.159) here “vrobat 
ἢ Liddy (rende - ere probabl 
signifies. the dipterous insect Stenopteryx ἡ: “Most 



ON ANIMALS, I. 37-38 

touch from the bats turns them to wind-eggs and 
makes them infertile. Accordingly, this is the 
remedy they use to prevent this happening. They 
lay the leaves of a plane-tree upon their nests, and. 
directly the bats come near the storks, they are 
benumbed and become incapable of doing harm. 
On: swallows too Nature has bestowed a like gift: 
cockroaches* injure their eggs. Therefore the 
mother-birds protect their chicks with celery leaves, 
and hence the cockroaches cannot reach them. If 
one throws some rue upon an octopus it remains Effect of 
immobile—so the story goes. If you touch a snake ἀρότου 
with a reed, it will after the first stroke remain still, Sete 
and in the grip of numbness will lie quiet; if how- 
ever you repeat the stroke a second or a third 
time, you at once revive its strength. The moray 
too, if struck once with a fennel wand, lies still 
the first time; but if struck several times, its anger 
is kindled. Fisherfolk assert that even octopuses 
come ashore if a sprig of olive is laid upon the 
beach. : 

It seems that the fat of an elephant is a remedy Blephant’s 
against the poisons of all savage creatures, and if a i 
man rub some on his body, even though he encounter 
unarmed the very fiercest, he will escape unscathed. 

38 (i). The Elephant has a terror of a horned ram The 
and of the squealing ofapig. It was by these means, oo 
they say, that the Romans turned to flight the perfumes 
elephants of Pyrrhus of Epirus, and that the Romans 

won a glorious victory. This same animal is over- 

of the known Hippoboscidae live on birds and are apparently 
specially fond of the Swallow tribe. They are all winged.’ 
D. Sharp, Insects, 519 (Camb. Nat. Hist. 6). a 


yy e ἣν is ses 



: ᾽ ~ “- 
παραλύεται τοῦ θυμοῦ ἐκκωφωθὲν 1 ἐς τὸ κάλλος... 

καὶ ἀντήρα φασὶν ἐν τῇ Αἰγυπτίᾳ ᾿Αλεξάνδρου 
πόλει γυναικὸς στεφάνους πλεκούσης ᾿Αριστοφάνει 
τῷ Βυζαντίῳ ἐλέφας.3 ἀγαπᾷ δὲ 6 αὐτὸς καὶ 
εὐωδίαν πᾶσαν, καὶ μύρων καὶ ἀνθέων κηλούμενος 
τῇ ὀσμῇ. , : 
Οστις βούλεται κλὼψ ἢ λῃστὴς κύνας ἄγαν 
ἀγριωτάτους κατασιγάσαι καὶ θεῖναι φυγάδας, ἐκ 
πυρᾶς ἀνθρώπου δαλὸν λαβὼν ὁμόσε αὐτοῖς χωρεῖ, 
φασίν. οἱ δὲ ὀρρωδοῦσιν. ἀκήκοα δὲ καὶ ἐκεῖνον 
τὸν λόγον. λυκοσπάδα οἷν πέξας {τις »5 καὶ ἐριουρ- 
γήσας καὶ χιτῶνα ἐργασάμενος λυπεῖ τὸν ἠσθημέ- 
νον" ὀδαξησμὸν γὰρ ἐργάζεται, ὡς λόγος. ἔριν 
δὲ εἴ τις καὶ στάσιν ἐθέλοι ἐν τῷ συνδείπνῳ 
ἐργάσασθαι, δηχθέντα ὑπὸ κυνὸς λίθον ἐμβαλὼν 
τῷ οἴνῳ λυπεῖ τοὺς συμπότας ἐκμαίνων. κανθά- 
pots δὲ κακόσμοις θηρίοις εἴ τις ἐπιρράνειε 4 
μύρου, οἱ δὲ τὴν εὐωδίαν οὐ φέρουσιν, ἀλλ᾽ 
ἀποθνήσκουσιν. οὕτω τοί φασι καὶ τοὺς βυρσο- 
δέψας συντραφέντας ἀέρι κακῷ βδελύττεσθαι 
μύρον. λέγουσι δὲ Αἰγύπτιοι καὶ τοὺς ὄφεις 
πάντας ἴβεων πτερὰ δεδιέναι. 

“~ \ rg 
39. Θηρῶσι τὰς τρυγόνας of ® τούτων ἀκρι- 

~ 4 4 4 / ~ ? 
᾿βοῦντες τὰ θήρατρα, καὶ μάλιστα τῆς πείρας οὐ 

i 4 ~ 
διαμαρτάνουσι τὸν τρόπον τοῦτον. ἑστήκασιν dp~ 

: ΘΕ ἐκκωφωθείς. 2 6 ἐλέφας.. 
Ν kris» add. Η. : 4 ἐπιρράναι, 

ε 7 
οι καὶ. © 

_ # Aristophanes of Byzantium, 3rd/2nd cent. Β.0., head of 
the library at Alexandria, famous as grammarian, ireerary nad 


ON ANIMALS, I. 38-39 

come by beauty in a woman and lays aside its tem- 
per, quite stunned by the lovely sight. And at 
Alexandria in Egypt, they say, an Elephant was the 
rival of Aristophanes of Byzantium ὦ for the love of 
a woman who was engaged in making garlands. 
The Elephant also loves every kind of fragrance and 
is fascinated by the scent of perfumes and of flowers. 

(ii) If some thief or robber wants to silence dogs How to 
that are too fierce and to make them run away, he ie 
takes a brand from a funeral pyre (they say) and 
goes for them. The dogs are terrified. I have 
heard too this story: if a man shears a sheep that 
has been mauled by a wolf, and after working the 
wool makes himself ἃ tunic, this will irritate him Aidehaey 
when he puts it on. ‘He is weaving a gnawing itch 
for himself,’ as the proverb has it. 

(iii) If a man wants to bring about a quarrel] and Quarrel at 
contention at a dinner-party, he will by dropping ΡΝ; 
into the wine a stone that a dog has bitten, vex his 
fellow-guests to the point of frenzy. 

(iv) If a man sprinkle some perfume upon beetles, Scents 
which are ill-smelling creatures, they cannot endure eerie 
the sweet scent, but die. In the same way it is said 
that tanners, who live all their life in foul air, detest 
perfumes. And the Egyptians maintain that all 

snakes dread the feathers of the ibis. . 

39. Those who have a thorough understanding of The Sting- 
the matter hunt Sting-rays,’ and it is chiefly in this ΤΕΥ 

way that their efforts are successful. They take their 

textual critic, especially in the field of Greek poetry. Wrote 
an epitome of natural history based upon Aristotle; it in- 

cluded ‘ paradoxa.’ 
ὃ Cp. 17. 18; τρυγών must here stand for τ. θαλαττία. 



, " Ἢ ᾿ ~ 
χούμενοι Kat ἄδοντες εὖ μάλα μουσικῶς: αἱ δὲ 

καὶ τῇ ἀκοῇ θέλγονται καὶ τῇ ὄψει τῆς ὀρχήσεως 
κηλοῦνται καὶ προσίασιν ἐγγυτέρω. οἱ δὲ ὑπανα- 
χωροῦσιν ἡσυχῆ καὶ βάδην, ἔνθα δήπου καὶ ὃ 
δόλος ταῖς δειλαίαις πρόκειται, δίκτυα ἐκπεπτα- 
μένα 1- εἶτα ἐμπίπτουσιν ἐς αὐτὰ καὶ ἁλίσκονται, 
ὀρχήσει καὶ δῇ ἡρημέναι πρῶτον. 

; 40. “Opxuvos ὄνομα κητώδης ἰχθὺς οὐκ ἄσοφος 
ἐς τὰ αὑτοῦ λυσιτελέστατα, δῶρον λαχὼν φύσει 
τοῦτο, οὐ τέχνῃ. ὅτὰν γοῦν περιπαρῇ τῷ ayKio~ 
Tew, καταδύει αὑτὸν és βυθὸν καὶ ὠθεῖ. καὶ 
προσαράττει τῷ δαπέδῳ καὶ κρούει τὸ στόμα, 
ἐκβαλεῖν τὸ ἄγκιστρον ἐθέλων: εἰ δὲ ἀδύνατον 
τοῦτο εἴη," εὐρύνει 8 τὸ τραῦμα, καὶ ἐκπτύεται τὸ 

λυποῦν αὐτὸν καὶ ἐξάλλεται. πολλάκις δὲ οὐκ᾿ 

3 “~ / Δ ¢ 
ETUXE τῆς πείρας, Kat ὃ θηρατὴς ἄκοντα ἀνασπάσας 

ἔχει τὴν ἄγραν. 

41. Δειλότατος ἰχθύων ὃ μελάνουρος, καὶ ἔχει 

ON ANIMALS, I. 39-41 

_stand and dance and sing very sweetly. And the 

Sting-rays are soothed by the sound and are charmed © 
by the dancing and draw nearer, while the men with- 
draw gently step by step to the spot where of course 
the snare is set for the wretched creatures, namely 
nets spread out. Then the Sting-rays fall into them 
and are caught, betrayed in the first instance by 
the dancing and singing. 

40. The Great Tunny, as it is called, is a monstrous The Great 
fish and knows well what is best for it. This gift it ame 

has acquired by nature and not by art. For instance, 
when the hook has pierced it, it dives to the bottom 

and thrusts and dashes itself against the ground, 

striking its mouth in its effort to eject the hook. If 
that fails, it widens the wound and disgorges the 
instrument of pain and dashes away. Frequently 
however it fails in the attempt, and the fisherman 
draws up the reluctant creature and secures his catch. 

41. The Melanurus is the most timid of fishes, and The 

* Melanurus’? 

τῆς δειλίας μάρτυρας τοὺς ἁλιεῖς. οὔτε γοῦν 
to its timidity fishermen bear witness, for it is not (black-tail) 

a 7 a. ᾿ αν 
κύρτῳ λαμβάνονται οὗτοι, οὔτε προσίασιν αὐτῷ" 

σαγήνη δὲ εἴ ποτε αὐτοὺς περιλάβοι,,2 of δὲ 
ἀγνοοῦντες ἑαλώκασι. καὶ ὅταν μὲν ἢ ὑπεύδια καὶ 
λεία ἡ θάλαττα, οἱ δὲ ἄρα κάτω που πρὸς ταῖς 
πέτραις ἢ τοῖς φυκίοις ἡσυχάζουσι, καὶ προβάλ- 
Aovrat πᾶν 6 τι δύνανται, τὸ σῶμα ἀφανίζοντες. 
ἐὰν δὲ ἢ χειμέρια, τοὺς ἄλλους δρῶντες καταδύν- 
τας. ἐκ τῆς τῶν κυμάτων προσβολῆς ἐς τὸν βυθόν, 
2 Schn: ἧ. 

4 περιβάλοι. 

ἕ bi 
1 ἐκπεπετασμένα. 
3 εὐρύνει οὖν. 



caught in weels nor does it go near them; but if by 
chance a dragnet encircles it, then it is caught 
without knowing it. And whenever the sea is fairly 
calm and smooth, these fish lie quiet down below 
upon the rocks or among the seaweed and cover 
themselves as best they can, trying to conceal their 
bodies. But if the weather is stormy, observing 
other fish diving to the depths out of the buffeting 
waves, they take courage and approach the shore, 



ot δὲ ἀναθαρροῦσι,ἷ Kal τῇ γῇ προσπελάζουσι, καὶ 
ταῖς πέτραις προσνέουσι, καὶ ἡγοῦνταί σῴισι 
πρόβλημα ἱκανὸν εἶναι τὸν ὑπερνηχόμενον ἀφρὸν 
καλύπτοντά τε αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐπηλυγάζοντα. συνιᾶσι 
δὲ εὖ μάλα ἀπορρήτως ὅτι τοῖς ἁλιεῦσιν ἐν ἡμέρᾳ 
τοίᾳ ἢ νυκτὶ ἐς τὴν θάλαττάν ἐστιν ἄβατα, ἀγριαι- 
νούσης τῆς θαλάττης (καὶ " τῶν κυμάτων αἰρο- 
μένων μετεώρων τε καὶ φοβερῶν. ἔχουσι δὲ καὶ 
τροφὴν ἐν χειμῶνι, τοῦ κλύδωνος τὰ μὲν ἀ ἀποσπῶν- 
τος ἐκ τῶν πετρῶν, τὰ δὲ ἐ ἐπισύροντος ἐκ τῆς γῆς" 
σιτοῦνται δὲ μελάνουροι τὰ ῥυπαρώτερα καὶ ὅσα 
οὐκ ἂν ῥᾳδίως ἰχθὺς ἄλλος ἂν πάσαιτο, εἰ μὴ πάνυ 

λιμῷ πιέζοιτο. ἐν γαλήνῃ δὲ ἐπὶ τῆς ἄμμου 

, : 7 3 “a 
μόνης σαλεύουσι,3 καὶ ἐκεῖθεν βόσκονται. ὅπως δὲ 
ξ a 
ἁλίσκονται, ἐρεῖ ἄλλος. 

42. "Aeros δὲ ὀρνίθων ὀξυωπέστατος. καὶ “Ὅμη- 
ρος αὐτῷ σύνοιδε καὶ τοῦτο, καὶ μαρτυρεῖ ἐν τῇ 
“Πατροκλείᾳ, εἰκάζων τὸν Μενέλεων τῷ ὄρνιθι, ὅτε 
ἀνεζήτει ᾿Αντίλοχον, ἵνα ἄγγελον ἀποστείλῃ τῷ 
᾿Αχιλλεῖ, πικρὸν μέν, ἀναγκαῖον δέ, ὑπὲρ τοῦ 
πάθους τοῦ κατὰ τὸν ἑταῖρον αὐτοῦ, ὃν ἐξέπεμψε 
μέν, οὐχ ὑπεδέξατο δέ, καΐτοι ποθῶν ἐκεῖνος 
τοῦτο. λέγεται δὲ μὴ ἑαυτῷ μόνῳ χρήσιμος, ἀλλὰ 
καὶ ἀνθρώπων ὀφθαλμοῖς ὃ ἀετὸς ἀγαθὸς 4 εἶναι. 
εἰ γοῦν μέλιτί τις ᾿Αττικῷ τὴν χολὴν αὐτοῦ 
διαλαβὼν ὅ ὑπαλείψαιτο δ ἀμβλυνόμενος, ὄψεται 
καὶ ὀξυτάτους γοῦν ἰδεῖν ἕξει τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς. 

1 ἀναθαρσοῦοσι. 
8 Jac: ἁλιεύουσι. 

5 dvadaBay? H. 

2 <xati> add. Reiske. 
4 Schn: ἀγαθόν. 
8 ὑπαλείφοιτο. 



ΜΉ σοτεοεουυοεουἔοὁσἘιο ρρωεἔερἔΕέμ δα 

ON ANIMALS, I. 41-42 

swim close to the rocks, and fancy that the foam 
floating overhead is sufficient protection while it 
conceals and overshadows them. And they know in 
some quite inexplicable way that for fishermen the 

sea is unnavigable on such a day or such a night, as 

it rages with the waves mounting to a terrifying 
height. It is in stormy weather that they gather 
their food, when the swell drags some off the rocks 
and sucks some from the shore. The Melanuruses 
feed off the foulest matter, such stuff as no other 
fish would readily take, unless it were utterly over- 
come by hunger. But in calm weather they have only 
the sand to ride on, and from there they get their 
food. But how they are captured another shall tell. 

42. Among birds the Eagle has the keenest sight. 
And Homer is aware of this and testifies to the fact 
in the story of Patroclus when he compares Menelaus 
to the bird [1]. 17. 674-], at the time when he was 
searching for Antilochus, that he might despatch 
him to Achilles as a messenger, unwelcome indeed 
but necessary, to announce the fate that had be- 
fallen his comrade, whom Achilles had sent out <to 
battle) but never welcomed home again for all his 
yearning. And the Eagle is said to serve not him- 
self alone but to be good for men’s eyes as well. At 
any rate, if a man whose sight is dim mix an Eagle's 
gall with Attic honey and rub it <on his eyes), he 
will see and will acquire sight of extreme keenness. 


The Eagle, 
its keen 



43. ᾿Αηδὼν ὀρνίθων λιγυρωτάτη τε καὶ εὐμου- 
σοτάτη, καὶ κατάδει τῶν ἐρημαίων χωρίων 
εὐστομώτατα ὀρνίθων καὶ τορώτατα. λέγουσι δὲ 
καὶ τὰ κρέα αὐτῆς ἐς ἀγρυπνίαν λυσιτελεῖν. 

πονηροὶ μὲν οὖν οἱ τοιαύτης τροφῆς δαιτυμόνες 

καὶ ἀμαθεῖς δεινῶς" πονηρὸν δὲ τὸ ἐκ τῆς τροφῆς 
δῶρον, φυγὴ ὕπνου, τοῦ καὶ θεῶν καὶ ἀνθρώπων 

βασιλέως, ὡς Ὅμηρος λέγει. 

44. Τῶν γεράνων at κλαγγαὶ καλοῦσιν ὄμβρους, 
ὥς φασιν" ὁ δὲ ἐγκέφαλος γυναικῶν ἐς Χάριν 
ἀφροδίσιον * ἔχει τινὰς ἴυγγας, εἴ tw? ἱκανοὶ 
τεκμηριῶσαι οἱ πρῶτοι φυλάξαντες ταῦτα." 

45. Γυπῶν πτερὰ εἰ θυμιάσειέ > τις, ὡς ἀκούω, 

\ 3 ~ 4 3 κ] “- Α 2, 7 
καὶ ἐκ φωλεῶν καὶ ἐξ εἰλυῶν τοὺς ὄφεις προάξει 

Τὸ ζῷον ὁ ὁ δρυοκολάπτης ἐξ οὗ dpa? καὶ 

κέκληται. ἔχει μὲν γὰρ ῥάμφος ἐπίκυρτον, κολά- 
πτει δὲ ἄρα τούτῳ τὰς ρῦς, καὶ ἐνταυθοῖ ὃ ὡς 
ἐς καλιὰν τοὺς νεοττοὺς ἐντίθησιν, οὐ δεηθεὶς 
καρφῶν καὶ τῆς ἐξ αὐτῶν πλοκῆς καὶ οἰκοδομίας 
οὐδὲ ἕν. οὐκοῦν εἴ τις λίθον ἐνθεὶς ἐπιφράξειε τῷ 
ὀρνέῳ τῷ προειρημένῳ τὴν ἔσδυσιν, ὁ ὁ δὲ συμβαλὼν 
τὴν ἐπιβουλὴν ᾿ κομίζει πόαν ἐχθρὰν τῷ λίθῳ 
καὶ κατ᾽ αὐτοῦ τίθησιν" ὁ δὲ οἷα βαρούμενος καὶ 


μὴ φέρων ἐξάλλεται, καὶ ἀνέῳγεν αὖθις τῷ προει- 

ρημένῳ ἡ φίλη ὑποδρομή. 

a εὐνουστάτη. 2 ἀφροδισίαν. 3 σπου. 
4 αὐτά. δ θυμιάσαι. 

ὃ χὸ ζῷον] ζῷον δέ. Ἰ Jac: ἄρα. 

8 ὀργταυθοῖ κοιλάνας τὸν τόπον. 



ON ANIMALS, I. 43-45 

43. Among birds the Nightingale has the clearest The ρας 

and most musical voice, and fills solitary places with oe 
its most lovely and thrilling note. Further, they 
say that its flesh is good for keeping one awake. 
But people who feast upon such food are evil and 
dreadfully foolish. And it is an evil attribute of 
food that it drives sleep away—sleep, the king of 
gods and men, as Homer says [ZI. 14. 233]. 

44, The screaming of Cranes brings on showers, so The Crane 
they say, while their brain possesses some kind of 
spell that leads women to grant sexual favours—if 
those who first observed the fact are sufficient 
guarantee. ᾿ 

45. If a man burn the feathers of a Vulture (so I Vulture’s 
am told), he will have no difficulty in inducing snakes mere 
to quit their dens and lurking-places. 

The bird ‘ Woodpecker ’ derives its name from what The ΤῸ 
it does. For it has a curved beak with which it pecks : 
oak-trees, and deposits its young in them as in a 
nest; and it has no need at all of dry twigs woven 
together or of any building. Now if one inserts a 
stone and blocks up the entrance for the aforesaid 
bird, it guesses that there is a plot afoot, fetches 
some herb that is obnoxious to the stone, and places 
it against the stone. The latter in disgust and un- 
able to endure <the smell> springs out, and once 
again the bird’s caverned home lies open to it. 

9 2 5 λὴ 4] 3 > ” 
ἐπιβουλὴν τὴν κατ᾽ αὐτοῦ. 


VOL. 1. ' D 

AELIAN | 7 | ON ANIMALS, I. 46-47 

46. The Four-toothed Sparus is not solitary nor The Four- 

; ς / b) 24 , \ 
46. Οἱ συνόδοντες οὐκ εἰσὶ μονίαι, οὐδὲ τὴν ἀπ’ 
does it endure loneliness and separation from its βρατὺβ 

ἀλλήλων ἐρημίαν τε καὶ διαίρεσιν ἀνέχονται. 
φιλοῦσι δὲ. συναγελάζεσθαι καθ᾽ ἡλικίαν. καὶ οἱ 
μὲν νεώτεροι κατὰ ἴλας νήχονται, οἱ δὲ ἐντελέστε- 
pot πάλιν κοινῇ" καὶ τὸ τοῦ λόγου τοῦτο HAE 
ἥλικα καὶ ἐκεῖνοι τέρπουσι, παρόντες παροῦσιν ὡς 
ἑταίροις καὶ φίλοις ἐκ τῶν αὐτῶν ἐπιτηδευμάτων. 
τε καὶ διατριβῶν. τεχνάζονται δὲ πρὸς τοὺς 
θηρατὰς ὁποῖα. ὅταν ἁλιεὺς ἀνὴρ τὸ ἐς αὐτοὺς 
- δέλεαρ καθῇ, περιελθόντες πάντες καὶ κυκλόσε 
| γενόμενοι ἐς ἀλλήλους ὁρῶσιν, οἱονεὶ σύνθημα ἕκα: 
στος ἑκάστῳ διδόντες μῆτε πλησιάσαι μήτε ἅψασθαι 
τοῦ καθειμένου δελεάσματος. καὶ οἱ μὲν παρατε- 
ταγμένοι ἐς τοῦτο ἀτρεμοῦσιν' ἐκ δὲ 1 ἀλλοτρίας 
ἀγέλης συνόδων ἀφίκετο, καὶ καταπίνει τὸ ἄγκιστ- 
ρον, ἐρημίας λαβὼν “ μισθὸν τὴν ἅλωσιν. καὶ ὃ 
“μὲν ἀνασπᾶται, οἱ δὲ ἤδη θαρροῦσιν ὡς οὐχ 
ἁλωσόμενοι, καὶ καταφρονήσαντες οὕτω θηρῶνται. 

εἰ Φρύγεται διὰ τοῦ θέρους ὁ κόραξ τῷ δίψει 
κολαζόμενος, καὶ βοᾷ τὴν. τιμωρίαν " 
μενος, καὶ βοᾷ τὴν τιμωρίαν μαρτυρόμενος, 

[2 4 \ 
ὥς φασι. Kat τὴν αἰτίαν λέγουσιν ἐκείνην. 6 

᾿Απόλλων αὐτὸν θεράποντα ὄντα ὑδρευσόμενον 
ἀποπέμπει" ὁ δὲ ἐντυγχάνει Aniw βαθεῖ μέν, ἔτι 
δὲ χλωρῷ, καὶ μένει ἔστ᾽ ἂν αὖον γένηται, τῶν 
πυρῶν παραχναῦσαι βουλόμενος, καὶ τοῦ προστάγ- 
ματος. ὠλιγώρησε. καὶ ὑπὲρ τούτων ἐν τῇ 
μάλιστα .αὐχμηροτάτῃ ὥρᾳ διψῶν δίκας ἐκτίνει. 
τ ἔοικε. μύθῳ μέν, εἰρήσθῳ δ᾽ οὖν τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ 

1 δὲ τῆς. - 2 λαχών. 

kind. These fish love to congregate together 

‘according to their age: the younger ones swim 

about in shoals, the maturer ones also keep together. 
And as the saying is true ‘ A friend must be of one’s 
own age,’* so these creatures delight to be where 
others of their kind are, like comrades and friends 
sharing the same pursuits and resorts. And these 

are the means they devise for evading their pursuers. 

Whenever an angler drops a bait for them they all 
gather round and forming a ring look at one another 
as though each were signalling to each not to 

approach and not to touch the bait that has been 

lowered. And those that have been posted for this 
purpose remain still. But a Sparus from some other, 
strange shoal arrives and swallows the bait, and gets 
the reward of its'solitariness by being caught. So while 
he is being drawn up, the rest grow bolder as though 
they were not going to be taken, and so through their 
scorn (of danger are caught. 

47, All through the summer the Raven is afflicted The Raven, 
’ tts thirst 

with a parching thirst, and with his croaking (so they 
say) declares his punishment. And the reason they 
give is this. Being a servant he was sent out by 
Apollo to draw water. He came to a field of corn, 
tall but still green, and waited till it should ripen, 
as he wanted to nibble the wheat: to his master’s 
orders he paid no heed. On that account in the 
driest season of the year he is punished with thirst. 
This looks like a fable, but-let me repeat it. out of 
reverence for the god. 

α The full phrase is PAE ἥλικα τέρπει, cp. Pl. Phaedr. 240 o. 


48. .Ὃ κόραξ, ὄρνιν αὐτόν φασιν ἱερόν, καὶ 

᾿Απόλλωνος ἀκόλουθον εἶναι λέγουσι. ταῦτά τοι 
καὶ μαντικοῖς συμβόλοις ἀγαθὸν ὁμολογοῦσι τὸν 
αὐτόν, καὶ ὀττεύονταΐ γε πρὸς τὴν ἐκείνου βοὴν οἱ 
συνιέντες ὀρνίθων καὶ ἕδρας καὶ κλαγγὰς καὶ 
πτήσεις αὐτῶν ἢ κατὰ λαιὰν χεῖρα ἢ κατὰ 

“Προσακούω δὲ καὶ φὰ κόρακος μελαίνειν τρίχας. 
καὶ χρὴ τὸν δολοῦντα τὴν ἑαυτοῦ κόμην ἔλαιον ἐν 
τῷ στόματι ἔχειν συμμύσαντα" εἰ δὲ μή, καὶ of 
ὀδόντες αὐτῷ σὺν τῇ τριχὶ μελαίνονται δυσέκπλυτοί 
τε καὶ δυσέκνιπτοι. 

49. ᾽Ο μέροψ τὸ ὄρνεον ἔμπαλίν φασι τοῖς ἄλ- 
ols ἅπασι πέτεται: τὰ μὲν γὰρ ἐς τοὔμπροσθεν 
ἵεται καὶ κατ᾽ ὀφθαλμούς, 6 δὲ ἐς τοὐπίσω. καὶ 
ἔπεισί μοι θαυμάζειν τὴν φύσιν τῆς ἐπισήμου καὶ 
παραδόξου καὶ ἀήθους φορᾶς, ἣν ἐκεῖνο ᾷττει 1 τὸ 
ζῷον. | ; 

50. Ἣ μύραινα ὅταν ὁρμῆς ἀφροδισίου. ὑποπλη- 
off, πρόεισιν ἐς τὴν γῆν, καὶ ὁμιλίαν ποθεῖ 
νυμφίου καὶ μάλα πονηροῦ: πάρεισι γὰρ εἰς ἔχεως 
φωλεόν, καὶ ἄμφω συμπλέκονται. ἤδη δέ φασι 
καὶ 6 ἔχις οἰστρήσας καὶ ἐκεῖνος ἐς μίξιν ἀφικνεῖται 
πρὸς τὴν θάλατταν, καὶ οἷον εἰ κωμαστὴς σὺν τῷ 
αὐλῷ θυροκοπεῖ, οὕτω τοι καὶ ἐκεῖνος συρίσας τὴν 
ἐρωμένην παρακαλεῖ, καὶ αὐτὴ πρόεισι,3 τῆς 
φύσεως τὰ ἀλλήλων διῳκισμένα συναγούσης ἐς 
ἐπιθυμίαν τὴν ὁμοίαν καὶ κοῖτον τὸν αὐτόν. 

1 ἄγει. 2 Ges: πρόσ-. 


ON ANIMALS, I. 48-50 

48. The Raven, they say, is a sacred bird and The Raven, 
attends upon Apollo: that is why men agree that nation 
it is also of use in divination, and those who under- 
stand the positions of birds, their cries, and their 
flight whether on the left or on the right hand, are 
able to divine by its croaking. 

I am also informed that Raven’s eggs turn the its gees - 
hair black. And it is essential for anyone who is 
dyeing his hair to keep olive oil in his mouth and his 
lips closed. Otherwise his teeth also turn black 
along with his hair, and they are hardly to be washed 

white again. 

49. The Bee-eater flies (so they say) in precisely The Bee- 
the opposite way to all other birds, for they move “"* 

forward in the direction in which they look, while the 

Bee-eater flies backwards. And I am astonished at 
the remarkable, incredible, and uncommon character 
of the motion with which this creature wings its way. 

50. Whenever the Moray is filled with amorous Moray and 
impulses it comes out of the sea on to land seeking ᾿ 
eagerly for a mate, and a very evil mate. For it 
goes to a Viper’s den and the pair embrace. And 
they do say that the male Viper also in its frenzied 
desire for copulation goes down to the sea, and just 
as a reveller with his flute knocks at the door, so the 
Viper also with his hissing summons his loved one, 
andshe emerges. Thus does Nature bring those that. 
dwell far apart together in a mutual desire and to a 
common bed. | 




τας eee «Ὁ: 5 5 
Ἐπὴν OL, Ῥάχις ἀνθρώπου νεκροῦ φασιν ὑποσηπόμε- 

vov τὸν μυελὸν ἤδη τρέπει ἐς ὄφιν: καὶ ἐκπίπτει τὸ 
θηρίον, καὶ ἕρπει τὸ ' ἀγριώτατον ἐκ τοῦ ἡμερωτά- 
του" καὶ τῶν μὲν καλῶν καὶ ἀγαθῶν τὰ λείψανα 
ἀναπαύεται, καὶ ἔχει ἄθλον ἡσυχίαν, ὥσπερ οὖν 

A € Ἁ ~ f ; 
καὶ ἡ ψυχὴ τῶν τοιούτων τὰ ἀδόμενά τε καὶ 

ξ f 3 »" ΄ ἴων A 9 7 
ὑμνούμενα ἐκ τῶν σοφῶν: πονηρῶν δὲ ἀνθρώπων 
~ ,ὔ i 
ῥάχεις τοιαῦτα τίκτουσι καὶ μετὰ τὸν βίον. ἢ 
7 \ ~ 506 3 y > a 3 > ~ 
τοίνυν τὸ πᾶν pods ἐστιν, ἤ, εἰ ταῦτ᾽ ἀψευδῶς 5 
’ ~ 
πεπίστευται, πονηροῦ νεκρός, ws κρίνειν ἐμέ, 
f λ “- 
ὄφεως γενέσθαι πατὴρ τοῦ τρόπου μισθὸν ἠνέγκατο. 

52. Χελιδὼν δὲ ἄρα τῆς ὥρας τῆς ἀρίστης 
ὑποσημαίνει τὴν ἐπιδημίαν. καὶ ἔστι φιλάνθρωπος, 
- καὶ χαίρει τῷδε τῷ ζῴῳ ὁμωρόφιος οὖσα, καὶ 
ἄκλητος ἀφικνεῖται, καὶ ὅτε οἱ φίλον καὶ ἔχει 
καλῶς, ἀπαλλάττεται. καὶ οἵ γε ἄνθρωποι ὑποδέ- 
χονται αὐτὴν κατὰ τὸν τῆς “Ομηρικῆς ξενίας 
θεσμόν, ὃς κελεύει καὶ φιλεῖν τὸν ὃ παρόντα καὶ 
ἰέναι βουλόμενον ἀποπέμπειν. | 

53. ἔχει σι πλεονέκτημα ἡ αἷξ τὴν τοῦ πνεύ- 
ξ ¢ ¢ : : 
ματος ἐσροήν, ws ob νομευτικοὶ λόγοι ὁ φασίν. 

9 mm ‘ A A ~ 
ἀναπνεῖ yap καὶ διὰ τῶν ὦτων καὶ διὰ τῶν. 

το 1 2 , ᾿ ~ 

μυκτήρων, καὶ αἰσθητικώτατον τῶν διχήλων ἐστί. 
3 n 
Kal τὴν μὲν αἰτίαν εἰπεῖν οὐκ οἶδα, ὃ δὲ οἷδα 
“-Ἠ .3 \ / ᾿ 
τοῦτο εἶπον. εἰ δὲ ποίημα Προμηθέως καὶ αἴξ, τί 
lon Ὁ. 7 Σ 

βουλόμενος τοῦτο εἰργάσατο, εἰδέναι καταλιμπάνω 
αὐτὸν. cn | 

1 ζῷον τό. 

: ταῦτα οὑτωσί MSS, τ. ὀρθῶς Ces. 

ξένον Η (1876). _ 4 λόγοι καὶ ποιμενικοί. 



pees Prenat ALENT ITTET NESTS EASES ALAE DEN tte νυν στ συ σσσσσσσσσσσασσναμυμαλμένην 

ON ANIMALS, 1. 51-53 

51. The spine of a dead man; they say, transforms Snakes, how 
the putrefying marrow into a snake. The brute πα 
emerges, and from the gentlest of beings crawls forth 
the fiercest. Now the remains of those that were 
fine and noble are at rest and their reward is peace, 
even as the soul also of such men has the rewards 
which wise men celebrate in their songs. But it is 
from the spine of evildoers that such evil monsters 
are begotten even after life. The fact is, the whole 
story is either a fable, or if it is to be relied upon as 
true, then the corpse of a wicked man receives (so 1 
think) the reward of his ways in becoming the 
progenitor of a snake. - 3 

59. A Swallow is a sign that the best season of the The ον 
year is at hand. And it is friendly to man and takes 
pleasure in sharing the same roof with this being. 

It comes uninvited, and when it pleases and sees fit, 
it departs. Men welcome it in accordance with the 
law of hospitality laid down by Homer {Od. 15. 
72-4], who bids us cherish a guest while he is with 
us and speed him on his way when he wishes to 


53. The Goat has:a certain advantage <over other The Goat, 
animals) in the manner of taking breath, as the 
narratives of shepherds tell us, for it inhales through 
its ears as well as through its nostrils, and has a 
sharper perception. than any other cloven-hoofed 
animal. The cause of this I am unable to tell; I 
have only told what 1 know. But if the Goat 
also was a creation of Prometheus, what the 
intention of this contrivance was, I leave him to 
determine. 7 


its breathing 



_ 54. Kai ἔχεως δῆγμα καὶ ὄφεως ἄλλον φασὶν 
ἀντιπάλων μὴ διαμαρτάνειν φαρμάκων. καὶ τὰ 
μὲν αὐτῶν ἀκούω πώματα * εἶναι, τὰ δὲ χρίματα 3. 
καὶ ἐπαοιδαὶ δὲ ἐπράυναν τὸν ὃ ἐγχρισθέντα ἰόν. 
ἀσπίδος δὲ ἀκούω. μόνης α δῆγμα ἀνίατον εἶναι καὶ 
ἷ : J αι καὶ 
ἐπικουρίας κρεῖττον. καὶ μισεῖν ἄξιον τὸ ζῷον 
τῆς εὐκληρίας τῆς ἐς τὸ κακόν. ἀλλὰ καὶ τούτου 

Olav ἀκούομεν Καὶ TIV θείαν Kat 


7 3 Ἀ \ Ἁ “- 
Sani πο μὲν γὰρ τῶν ἀσπίδων φάρμακα 
‘ 4 ji 
nypatos ὅ ἔργα ἐστί, τὰ δὲ ἐκείνων ἀναιρεῖ ὃ καὶ 

> , ~ - 
ἐκ μόνης τῆς ἁφῆς, φασί. 

55. Κυνῶν θαλαττίων τρία γένη. καὶ οἱ μὲν 
᾿αὐτῶν εἰ 20 3 ἱ ates 
σε μεγέθει μέγιστοι, καὶ κητῶν ἐν τοῖς 
ἀλκιμωτάτοις ἀριθμοῖντο ἄν: γένη δὲ δύο τὰ 

- \ 4 ? 
λοιπά, πηλαῖοι pen Tip φύσιν, προήκουσι δὲ ἐς 

πῆχυν τὸ μέγεθος. καὶ τούτων οἱ μὲν κατεστιγμέ- 
νοι καλοῖντο ἂν γαλεοί ͵ Σ ὀνομά 

' ο ἂν γαλεοί, κεντρίνας δὲ ὀνομάζων 
τοὺς λοιποὺς οὐκ ἂν διαμαρτάνοις. οἱ μὲν οὖν 

‘ A f- > 
ποικίλοι καὶ τὴν δοράν εἰσι μαλακώτεροι καὶ τὴν 
ee πλατύτεροι" ot δὲ ἕτεροι σκληροὶ ὃ τὴν 
Α 4 
δορὰν ὄντες τὴν κεφαλὴν δὲ ἀνήκουσαν ἐς ὀξὺ 
ἔχοντες τὴν " χρόαν ἐς τὸ λευκὸν ἀποκρίνονται. 
κέντρα δὲ ἄρα αὐτοῖς συμπέφυκε τὸ μὲν 11 κατὰ 
ς ba 3} 
τὴν λοφιάν, ὡς ἂν εἴποις, τὸ δὲ κατὰ τὴν οὐράν' 
3 Ἀ é 

σκληρὰ δὲ dpa τὰ κέντρα καὶ ἀπειθῆ ἐστι, καὶ ἰοῦ 

: πόμ- MSS always. 2 χρίσματα. 

τινων. 4 ud 

ee μόνον. 
cha: καὶ δήγματος. 5. ἀναιρεῖν. 

vi 4 4 4 4 3 “ 
μέγεθος καὶ τὸν μὲν αὐτοῖν γαλεὸν τὸν δὲ t ῦ 
ν δὲ κεντρὶ 
ΠΡ ΠΑ ρίτην φιλοῦσιν 


θηρίον μιαρώτερον καὶ ἀφυλακτότερον γυνὴ φαρμα-. 

ON ANIMALS, I. 54-55 
54. They say that the bite of the Viper and of Bolionous 

other snakes is not without countering remedies. - 
Some, I am told, are to be drunk, others are to be 
applied; spells too can mitigate poison injected by 
a sting. But the bite of the Asp @ alone, I am told, 
cannot be cured and is beyond help. This creature 
truly deserves to be hated for being blessed with the 
ower toinjure. Yet a monster more abominable and 
harder to avoid even than the Asp is a sorceress, such 
as (we are told) Medea and Circe were, for the 
poison from Asps is the result of a bite, whereas 
sorceresses kill by a mere touch, so they say. | 

55. There are three kinds of Sea-hound.? The The Shark 
first is of enormous size and may be reckoned among 
the most daring of sea monsters.° The others are of 
two kinds, they live in the mud and reach to a cubit The | 
in length. Those that are speckled one may call Νὰ 
galeus (small shark), and the rest, if you call them 
Spiny Dog-fish you will not go fay wrong. Now the 
speckled ones have a softer skin and a flatter head, 
while the others, whose skin is hard and whose head 
tapers to a point, are distinguished from the rest by 
the whiteness of their skin. Moreover nature has 
provided them with spines, one on their crest, so to 
say, the other in the tail. And these spines are 
hard and resisting and emit a kind of poison. Of the 

'@ The Egyptian cobra, Nata hate. 
ον The terms θαλάττιος κύων and γαλεός signify both dog-fish | 
and shark. See Inpex Ii. 
¢ 7.6. the shark. 


® μέντοι ὄντες καί. 
11 τὸ μὲν τῆς κεφαλῆς. 


8 , Η λ f 
μικροί τε καὶ σκληροὶ. 
10 καὶ τήν. 

ey ne 

πα re nner YEA I ELL TE LEER SL LEE 




1 ; d ᾿ 
es ; ἐλ, o fs Se tories τ τὰ πῶ ᾿ small Dog-fish both kinds are caught in the ooze an | 
es pas arial re φῦλον Ν 1 | pr mud, hae manner of catching them I may as well 

lain. By way of bait men let down a white fish 
at of which ney have cut the backbone. Directly 
one of the Dog-fish is caught and hooked, all those 

37 \ “᾿ ie, , ὁ » 3 “a >? 4 ? 
ἰλύος καὶ τοῦ πηλοῦ, Kal ἡ ἄγρα, εἰπεῖν αὐτὴν οὐ 
χεῖρόν ἐστι. δέλεαρ αὐτῶν καθιᾶσιν ἰχθὺν λευκὸν 

ἐκτετμημένον τὴν ῥάχιν. ὅταν. τοίνυν εἷς ἁλῷ καὶ that have seen him make ἃ rush for him and pene 
τῷ ἀγκίστρῳ περιπέσῃ, πάντες ot θεασάμενοι | him as he is drawn upwards, never stopping unt 
ἐμπηδῶσιν * αὐτῷ καὶ ὃ κάτωθεν ἑλκομένῳ ἕπον- they reach the boat. One might imagine that they 
ται * καὶ μέχρι τῆς νεὼς οὐκ ἀναστελλόμενοι, ὡς do this out of envy, as though he had pants ers 
εἰκάσαι ζηλοτυπίᾳ δρᾶν ταῦτα αὐτούς, οἷα ἐκείνου iece of food from somewhere ap or sae ; 
τι τῶν ἐς τροφὴν ἑαυτῷ μόνῳ ποθὲν ἀποσυλήσαν- And it often happens that some of them a af 

leap into the boat and are caught of their own free 

Tos’ καὶ ἐς τὴν ναῦν ye αὐτὴν ἐσεπήδησάν τινες 

? 4 e f δ, 
πολλάκις, καὶ ἑκόντες ἑάλωσαν. 

56. The barb of the Sting-ray nothing can with- ee 
stand. It wounds and kills instantly, and even 
those fishermen who have great knowledge of the 
sea dread its weapon.. For no man can heal the 
wound, nor will the creature that inflicted it; that 
was a gift vouchsafed, most probably, to the ashen 
spear from mount Pelion alone.* 

56. Τῆς τρυγόνος τῆς θαλαττίας τὸ κέντρον 
ἐστὶν ἀπρόσμαχον. ἐκέντησε γὰρ καὶ ἀπέκτεινε 
οὐ παραχρῆμα, καὶ πεφρίκασιν αὐτῆς τόδε τὸ ὅπλον 
καὶ οἱ τῶν ἁλιέων δεινοὶ τὰ θαλάττια. οὔτε γὰρ 
ἄλλος ἰάσεται τὸ τραῦμα οὔτε ἡ τρώσασα' μόνῃ 
, ς᾽ \ > 7 A , , A 
yap, ws τὸ εἰκός, TH [1 ηλιώτιδι pedin® τοῦτο 
57. The Cerastes is a small creature; itis a snake, a as 
and above its brow it has two horns, and these horns 
are like those of the snail, though unlike the snail 5 
they are not soft. Now these snakes are the enemies 
of all other Libyans, but towards the Psylli, as ey ΤΡ 
are called, they are gently disposed, for the Psylii Sevill 
are insensible to their bites and have no difficulty 
2 The spear of Achilles was made from an ash-tree on mt 

Pelion (Hom. 11. 16. 148). Telephus, wounded by the spear, 
was afterwards cured by the rust from it. 

57 A 4 6 θ 7 ¢ , i Σ᾿, δὲ cid 
. Λεπτὸν ὃ θηρίον 6 Képdorns. ἔστι δὲ ὄφις, 
41 ὁ Α fan f a 4 , 
καὶ ὑπὲρ τοῦ μετώπου κέρατα ἔχει δύο, καὶ ἔοικε 
“ “A ? \ 
τοῖς τοῦ. κοχλίου τὰ κέρατα, οὐ μήν ἐστιν ws 
3 [4 t / “ “a ~ 
ἐκείνων ἁπαλά. οὐκοῦν τοῖς μὲν ἄλλοις τῶν 
vA > é Ld \ “ 
Λιβύων εἰσὶ πολέμιοι: ἔστι δὲ αὐτοῖς πρὸς τοὺς 
7 7 uv _@ > 2} 
καλουμένους. Ῥύλλους ἔνσπονδα, οἵπερ οὖν οὔτε 
τ / κ] he ~ 
αὐτοὶ δακόντων Eematovat,’ καὶ τοὺς τῷ τοιούτῳ 

1 ζφῦλον» add. Reiske, {τόν add. Η. 

“--οοννν-σσσσο, - πα ΣΝΝΝΝΝ ΣΩ͂Ν 
μαυτοττολι,5.....ὕ.τὐσλελυειμονγηγφουντιοαι " 

2 συμπηδῶσιν. 3 καί τοι. 8 
ἔπονταΐ TEs ee n 

- ἐς, J 6 ἦ 7 ἀπαΐουσι τῶν δηγμάτων. 

5 Reiske: βολῇ, υ«ἷ. μόνῃ. ᾿ λευκὸν. Ἶ 

74 4 | | | | 


~ IA ta \ 
κακῷ περιπεσόντας ἰῶνται ῥᾷστα. καὶ ὃ τρόπος, 
Ἁ 1 wn LY ~ ~ 3 id f 
ἐὰν πρὶν ἢ πρησθῆναι τὸ πᾶν σῶμα ἀφίκηταί τις 
~ > “- A λ \ 4 > \ iN 
τῶν ἐκεῖθεν κλητὸς ἢ κατὰ τύχην, εἶτα τὸ μὲν 

. ἢ “ὃ > λ 7 ἢ > / δὲ A ~ 
στόμα ὕδατι ἐκκλύσηται, ἀπονίψῃ de τὰς χεῖρας 

¢ ? \ A σι f κω ¢ 7] 9 
ἑτέρῳ, καὶ πιεῖν τῷ δηχθέντι δῷ ἑκάτερον, ἀνερ- 
ρώσθη τε ἐκεῖνος καὶ κακοῦ παντὸς ἐξάντης τὸ 
3 Af? 2 - Ἁ , 7 A ς 
ἐντεῦθέν ἐστι. διαρρεῖ δὲ καὶ λόγος Λιβυκὸς ὃ 
, 7 3 Α ε σι ᾿" we 
λέγων, Ῥύλλον ἄνδρα τὴν ἕαυτοῦ γαμετὴν ὑφο- 
ρᾶσθαι καὶ μισεῖν ὡς μεμοιχευμένην καὶ μέντοι 
καὶ τὸ ἐξ αὐτῆς βρέφος ὑποπτεύειν ὡς νόθον τε 
“- 7ὔ n > 
καὶ τῷ σφετέρῳ γένει κίβδηλον. πεῖραν οὖν 
“- τ ,ὔ 3 7 > / 7 
καθεῖναι καὶ μάλα ἐλεγκτικήν φασιν αὐτόν. λάρ- 
λ ,ὔ : ~ 3 LAA 2 4 7 
vaka πληρώσας κεραστῶν ἐμβάλλει 3' τὸ βρέφος, 
οἱονεὶ πυρὶ τὸν χρυσὸν τεχνίτης τὸ παιδίον ἐξελέγ- 
χων ἐκεῖνος τῇ ἀποθέσει. καὶ οἱ μὲν παραχρῆμα 
ἐπανίσταντο καὶ ἠγρίαινον καὶ τὴν συμφυῆ κακίαν 
ἠπείλουν: ἐπεὶ δὲ τὸ παιδίον αὐτῶν προσέψαυσεν, 
¢ \ 3 ᾽ὔ i > ΄ὦΟ ¢ f ” > 
οἱ δὲ ἐμαράνθησαν, Kat ἐντεῦθεν ὁ Λίβυς ἔγνω οὐ 
/ : 
νόθου ἀλλὰ γόνου γνησίου πατὴρ ὦν. λέγονται δὲ 
καὶ τῶν ἑτέρων δακετῶν καὶ φαλαγγίων δὲ 
ἀντίπαλοι τόδε τὸ γένος εἶναι. καὶ ταῦτά γε εἰ 
΄. ΓΑ 7 > > / 3 > κε ν΄ 2. A 
τερατεύονται Λίβυες, οὐκ ἐμέ, ἀλλ᾽ αὑτοὺς ἀπατῶν- 
τες ἴστωσαν. 

58. Μελιττῶν δὲ ἐπίβουλοι καὶ ἐχθροὶ elev ἂν 
ἐκεῖνοι, οἵ τε αἰγίθαλοι καλούμενοι καὶ τὰ τούτων 
νεόττια καὶ ob σφῆκες καὶ αἱ χελιδόνες καὶ οἱ 
» , τ ἐλ , ie Ad 3 1 ς 
ὄφεις καὶ αἱ φάλαγγες καὶ at Τλύγγαιϊ.ὃ καὶ αἱ 

1 ἐπικλύσηται. 

2 Ges: καὶ ἐμβάλλει. ; 

3 λύγγαι ‘vox nthilt,’ φάλλαιναι (or φρῦναι, cp. Arist. HA 626 ἃ 
30) Gow. 


ON ANIMAIS, I. 57-58 

in curing those who have fallen victims to this 
yenomous creature. Their method is this: if one 
of that tribe arrive, whether summoned or by chance, 
before the whole inflamed, and if he then 
rinse his mouth with water and wash the bitten man s 
hands and give him the water from both to drink, 
then the victim recovers and thereafter is free from 
all infection. And there is a story current among 
the Libyans that, if one of the Psylli suspects his wife 
and hates her on the ground that she has committed 
adultery ; and if moreover he suspects that the child 
born from her is a bastard and no true member of his 
tribe, he then puts it to a very severe test: he fills 
a chest with Cerastae and drops the baby among 
them, just as a goldsmith places gold in the fire, and 
puts the infant to the proof by thus exposing him. 
And immediately the snakes surge up in anger and. 

threaten the child with their native poison. But _ 

directly the infant touches them, they wilt, and then 
the Libyan knows that he is the father of no bastard 
but of one sprung of his own race. This tribe is said 
also to be the enemy of other noxious beasts and of 

Well, if the Libyans are here romancing, I would 
have them know that it is not I but themselves 
that they are deceiving. 

58. The following creatures plot. and make war 
against Bees: the creatures known as Titmice and 
their young, also Wasps and Swallows and Snakes and 
Spiders and [Moths?]. Bees are afraid of these, and 


Bees and 


μὲν δεδίασι ταῦτα, οἱ δ᾽ οὖν μελιττουργοὶ ἐλαύ- 
νουσιν αὐτὰ am αὐτῶν ἢ κόνυζαν ἐπιθυμιάσαντες 
ἢ χλωρὰν ἔτι μήκωνα πρὸ τῶν σίμβλων καταστή- 
σαντες ἢ καταστρώσαντες. καὶ ταῦτα μὲν τοῖς 
ἄλλοις ἐχθρά ἐστι τοῖς προειρημένοις, σφηκῶν δὲ 
ἅλωσις ἐκείνη ἂν εἴη. κύρτον ἀπαρτῆσαι χρὴ 
πρὸ τῆς σφηκιᾶς καὶ ἐνθεῖναι αὐτῷ λεπτὴν μεμ- 
pada ἢ μαινίδα ὀλίγην καὶ σὺν τούτοις ἴωπα ἢ 
χαλκίδα" οἱ δὲ σφῆκες ὑπὸ τῆς ἐμφύτου γαστριμαρ- 
γίας ἑλκόμενοι, καλοῦντος αὐτοὺς «φτοῦ» 3 δε- 
λεάσματος, ἐσπίπτουσιν ἀθρόοι, καὶ περιλαβόντος 
αὐτοὺς τοῦ κύρτου οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτοῖς τὴν ὀπίσω 
οὐκέτι ἐκπτῆναι. καὶ οἱ σαῦροι δὲ ἐπιβουλεύουσι 
ταῖς μελίτταις καὶ οἱ κροκόδιλοι οἱ χερσαῖοι" 
ὄλεθρος δὲ καὶ τούτοις ἐπιτετέχνηται ἐκεῖνος. 
ἄλφιτα γὰρ ἐλλεβόρῳ δεύσαντες ἢ τιθυμάλλου ὁπῷ 
ὑποχέαντες * ἢ μαλάχης χυλῷ διασπείρουσι πρὸ 
τῶν σίμβλων τὰ ἄλφιτα: ὅπερ οὖν ὄλεθρον φέρει 
τοῖς προειρημένοις ἀπογευσαμένοις αὐτῶν. ἐμβα- 
λὼν δὲ ἐς τὴν λίμνην φλόμου φύλλα ἢ κάρυα 
ἀπώλεσε τοὺς yupivous 6 τῶν μελιττῶν δεσπότης 
ῥᾷστα. αἱ δὲ φάλλαιναι ὅ ἀπόλλυνται νύκτωρ, ἐνακ- 
palovros® λύχνου τεθέντος πρὸ τῶν σμηνῶν 
καὶ ἀγγείων ἐλαίου πεπληρωμένων τῷ λύχνῳ 
ὑποκειμένων" αἱ δὲ πρὸς τὴν αὐγὴν πετόμε- 
vat ἐμπίπτουσιν ἐς τὸ ἔλαιον καὶ ἀπολώλασιν: 
ἑτέρως δὲ οὐκ ἂν αἱρεθεῖεν ῥᾷστα. οἱ δὲ αἰγίθαλοι 

1 Schn: ἁλώσεις ἐκεῖνα. 
2 <rot> add. Jac. ; 
? “- ie » Ἢ - ᾿ 
, ὅ ἐκπτῆναι, καὶ ὕδωρ δ᾽ ἂν αὐτῶν κατασκεδάσας ῥᾷον διαφθείραις 
ἂν αὐτούς, καὶ πῦρ ἐξάψας καταπρήσαις. , 

* ὑποχέοντες. 




sranegret ttre PRAT deh RE POTTTTTTTA Hida FAN ht RN NNR κίεν. 


so bee-keepers try to drive them away by using flea- 
bane as a fumigant or by placing or scattering pop- 
pies still green before the hives. Most of the 
aforesaid creatures dislike these things, but the way 
to catch Wasps is as follows. You should hang up a 
cage in front of the Wasps’ nest and insert a little 
smelt or a small sprat and with them a minnow or a 
sardine. And the Wasps, drawn by their natural greed 
and lured by the bait, fall into the cage in numbers, 
and once they are trapped, it is no longer possible for 
them to fly out again. Lizards also have designs upon 
Bees, so too have Land-crocodiles.¢ But a means 

has been devised of destroying them too, thus: 

soak some meal in hellebore, or pour upon it the sap 
of spurge or the juice of mallow and scatter it 
about in front of the hives. This is death to the 
aforesaid creatures, once they have tasted of it. If 
a bee-keeper drop the leaves of mullein or nuts ὃ into 
a pool, he will find it the simplest way of destroying 
Tadpoles. But Moths® are destroyed at. night- 
time by the placing of a strong light in front of the 
hives and vessels full of oil below the light. And 
the Moths fly to the brightness and fall into the oil 
and are killed.. Otherwise they would not be caught 
so very easily. But-the Titmice, once they have 

α ‘The “ crocodile’ is the Psammosaurus griseus, a land 
lizard, which reaches a size of 3 feet’ (How-Wells on Hdt. 
4, 192). . | 

ὃ Perhaps some word has been lost indicating what kind of 
nut is intended. 

¢ This may be the Wax-moth, which is found in bees’ nests, 
its larvae eating the comb; or it may be one of the Hawk- 
moths (fam. Sphingidae) which enter the nests for honey. 

5 Ges: dddayyes Mss, ἢ. 8 ἐναυγάζοντος. 


2\ [7 3 , | . 
ἀλφίτων οἴνῳ διαβραχέντων ἀπογευσάμενοι Kapy- 

on “ ? 
Bapotow, εἶτα πίπτουσι, καὶ κείμενοι σπαίρουσι, 
καὶ εἰσίν αἱρεθῆναι ἴ γελοῖοι t+ ἀναπτῆναι μὲν 
σπεύδοντες, ἀρχὴν δὲ a ῆ ὴ Ἵ 
ἀν δίων ρχὴν δὲ ἀναστῆναι μὴ δυνάμενοι. 
οἱ δὲ τὴν χελιδόνα αἰδοῖ τῆς μουσικῆς οὐκ ἀποκτεί- 
νουσι, καίτοι ῥᾳδίως ἂν αὐτὴν " τοῦτο δράσαντες" 
? “a ; 
ἀπόχρη δὲ αὐτοῖς κωλύειν τὴν χελιδόνα πλησίον 
~ s “A 
τῶν σίμβλων καλιὰν ὑποπῆξαι. 
7 ἣν cs e 
᾿Απεχθάνονται δὲ ἄρα αἱ μέλιτται κακοσμίᾳ 
πάσῃ καὶ μύρῳ spot y δ ὑπομέ: 
ῃ καὶ μύρῳ ὁμοίως, οὔτε τὸ δυσῶδες ὑπομέ- 
νουσαι οὔτε ἀσπαζόμεναι τῆς εὐωδίας τὸ τεθρυμ- 
, > A 
μένον, οἷα δήπου κόραι ἀστεῖαί τε καὶ σώφρονες 
τὸ μὲν βδελυττόμεναι τῆς δὲ ὑπερφρονοῦσαι. 

; 59. κῦρος μέν, ὥς φασιν, ὁ πρεσβύτερος μέγα 
ἐφρόνει ἐπὶ τοῖς βασιλείοις τοῖς ἐν Περσεπόλει, 
οἷσπερ οὖν αὐτὸς φκοδομήσατο, Δαρεῖος δὲ "πὶ 
τῇ, κατασκευῇ τῇ τῶν οἰκοδομημάτων τῶν Σου- 
σείων 4: καὶ γὰρ 5 ἐκεῖνος ἐν Σούσοις τὰ ἀδόμενα 
ἐκεῖνα εἰργάσατο. Κῦρος δὲ ὁ δεύτερος ἐν Λυδίᾳ 
παράδεισον αὐτὸς κατεφύτευσε ταῖς χερσὶ ταῖς 
βασιλικαῖς év® τοῖς ἁβροῖς ἐκείνοις χιτῶσι καὶ 
τοῖς τερπνοῖς ἐκείνοις καὶ μέγα τιμίοις λίθοις, καὶ 
ἐπὶ τούτῳ 7 ve ἐκαλλύνετο καὶ πρὸς ἄλλους μὲν 
τῶν Ἑλλήνων, ἀτὰρ οὖν καὶ πρὸς Λύσανδρον τὸν 
Λακεδαιμόνιον, ὅτε ἦλθε πρὸς τὸν Κῦρον ὁ 
Λύσανδρος ἐς τὴν Λυδίαν. καὶ ὑπὲρ μὲν τούτων 

1 « “" ε 

eis κοῦ Gow, ye οἷοι Jac, ῥᾷδιοι Lorenz. 

: Oud: αὐτῇ Mss, H would delete. 

4 Ἠροῖδκα: 7 ὔ ὶ γὰ 
: et ke: Σούσων. 5 καὶ γὰρ Kat. 
our. 7 τούτοις. 


ON ANIMALS, I. 58-59 

tasted the wine-steep 

ed meal, become drowsy ; then 

they fall over and lie quivering and can readily( ?) 

be captured as 

they struggle to fly and 

quite incapable of standing. But the Swallow 

yefrain from killing out of resp 
though they might easily do so. 
το hinder the Swallow from attaching it 

the hives. 

Again, Bees dislike all bad s 
equally: they cannot endure fo 
they welcome ἃ luxurious fragrance, 
refined girls abhor the former while des 


59, The elder Cyrus,? they say, was filled. 

pride at the palace in Per 


ect for its music; 
They are content 
s nest below 

mells and perfume 
ul odours nor do 
even as modest, 
pising the 


had caused to be built; Darius? likewise at the 
magnificence of his buildings at Susa, for he it was 

who contrived those farfamed dwelling-places. 

Cyrus the Second ° with his own royal hands and 
clothed in his habitual delicate garments and adorned 
with his beautiful jewels of great price, planted his 

Gardens in Lydia and pri 
before all the Greeks and even 
Spartan, when Lysander came t 

‘ded himself on the fact 
before Lysander the 
o visit him in Lydia. 

α Cyrus I, founder of the Achaemenid Persian empire, 
549-29 5.56. City and palace of Persepolis were burned by 
Alexander the Great. 

> Darius, son of Hystaspes, King of Persia, 521-485 B.c., 
Susa, on the river Choaspes. It was ὃ 
residence of the Persian kings during the springtime. 

¢ Cyrus IT, younger son of Darius LI, ο: 430-401 B.c., 
Lysander, the Spartan admiral, with sums of money, thereby 

reputed founder of 


ensuring the final victory of Sparta in the Peloponnesian war. 

The ‘ Gardens’ wer 

e at Sardes. 


Bees, their 
combs ai 

sepolis which he himself hives 

sone κι jn ae warenty: Lact ns A REIT! ΤῊΝ psepaccKscat 
arr ὅν: _ _ -- wns ~ ~~ pas v re ox 
RRA Sine LL ei 


ᾷδουσιν οἱ συγγραφεῖς, αἱ δὲ τῶν μελιττῶν 
οἰκοδομαὶ σοφώτεραι οὖσαι κατὰ πολὺ καὶ τεχ- 
νηέστεραι,} ἀλλὰ τούτων γε 3, οὐδὲ ὀλίγην ἔθεντο 
ὥραν: ἐκεῖνοι μὲν γὰρ πολλοὺς ὃ λυπήσαντες 
εἰργάσαντο ὅσα εἰργάσαντο: οὐδὲν δὲ ἄρα Hy 
μελιττῶν εὐχαριτώτερον, ἐπεὶ μηδὲ σοφώτερον 
ἦν. πρώτους μὲν γὰρ ἐργάζονται τοὺς θαλάμους 
τοὺς τῶν βασιλέων, καὶ εὐρυχωρίαν ἔχουσιν οὗτοί, 
καὶ εἰσὶν ἀνώτεροι:" ὲ ΐ 
τούτοις, οἷονεὶ δὲ ΠΡ ν aaa 
εἰ ; ι ρίβολον, ἀποσε- 
μνύνουσαι καὶ ἐκ τούτου τὴν οἴκησιν τὴν βασίλειον. 
διαιροῦσι δὲ αὑτὰς ἐς τρία καὶ οὖν καὶ τὰς 
οἰκήσεις τὰς ἑαυτῶν ἐς τοσαῦτα... αἱ μὲν γὰρ 
πρεσβύταται 4 γειτνιῶσι τῇ τῶν βασιλέων αὐλῇ," 
αἱ δὲ νεώταται 6 μετὰ ταύτας ? οἰκοῦσιν, αἱ δὲ ἐν 
ἤβῃ καὶ ἀκμῇ οὖσαι ἐξωτέρω ἐκείνων, ὡς εἶναι 
τὰς μὲν πρεσβυτάτας φρουροὺς τῶν βασιλέων, τὰς 
δὲ νεάνιδας ἕρκος τῶν νεωτάτων. ᾿ 

60. Λέγει μέ Syos ἀκέντρους εἶ 
Λέγει μέν τις λόγος ἀκέντρους εἶναι τοὺς 
τούτων βασιλέας: λέγει δὲ καὶ ἕτερος καὶ πάνυ 
raat τὰ κέντρα συμπεφυκέναι αὐτοῖς καὶ 
τεθηγμένα ἀνδρειότατα: οὔτε δὲ ἐπ᾽ ἀνδρί ποτε 
χρῆσθαι αὐτοῖς οὔτε ἐπὶ Tal: f Ἰλλὰ 
ὧν: οἷς οὔτε ἐπὶ ταῖς μελίτταις, ἀλλὰ συμπε- 
: 2, }: 
πλάσθαι φόβον ἄλλως" μὴ γὰρ θέμις εἶναι τὸν 
ἄρχοντα καὶ τῶν τοσούτων ἔφορον κακὸν ἐργά- 
σασθαι. καὶ τὰ λί δὲ τὰ LS ὁ 
σθαι. καὶ τὰς μελίττας δὲ τὰς λοιπὰς ὁμολο- 
3 ~ 
γοῦσιν οἱ τούτων ἐπιστήμονες ἐν ὄψει τῶν ἀρχόντων 
“- : ξ ’ 
τῶν σφετέρων ὑποκλίνειν τὰ κέντρα, OlovEl τῆς 
1 Pauw: τὰς δὲ. 
2. ὑπὲρ τούτων. 

οἱ ὃ 4 i ΕΙΣ 
. οἰκοδομὰς σοφωτέρας οὖσας. .. 

3 πολὺ καὶ πολλούς. 


ON ANIMALS, I. 59-60 

Historians celebrate these constructions, but the 
dwellings of Bees which are far cleverer and exhibit 
a greater skill, of these they take not the slightest 
notice. And yet, while those monarchs, wrought 
what they wrought through the affliction of multi- 
tudes, there never was any creature more gracious 
than the Bee, just as there is none cleverer. The 
first things that they construct are the chambers of 
their kings, and they are spacious and above all the 
rest. Round them they put a barrier, as it were 8 
wall or fence, thereby also enhancing the importance 
of the royal dwelling. And they divide themselves 
into three grades, and their dwellings accordingly 
‘nto the same number. Thus, the eldest dwell 
nearest the royal palace, and the latest born dwell 
next to them, while those that are young and in the 

rime of life are outside the latter. In this way the 
eldest are the king’s bodyguard, and the youthful 
ones are a protection to the latest born. 

60. According to one story the King Bees are The 
th King Bee 

stingless; according to another they are born wi 
stings of great strength and trenchant sharpness ; 
and yet they never use them against a man nor 
against bees: the stings are a pretence, an empty 
scare, for it would be wrong for one who rules and 
directs such numbers to do an injury. And those 
who understand their ways bear witness to the fact 
that the other Bees when in presence of their rulers 
withdraw their stings, as though shrinking and giving 
OO π΄’ ---ἷ-------- 

4 ‘4 4 ¢ A 7 
πρεσβύταται καὶ αἱ παλαιόταται. 
5 ee ε ᾿ ὃ 2 \ ee 5 
αὐλῇ οἱονεὶ δορύφοροι καὶ φρουροὶ οὕτοι. 
? a ᾿ . 
8 νεώταται καὶ αἱ αὐτοετεῖς. 
? ταῦτα. 


Sinise eae 


ἡ στε 


> , 5, ? 4 7 δ, 
ἐξουσίας ἀφισταμένας Καὶ παραχωροῦσάας. εΕεκΚατε- — 

3. ν᾿», 3 , {1 OA 
pov δ᾽ ἄν τις ἐκπλαγείη τὸ τῶν βασιλέων ἐκείνων" 
2 4 \ em” ὔ “" ~ 
εἴτε yap μὴ ἔχουσι πόθεν ἀδικήσουσι, μέγα τοῦτο" 
i \ 

3 A 3 a \ ~ “~ 
εἴτε Kal παρὸν ἀδικῆσαι μὴ ἀδικοῦσιν, ἀλλὰ τοῦτό 

΄- “a 7 3 
ye PaKp® KPElLTTOV εστίιν. 




way before authority. And one might well be 
astonished at either of the aforesaid characteristics 
in these King Bees: if they have no means of 
injuring, this is remarkable; if with all the means of 
injuring they do no injury, then this is far more to 
their credit. — 


a TC RCE A εν οσοννος 


i Hs em 



1. Ὅταν τὰ ἤθη τὰ τῶν Θρᾳκῶν καὶ τοὺς 
κρυμοὺς ἀπολείπωσι τοὺς Θρᾳκίους αἱ γέρανοι, 
ἀθροίζονται μὲν ἐς τὸν Ἕβρον, λίθον δ᾽ ἑκάστη 
καταπιοῦσα, ὡς ἔχειν καὶ δεῖπνον καὶ πρὸς τὰς 
ἐμβολὰς τῶν ἀνέμων ἕρμα, πειρῶνται τοῦ μετοι- 
κισμοῦ καὶ τῆς ἐπὶ τὸν Νεῖλον ὁρμῆς, ἀλέας τε 
καὶ χειμερίου + συντροφίας πόθῳ τῆς ἐκεῖθι. μελ- 
λουσῶν δὲ αὐτῶν αἴρεσθαι καὶ τοῦ πρόσω ἔχεσθαι, 
ὁ παλαίτατος γέρανος περιελθὼν τὴν πᾶσαν ἀγέλην 
ἐς τρίς, εἶτα μέντοι πεσὼν ἀφίησι τὴν ψυχήν. 
ἐνταῦθα * οὖν οἱ λοιποὶ θάπτουσι μὲν τὸν νεκρόν, 
φέρονται δὲ εὐθὺ τῆς Αἰγύπτου, τὰ μήκιστα πελάγη 
περαιούμενοι τῷ ταρσῷ τῶν πτερῶν, καὶ οὔτε 
ὁρμίζονταί που οὔτε ἀναπαύονται. σπείροντας δὲ 
τοὺς Αἰγυπτίους καταλαμβάνουσι, καὶ τράπεζαν 

ς ba} 3} 27 A > ce! > ’ ef? 
ὡς ἂν εἴποις ἄφθονον τὴν ἐν ταῖς ἀρούραις εὑρόντες 

s v ? , 
εἶτα ἄκλητοι ξενίων μεταλαγχάνουσιν. 

2. Τίκτεσθαι μὲν ἐν ὄρεσι ζῷα καὶ ἐν ἀέρι καὶ 
3 f “ΨΥ 3 LA v4 s . \ 
ἐν θαλάττῃ, θαῦμα οὔπω μέγα: ὕλη yap Kal 
τροφὴ καὶ φύσις ἡ τούτων αἰτία: ἔκγονα δὲ πυρὸς 
πτηνὰ εἶναι τοὺς καλουμένους πυριγόνους, καὶ ἐν 
αὐτῷ βιοῦν καὶ τεθηλέναι, καὶ δεῦρο καὶ ἐκεῖσε 
περιποτᾶσθαι, τοῦτο ἐκπληκτικόν. καὶ τὸ ἔτι 
θαῦμα, ὅταν ἔξω τοῦ πυρὸς τοῦ συντρόφου ἐκνεύ- 

τῆς χειμερίου. 2 ἐντεῦθεν. 


μιννω φυσϑούκῶν: δὲ ARLE Rte eats a ne eee SAN OER ONE την στ λον τὶ κμρκα κα παννι στα αν ΡΒΕΝΕΡΌΘΌΟΝΝ εἶ 


‘|. When Cranes are about to leave their Thracian ee nae 
haunts and the frosts of Thrace, they collect on the of Granes 

river Hebrus,* and when each one has swallowed a 
stone by way of food and as ballast against the on- 
slaught of winds, they prepare to emigrate and to set 
out for the Nile, longing for the warmth and for the 
food that is to be had there during the winter. 
And just when they are on the point of rising and 
moving off, the oldest Crane goes round the entire 
flock thrice and then falls to the ground and breathes 
his last. So the others bury the dead body on the 
spot and fly straight to Egypt, traversing the widest 
seas on outstretched wing, never landing, never 
pausing to rest. And they fall in with the Egyptians 
as they are sowing their fields, and in the ploughlands 
they find, so to speak, a generous table, and though 
uninvited partake of the Egyptians’ hospitality. 

9. That living creatures should be born upon the 
mountains, in the air, and in the sea, is no great 

* Pire-fiies ἢ 

marvel, since matter, food, and nature are the cause. 

But that there should spring from fire winged crea- 
tures which men call ‘ Fire-flies,’® and that these 
should live and flourish in it, flying to and fro about 
it, is a startling fact. And what is more extra- 

ordinary, when these creatures stray outside the 

@ Mod. Maritza. 
> Lit. ‘ fire-born’; these are not what are now called fire- 
flies,’ and are unknown to modern science. 

80 . 


\ 35} “~ 
σωσι Kal ἀέρος ψυχροῦ μεταλάχωσιν,ἷ ἐνταῦθα δὴ 
ε ς > 7 ᾿ 
τεθνήκασι. Kat ἥτις ἡ αἰτία τίκτεσθαι μὲν πυρΐ, 
ἀέρι δὲ ἀπόλλυσθαι, λεγέτωσαν ἄλλοι. 


yange of the heat to which they are accustomed and 
take in cold air, they at once perish. And why they 

should be born in the fire and die in the air others 
must explain. | 

¢ . ἡ“) ee | 
3. Of μὲν ὄρνιθες ot ἕτεροι ἀναβαίνονται, ws Ad- 

γος, αἱ δὲ 'χελιδόνες οὔ, ἀλλὰ τούτων ye ἐναντία 3, With other birds the hen is mounted by the cock, Swallows 


ἡ μίξις ἐστί. καὶ τὸ αἴτιον otdev ἡ φύσις. λέγει 
δὲ ὁ πλείων λόγος ὅτι πεφρίκασι τὸν Τηρέα καὶ 
δεδοίκασι μή ποτε ἄρα προσερπύσας λάθρᾳ εἶτα 
ἐργάσηται τραγῳδίαν καινήν. ἦν δὲ ἄρα καὶ τοῦτο 
χελιδόνι δῶρον ἐκ τῆς φύσεως, ὥς γε ἐμὲ κρίνειν, 
Τὸ τιμιώτατον" ᾿πηρωθεῖσα τὴν ὄψιν περόναις. ἐὰν 
τύχῃ, ὁρᾷ αὖθις. τί οὖν ἔτι τὸν Τειρεσίαν ddoper, 
καίτοι μὴ ἐνταυθὶ 5 ζμόνον»,} ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν ἄδου 
σοφώτατον, ὡς Ὅμηρος λέγει; ὯΝ 

, 1: Ζῷα ἐφήμερα οὕτω κέκληται, λαβόντα τὸ 
ὄνομα ἐκ τοῦ μέτρου τοῦ κατὰ τὸν βίον: τίκτεται 
5 ~ 2 ἃ 3 7 

γὰρ ἐν τῷ οἴνῳ, καὶ ἀνοιχθέντος τοῦ σκεύους 
τὰ δὲ ἐξέπτη καὶ εἶδε τὸ φῶς καὶ. τέθνηκεν. 
οὐκοῦν παρελθεῖν μὲν αὐτοῖς ἐς τὸν βίον ἔδωκεν ἡ 
φύσις, τῶν δὲ ἐν αὐτῷ κακῶν ἐρρύσατο τὴν ταχί- 
στην, μήτε τι τῶν ἰδίων συμφορῶν σθημένοις 
μήτε μὴν Twos τῶν ἀλλοτρίων μάρτυσι γεγενημέ- 

"ἢ é 
2 μεταλάβωσιν. 2 ἐνταυθοῖ. 
3 <udvov> add. H. 4 σοφώτατον ψυχῶν. 

. μὲν yap. 

@ 'Tereus Tied Procne and later anes false . oe 
: retences, 
her-sister Philomela, ‘To punish him Procne slow there son 
Itys and then fled with her sister. When pursued by Tereus 

96 ᾿ 

so they say ; not so Swallows: their manner of coupling mating 

is the reverse. Nature alone knows the reason for 
this. But the common explanation is that the hens 
are afraid of Tereus,* and fear lest one day he steal 

secretly upon them and enact a fresh tragedy. Now 

in my opinion the most valuable gift that Nature has 
bestowed upon the Swallow is this, that if it chance 
to be blinded with a brooch-pin, it regains its sight. 
Why then do we continue to sing the praises. of 
Teiresias, even though he was the wisest of men not 
only on earth but also in Hades, as Homer tells us 

(Od. 10. 493]? 

4. There are creatures called Ephemera (living only ‘Ephemera’ 

for ἃ day) ® that take their name from their span of 
life, for they are generated in wine, and when the 

vessel is opened they fly out, see the light, and die. 

Thus it is that Nature has permitted them to come to 

life, but has rescued them as soon as possible from 

life’s evils, so that they are neither aware of their 

own misfortune nor are spectators of the misfortune. 
of others. . 

all three were changed into birds, T. into a hoopoe (or hawk), 
Procne a swallow, Philomela into a nightingale. 

> Perhaps the ‘ Vinegar-fly,’ belonging to the genus Droso- 
phila. ; | 


᾿ ξ 
4 : 


5. Ἤδη μέντοι τις Kal ἀσπίδος ἐν μακρῷ τῷ 
χρόνῳ πληγὴν ἰάσατο ἢ τομὴν παραλαβὼν ἢ πῦρ 
ὑπομείνας εὖ μάλα τλημόνως ἢ ἀναγκαίοις φαρμά- 
κοις τὸ κακόν, ἵνα μὴ πρόσω ἑρπύσῃ,, στήσας ὁ 
δείλαιος: σπιθαμὴ δὲ βασιλίσκου τὸ μῆκός ἐστι, 
καὶ μέντοι καὶ θεασάμενος ὁ τῶν ὄφεων μήκιστος 
αὐτὸν οὐκ ἐς ἀναβολὰς ἀλλὰ ἤδη ἐκ τῆς τοῦ 
φυσήματος προσβολῆς αὖός ἐστιν. εἰ δὲ ἄνθρωπος 
κατέχοι ῥάβδον, εἶτα ταύτην ἐκεῖνος ἐνδάκοι, 
τέθνηκεν 6 κύριος τῆς λύγου. 

.6. Τὴν τῶν δελφίνων φιλομουσίαν καὶ τὸ τῶν 
αὐτῶν ἐρωτικόν, τὸ μὲν ἄδουσι Κορώθιοι,) καὶ 
ὁμολογοῦσιν αὐτοῖς Λέσβιοι, τὸ δὲ Ἰῆται 4" τὰ 
μὲν ᾿Αρίονος ° τοῦ Μηθυμναίου ἐκεῖνοι, τά γε μὴν 
ἐν τῇ Ἴῳ δ ὑπὲρ τοῦ παιδὸς τοῦ καλοῦ καὶ τῆς 
νήξεως αὐτοῦ καὶ τοῦ δελφῖνος οἱ ἕτεροι. λέγει 
δὲ καὶ Βυζάντιος ἀνήρ, Λεωνίδης ὄνομα, ἰδεῖν 
αὐτὸς παρὰ τὴν Αἰολίδα πλέων ἐν τῇ καλουμένῃ 
Ποροσελήνῃ πόλει δελφῖνα ἠθάδα καὶ ἐν λιμένι 
τῷ ἐκείνων οἰκοῦντα καὶ ὥσπερ. οὖν ἰδιοξένοις 
χρώμενον τοῖς ἐκεῖθι. καὶ ἐπί γε τούτῳ ὁ αὐτὸς 
λέγει πρεσβῦτιν 7 τινα καὶ γέροντα δὲ συνοικοῦντα 
αὐτῇ ἐκθρέψαι τόνδε τὸν τρόφιμον δελέατά 8 οἱ 
προτείνοντας καὶ μάλα 5 γε ἐφολκά. καὶ μέντοι 
καὶ ὁμότροφός of ἦν ὁ τῶν πρεσβυτῶν υἱός, καὶ 
ἐτιθηνοῦντο ἄμφω τὸν δελφῖνα καὶ τὸν παῖδα τὸν 

: Jac: προσερπύσῃ. 2 δάκοι. 

Η ΟΣ Αἰγύπτιοι. 4 Valesius: Tyirat. 
ίωνος. 8 jus: Tt 
 ’Ap i Valesius : Tye. 
Kat πρεσβῦτιν. 8 δέλεάρ τε. 

3. ἄλλα. 


de peemner tet AMEIAMASSET a ωνυνίμα κασττ τ δ 

while from the bite of an Asp,? either by summoning 

‘And if a man has a stick in his hand and the Basilisk 


5. Men have, it is true, recovered after a long The Asp, 
1 } 

excision to their aid or with the utmost fortitude 
enduring cautery, or they have in their plight pre- 
vented the poison from spreading by taking the 
necessary medicines. 

The Basilisk measures but a span, yet at the sight The α. 
of it the longest snake not after an interval but on 
the instant, at the mere impact of its breath, shrivels. 


sennssancvnatehd WEARER SSA 

“λλύρυεε εν 

Lib εθλβυγδ, 


αὶ seinen tte tO OCURENERLE ESOS Πόσον 

bites it, the owner of the rod dies. 

6. The Dolphin’s love of music and its affectionate Dolphin and 
nature are a constant theme, the former with the ΠΟΥ eae 
people of Corinth (with whom the Lesbians concur), | 
the latter with the inhabitants of 105. The Lesbians ἡ | 
tell the story of Arion of Methymna ; what happened 
in Ios with the beautiful boy and his swimming and 
the Dolphin is told by the inhabitants of Ios. 

ΠΑ certain Byzantine, Leonidas by name, declares 
that while sailing past Aeolis he saw with his own 
eyes at the town called Poroselene ὃ a tame Dolphin 
which lived in the harbour there and behaved towards 
the inhabitants as though they were personal friends. 
And further he declares that an aged couple fed this 
foster-child, offering it the most alluring baits. 
What is more, the old couple had a son who was 
brought up along with the Dolphin, and the pair 

@ But see 1. 54. 
δ᾽ Poroselene, island and town, the largest of the Hecatonnesi 

lying between Lesbos and Asia Minor. 



! ἢ : - , 3 , 
σφέτερον, Kat πὼς ἐκ τῆς συντροφίας ἐλαθέτην 
> Ld 3 ? : 
ἐς ἔρωτα ἀλλήλων ὑπελθόντε 6 τε ἄνθρωπος καὶ 

A “~ / “~ : ὃ 4 4 10 ᾽ὔ, Ὁ /... 1 
“τὸ ζῷον, καὶ, τοῦτο δὴ τὸ ᾳἀδόμενον, ὑπέρσεμνος 

avrépws ἐτιμᾶτο ἐν τοῖς προειρημένοις. ὁ τοίνυν 
δελφὶς ὡς μὲν πατρίδα ἐφίλει τὴν ἸΠοροσελήνην,3 
ὡς δὲ ἴδιον οἶκον ἠγάπα τὸν λιμένα, καὶ δὴ καὶ 
τὰ τροφεῖα τοῖς θρεψαμένοις ἀπεδίδου. καὶ τοῦτων 
γε ἐκεῖνος ἦν ὁ τρόπος. τέλειος ὧν τῆς ἀπὸ 
χειρὸς τροφῆς ἐδεῖτο ἥκιστα, ἤδη γε μὴν καὶ 
περαιτέρω προνέων καὶ περινηχόμενος καὶ σκοπῶν 
ἄγρας ἐναλίους τὰ μὲν ἑαυτῷ δεῖπνον εἶχε, τὰ δὲ 
τοῖς οἰκείοις ἀπέφερεν: οἱ δὲ ἤδεσαν τοῦτο καὶ 

, 4 > £f : 4 3 ~ : : 
- μέντοι Kal ἀνέμενον τὸν ἐξ αὐτοῦ φόρον ἀσμένως. 

καὶ μία μὲν ἣν nde ἡ πρόσοδος, ἐκείνη δὲ ἄλλη. 
ὄνομα ὃ τῷ δελφῖνι ὡς τῷ παιδὶ ot θρεψάμενοι 
ἔθεντο: καὶ 6 παῖς τῇ συντροφίᾳ θαρρῶν, τοῦτο * 
αὐτὸν ἐπί τινος προβλῆτος στὰς τόπου ἐκάλει, καὶ 
ἅμα τῇ κλήσει καὶ ἐκολάκευεν". 6 δέ, εἴτε πρὸς 
εἰρεσίαν ἡμιλλᾶτό τινα, εἴτ᾽ ἐκυβίστα τῶν ἄλλων 
ὅσοι περὶ τὸν χῶρον ἐπλανῶντο ἀγελαῖοι κατα- 
σκιρτῶν, εἴτ᾽ ἐθήρα ὃ ἐπειγούσης τῆς γαστρὸς 
αὐτόν, ἐπανήει καὶ μάλα γε ὦκιστα δίκην ἐλαυνο- 
μένης νεὼς πολλῷ τῷ ῥοθίῳ, καὶ πλησίον τῶν 

~ la By - 
παιδικῶν γενόμενος συμπαίστης τε ἦν καὶ συνε- 

fs 4 ΄᾿ \ aN \ . “᾿ ᾿ 

σκίρτα, καὶ πῇ μὲν τῷ παιδὶ παρενήχετο, πῇ δὲ ὁ 
a ‘ ᾿ 7 τ +e 

δελφὶς οἷα προκαλούμενος εἶτα μέντοι ἐς τὴν 

ῳ \_. \ \ Α “» : 

ἅμιλλαν τὴν πρὸς ὃ αὑτὸν τὰ παιδικὰ ὑπῆγε. Kal 
1. καὶ μάλα ὑ. 

2 προειρημένην. 

3. ὄνομα δὲ καί. 

+ Schn: τοῦτον. ee ae Ἢ 

5 εἴτε ἐς θήραν Kai μάλα ye.’ °° 8 εἰς: 


aes ᾿ " ; πὰ a acco ae 2 oa μξω ο Pr ; 
β ah 



cared for the Dolphin and their own son, and some- 
how by dint of being brought up together the man- 

child and the fish gradually came without knowing it 

to love one another, and, as the oft-repeated tag has 
it, ‘a super-reverent counter-love was cultivated ’ 
by the aforesaid. So then the Dolphin came to_ 
love Poroselene as his native country and grew as 
fond of the harbour as of his own home, and what is 
more, he repaid those who had cared for him what 
they had spent on feeding him. And this was how 
he did it. When fully grown he had no need of 
being fed from the hand, but would now swim . 
further out, and as he ranged abroad in his search for 
some quarry from the sea, would keep some to feed 
himself, and the rest he would bring to his ‘relations.’ 
And they were aware of this and were even glad to 
wait for the tribute which he brought. This then 
was one gain; another was. as follows. As to the 
boy so to the Dolphin his foster-parents gave a 
name, and the boy with the courage born of their 
common upbringing would stand upon some spot 
jutting into the sea and call the name, and as 
he called would use soothing words. Whereat the 

‘Dolphin, whether he was racing with some oared 

ship, or plunging and leaping in scorn of all other 
fish that roamed in shoals about the spot, or. was 
hunting under stress of hunger, would rise to the 
surface with all speed, like a ship that raises a 
great wave as it drives onward, and drawing near to 

his loved oné would frolic and gambol at his side; 

at one moment would swim close by the boy, at 
another would seem to challenge him and even 
induce his favourite to race with him. And what was 
even more astounding, he would at times even decline 



τὸ ἔτι θαῦμα, ἀπέστη καὶ τῆς πρώτης ποτὲ Kal 
δὴ καὶ ὑπενήξατο αὐτῷ, οἷα νικώμενος ἡδέως 
δήπου. ταῦτα τοίνυν ἐκεκήρυκτο, καὶ τοῖς πλέου- 
σιν ὅραμα ἐδόκει σὺν καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ὅσα ἡ πόλις 
ἀγαθὰ εἶχε, κἀὶ τοῖς πρεσβύταις καὶ τῷ μειρακίῳ 
πρόσοδος ἦν. ᾿ 

7. Ἔν Λιβύῃ ἡμιόνους 1 ἢ τετρωμένους ᾿Αρχέ- 
λαος λέγει ἢ ἀπειπόντας ὑπὸ δίψους ἐρρῖφθαι 
νεκροὺς πολλούς. πολλάκις δὲ ὄφεων ἐπιρρεῦσαν 
φῦλον πάμπολυ τῶν κρεῶν ἐσθίειν: ἐπὰν δὲ 
βασιλίσκου συρίγματος ἀκούσῃ, τὰ μὲν ὑπὸ τοῖς 
εἰλυοῖς 5 καὶ τῇ ψάμμῳ ἀφανίζεσθαι τὴν ταχίστην 
καὶ ἀποκρύπτεσθαι, τὸν δὲ προσελθόντα κατὰ 
πολλὴν τὴν εἰρήνην δειπνεῖν, εἶτα αὖθις ὑποσυρίζειν 
καὶ ἀπαλλάττεσθαι, τοὺς δὲ ἡμιόνους καὶ τὸ 
δεῖπνον τὸ ἐξ αὐτῶν σημαίνεσθαι τὸ ἐντεῦθεν, τὸ 
τοῦ λόγου τοῦτο, ἄστροις. 

8. Λόγοι φασὶν Ἐβοέων δεῦρο φοιτῶντες, τοὺς 
ἁλιέας τοὺς ἐκεῖσε τοῖς δελφῖσι τοῖς ἐκεῖθι ἰσομοι- 
ρίαν τῆς θήρας ἀπονέμειν: καὶ ἀκούω τὴν ἄγραν 
τοιαύτην. γαλήνην εἶναι χρή, καὶ εἰ ταῦθ᾽ οὕτως 

3 ΄- rf ~ 3 i : : 
ἔχει, τῆς πρῴρας τῶν ἀκατίων κοίλας τινὰς 

ἐξαρτῶσιν ἐσχαρίδας πυρὸς ἐνακμάζοντος. καὶ 
εἰσὶ διαφανεῖς, ὡς καὶ στέγειν ὃ τὸ πῦρ καὶ μὴ 
κρύπτειν τὸ φῶς. ἐπνοὺς καλοῦσιν αὐτάς. οἱ 
τοίνυν ἰχθῦς δεδίασι τὴν αὐγὴν καὶ τὴν λαμπηδόνα 
δυσωποῦνται" καὶ οἱ μὲν οὐκ εἰδότες 6 τι βούλεται 

ε é 
1 ἡμιόνους τινάς. 2 ἰλύσι. 

3 Reiske: στέγειν καὶ. 


them lanterns. 
ness and are dazzled by the glare, and some of them 

ON ANIMALS, IT. 6-8 | 

the winner’s place and actually swim second, as 
though presumably he was glad to be defeated. 

These happenings were noised abroad, and those 
who sailed thither reckoned them among the excel- 
lent sights which the city had to show; and to the 
old people and to the boy they were a source of 

7. Archelaus tells us that in Libya mules that 
have been wounded or which have succumbed from 
thirst are thrown out for dead in great numbers. 
And frequently a multitude of snakes of all kinds 
comes streaming up to eat their flesh, but whenever 
they hear the hiss of the Basilisk they disappear as 
swiftly as possible into their dens or beneath the 

The Basilisk 

and other 


sand, and hide; so the Basilisk on reaching the spot 

feasts in complete tranquillity. Then again with a 
hiss he is off, and thereafter as to the mules and to 
the feast which they provide, ‘ he marks their place,’ 
as the saying has it, ‘ only by the stars.’ ὦ 

8. There are stories which reach us from Euboea of ae 

fisher-folk in those parts sharing their catch equally Dolphin 

with the Dolphins in those parts. And 1 am told 
that they fish in this way. The weather must be 
calm, and if it is, they attach to the prow of their 
boats some hollow braziers with fire burning in them, 
and one can see through them, so that while retain- 
ing the fire they do not conceal the light. They call 
Now the fish are afraid of the bright- 

not knowing what is the purpose of the thing they see, 
4.7.6. he never returns; cp. Jebb on Soph. OT 795. 


VOL. I. E 


TO δρώμενον, πλησιάζουσι, μαθεῖν. βουλόμενοι τοῦ 

φοβοῦντος σφᾶς τὴν αἰτίαν: εἶτα ἐκπλαγέντες ἢ 
πρός τινι πέτρᾳ ἡσυχάζουσιν ἀθρόοι παλλόμενοι 
τῷ δέει ἢ ἐς τὴν ἠόνα ἐκπίπτουσιν ὠθούμενοι, καὶ 
ἐοίκασι τοῖς ἐμβεβροντημένοις. οὕτω γε “μὴν 
διακειμένους ῥᾷστόν ἐστιν ἤδη καὶ τριαίνῃ πατάξαι. 
ἐπειδὰν οὖν θεάσωνται οἱ deAdives τοὺς ἁλιέας τὸ 
πῦρ ἐξάψαντας, ἑαυτοὺς εὐτρεπίζουσι. καὶ οἱ 
μὲν ἠρέμα ὑπερέττουσιν, οἱ δὲ δελῴϊνες τοὺς 
ἐξωτέρω τῶν ἰχθύων φοβοῦντες ὠθοῦσι καὶ τοῦ 
διαδιδράσκειν ἀναστέλλουσιν. οὐκοῦν ἐκεῖνοι πιε- 
ζόμενοι πανταχόθεν καὶ τρόπον τινὰ κεκυκλωμένοι 
ἔκ τε τῆς τούτων εἰρεσίας καὶ τῆς νήξεως τῆς 
ἐκείνων συνιᾶσιν ἀφυκτα εἶναί σφισι, καὶ παρα- 
μένουσι καὶ ἁλίσκονται πάμπολύ τι χρῆμα. καὶ 
οἱ deAdives προσίασιν 1 ὡς ἀπαιτοῦντες τοῦ κοινοῦ 
πόνου τὴν ἐπικαρπίαν τὴν ὀφειλομένην σφίσιν ἐκ 
τῆς νομῆς, καὶ οἵ γε ἁλιεῖς πιστῶς καὶ εὐγνωμόνως 
ἀφίστανται τοῖς συνθήροις τοῦ δικαίου μέρους, εἰ 
βούλονται καὶ πάλιν σφίσι συμμάχους ἀκλήτους 
᾿ς παρεῖναι καὶ ἀπροφασίστους. πιστεύουσι γὰρ ot 
᾿ ἐκεῖ θαλαττουργοὶ ὅτι παραβάντες ἕξουσιν ἐχθροὺς 
οὗς εἶχον πρότερον φίλους. 

9, "EAados ὄφιν νικᾷ, κατά τινα φύσεως δωρεὰν 

θαυμαστήν: καὶ οὐκ ἂν αὐτὸν διαλάθοι ἐν τῷ φω-. 

λεῷ ὧν ὁ ἔχθιστος, ἀλλὰ προσερείσας τῇ κατα- 
δρομῇ τοῦ δακετοῦ 5 τοὺς ἑαυτοῦ μυκτῆρας βιαιό- 
TaTa, ἐσπνεῖ, καὶ ἕλκει ὡς ἴυγγι τῷ πνεύματι, καὶ 
ἄκοντα προάγει, καὶ προκύπτοντα αὐτὸν ἐσθίειν 
ἄρχεται" καὶ μάλιστά γε διὰ χειμῶνος δρᾷ τοῦτο. 
98 1 Schn: προΐασιν. | 

: Weil atin sp Rerle ie. ie των 
1o- dort nro esp hictttre th RAITT OC a sae oo ealae Sid basis facie 

ccnanrenireiti SE 6 6, 

i ae ΗΝ 
ΑΝΘΘΟΌΟαΟ, οἱ ς.---..... ΕΛ ρον ον 

ΡΣ τιν 


ah eeevancect beens 

teste PELLETED CE o bE ee ptosis 
ate an ATR te κττυτοτο 


draw pear from a wish to discover: what it is that. 
frightens them. Then terror-stricken they either 
lie still in a mass close to some rock, quivering with 
fear, or are cast ashore as they are jostled along, and 
seem thunderstruck. Of course in that condition it 
is perfectly easy to harpoon them. | So. when the 
Dolphins observe that the fishermen have lit their fire, 
they get ready to act, and while the men row softly 
the Dolphins scare the fish on the outskirts and push 
them and prevent any escape. Accordingly the fish 
sressed on all sides and in some degree surrounded, 
yealise that there is no escaping from the men that 

row and the Dolphins that swim; so they remain 

where they are and are caught in great numbers. 
And the Dolphins approach as though demanding 
the profits of their common labour due to them from 
this store of food. And the fishermen loyally and 
gratefully resign to their comrades in the chase their 
just portion—assuming that they wish them to come 
again, unsummoned and prompt, to their aid, for 
those toilers of the. sea are convinced that if they 
omit to do this, they will make enemies of those who 

were once friends. 

9. A Deer defeats a snake by an extraordinary gift 
that Nature has bestowed. And the fiercest snake 
lying in its den cannot escape, but the Deer applies 
its nostrils to the spot where the venomous creature 
lurks, breathes into it with the utmost force, attracts 
it by the spell, as it. were, of its breath, draws it 

forth against its will, and when it peeps out, begins 

to eat it. Especially in the winter does it do this. 

2 τοῦ δόμου. 



ἤδη μέντοι tis! Kai κέρας ἐλάφου ἕξέσὰς, εἶτα τὸ 
ἕξέσμα ἐς πῦρ ἐνέβαλε, καὶ 6 καπνὸς ἀνιὼν διώκει 
τοὺς ὄφεις πανταχόθεν, μηδὲ τὴν ὀσμὴν ὑπομέ- 

10. "Ἔστι μὲν τὴν ἄλλως * ὁ ἵππος γαῦρον: καὶ 
γὰρ καὶ τὸ μέγεθος καὶ τὸ τάχος αὐτὸν καὶ τοῦ 
αὐχένος τὸ ὑψηλὸν καὶ ἡ τῶν σκελῶν ὑγρότης καὶ 
ἡ τῶν ὁπλῶν κροῦσις ὃ ἐς φρύαγμα καὶ τῦφον 
ἀνάγει" μάλιστα δὲ κομῶσα ἵππος ἁβρότατόν τέ 
ἐστι καὶ θρυπτικώτατον. ἀτιμάζει γοῦν ἀναβῆναι 
τοὺς ὄνους αὐτήν, ἵππῳ δὲ γαμουμένη ἥδεται, καὶ 
ἑαυτὴν ἀξιοῖ τῶν μεγίστων. ὅπερ οὖν συνειδότες 
ot βουλόμενοι ἡμιόνους σφίσι γενέσθαι, ἀποθρί- 
σαντες τῆς ἵππου τὴν χαίτην εἰκῆ καὶ ὡς ἔτυχεν, 
εἶτα μέντοι τοὺς ὄνους ἐπάγουσιν: ἡ δὲ ὑπομένει 
τὸν ἄδοξον ἤδη γαμέτην, πρῶτον αἰδουμένη. καὶ 
Σοφοκλῆς δὲ ἔοικε μεμνῆσθαι τοῦ πάθους. 

11. Περὶ μὲν τῆς τῶν ἐλεφάντων σοφίας εἶπον 
ἀλλαχόθι, καὶ μέντοι καὶ περὶ τῆς θήρας αὐτῶν 
καὶ ταύτης ἃ εἶπον ὀλίγα ἐκ πολλῶν ὧν ἔφασαν 
ἄλλοι. τὸ δὲ νῦν ἔχον ἔοικα ὅ ἐρεῖν περί τε 
εὐμουσίας αὐτῶν καὶ εὐπειθείας καὶ τῆς ἐς τὰ 
μαθήματα εὐκολίας, χαλεπὰ ὅμως ὄντα καὶ 

3 7 »“» ? ~ 
ἀνθρώπῳ roxeiv,® μὴ τι γοῦν τοσούτῳ θηρίῳ καὶ 
5 [2 [ 

τὰ / 7 
οὕτω τέως ἀγριωτάτῳ συγγενέσθαι. χορείαν γὰρ 
\ ? 4 A f 
Kal ὀρχηστικὴν Kat βαίνειν πρὸς ῥυθμὸν καὶ 
1 σις after ἐλάφου in MSS. 
ῷ Ἅ wv + 3 ~ ¥ 
τὴν ἄλλως Kal ἐκ τῶν dAdwv.. 

3 κροῦσις πάντα. 
4 ταῦτα. 5 Schn: ἔθηκα. 



Indeed it has even happened that a man has ground 
a Deer’s horn to powder and then has thrown the 
powder into fire, and that the mounting smoke has 
driven the snakes from all the neighbourhood: even 
the smell is to them unendurable. 

10. The Horse is generally speaking a proud crea- Mare and 

ture, the reason being that his size, his speed, his 
tall neck, the suppleness of his limbs, and the clang 
of his hooves make him insolent and vain. But it is 
chiefly a Mare with a long mane that is so full of airs 
and graces. For instance, she scorns to be covered 
by an ass, but is glad to mate with a horse, regarding 
herself as only fit for the greatest <of her kind). 
Accordingly those who wish to have mules born, 
knowing this characteristic, clip the Mare’s mane in 
a haphazard fashion anyhow, and then put asses to 
her. Though ashamed at first, she admits her present 
ignoble mate. Sophocles also appears to mention 
this humiliation [ fr. 659P].¢ 

11. Touching the sagacity of Elephants I have 
spoken elsewhere; and further, I have spoken too 
of the manner of hunting them, mentioning but a 
few of the numerous facts recorded by others. For 
the present I intend to speak of their sense for music 
and their readiness to obey and their aptitude for 
learning things which are difficult even for mankind, 
to say nothing of so huge an animal and one hitherto 
so fierce to encounter. The movements of a chorus, 
the steps of a dance, how to march in time, how to 

@ See 11. 18. 

. 5. χγρχεῖν αὐτῶν. 



its docility 


αὐλοῦ ἀσμένως 1 ἀκούειν καὶ συνιέναι ἤχων δια- 
φοράς, ἢ βραδύνειν ἐνδιδόντων ἢ ταχύνειν παρορ- 
μώντων, μαθὼν. οἶδεν ἐλέφας, καὶ ἀκριβοῖ καὶ 
οὐ σφάλλεται. οὕτως ἄρα ἡ φύσις μεγέθει μὲν 
αὐτὸν μέγιστον εἰργάσατο, μάθησις "' δὲ πραότατον 
ἀπέφηνε καὶ εὐάγωγον. εἰ μὲν οὖν ἔμελλον τὴν ἐν 
Ϊνδοῖς αὐτῶν εὐπείθειαν καὶ εὐμάθειαν ἢ τὴν ἐν 
Αἰθιοπίᾳ ἢ τὴν ἐν Λιβύῃ γράφειν, ἴσως dv τῳ καὶ 
μῦθον ἐδόκουν τινὰ συμπλάσας κομπάζειν, εἶτα 
. ἐπὶ φήμῃ τοῦ θηρίου τῆς φύσεως καταψεύδεσθαι: 
ὅπερ͵ ἐχρῆν δρᾶν φιλοσοφοῦντα ἄνδρα ἥκιστα καὶ 
ἀληθείας ἐραστὴν διάπυρον. ἃ δὲ αὐτὸς εἶδον καὶ 
ἅτινα πρότερον ἐν τῇ Ρώμῃ πραχθέντα ἀνέγραψαν 
ἄλλοι προειλόμην εἰπεῖν, ἐπιδραμὼν ὀλίγα ἐκ πολ- 
λῶν, οὐχ ἥκιστα καὶ ἐντεῦθεν ἀποδεικνὺς τὴν τοῦ 
ζῴου ἰδιότητα. , ἡμερωθεὶς 4 ἐλέφας πραότατόν 
ἐστι, καὶ. ἄγεται ῥᾷστα ἐς 6 τί τις ® θέλει. Kal τά 
γε πρεσβύτατα τιμῶν τὸν χρόνον ἐρῶ πρῶτον. 
θέας ἐπετέλει. Ῥωμαίοις ὁ Ττερμανικὸς ὃ Καῖσαρ." 
εἴη ὃ ἂν ἀδελφιδοῦς Τιβερίον οὗτος. οὐκοῦν 
καὶ θήλειαι, εἶτα ἐξ αὐτῶν ἐτέχθησαν αὐθιγενεῖς. 
καὶ ὅτε τὰ κῶλα ὑπήρξαντο πήγνυσθαι, σοφὸς 

ἀνὴρ ὁμιλεῖν τοιούτοις θηρίοις ἐπώλ ous, 
nptots ἐπώλευσεν αὐτούς, 

/ ‘ 4 24 on 
δαιμονίᾳ τινὲ καὶ ἐκπληκτικῇ διδασκαλίᾳ μεταχει- 

ρισάμενος. προσῆγε δὲ αὐτοὺς ἄρα ἡσυχῆ τήν ye: 

4 , 7 “a f 
πρώτην Kat πράως τοῖς διδάγμασι δελέατα ἄττα 


> ~ 3 / 
1 αὐλοῦ dopévws] αὐλουμένους. 

2 Jac: μαθήσει. 

3 τῶν ζῴων. 
* Schn: ἡμερωθέν. 
5 6 τις. 8 ἐγένοντο μέν. 


\ » 3 am ¢ ? / . 
καὶ ἄρρενες ἐν τῇ Ῥώμῃ τέλειοι πλείους 


enjoy the sound of flutes, how to distinguish different 
notes, when to slacken pace as permitted or when to 
quicken at command—all these things the Elephant 
has learnt and knows how to do, and does accurately 
without making mistakes. Thus, while nature has 
ereated him to be the largest of animals, learning 
has rendered him the most gentle and docile. Now 
had I set out to write about the readiness to obey 
and to learn among elephants in India or in Ethiopia 
or in Libya, anyone might suppose that I was con- 
cocting some pretentious tale, that in fact I was on 
the strength of hearsay about the beast giving a 
completely false account of its nature. That is the 
last thing that a man in pursuit of knowledge and an 
ardent lover of the truth has any right to do. In- 
stead I have preferred to state what I have myself 
seen and what others have recorded as having 
formerly occurred in Rome, treating summarily a 
few facts out of many, which nevertheless sufficiently 
demonstrate the peculiar nature of the beast. 

The Elephant when once tamed is the gentlest of P 



creatures and is easily induced to do whatever one in Rome 

wants. Now keeping due eye on the time, 1 shail 
state the most important events first. Germanicus 
Caesar was about to give some shows for the Romans. 
(He would be the nephew ¢ of Tiberius.) There were 
in Rome several full-grown male and female elephants, 
and there were calves born of them in the country ; 
and when their limbs began to grow firm, a man who 
was clever at dealing with such beasts trained them 
and instructed them with uncanny and astounding 
dexterity. To begin with he introduced them in a 
quiet, gentle fashion to his instructions, supplying 

α Or rather, the adopted son. 



ἐπάγων Kal τροφὰς ἡδίστας καὶ πεποικιλμένας ἐς 
τὸ ἐπαγωγόν 1 τε καὶ ἐφολκόν, ὡς εἴ τι μὲν ἣν 3 
ἀγριότητος, τοῦτο ἐκβαλεῖν, ἀπαυτομολῆσαι ὃ δὲ 
πρὸς τὸ ἥμερον καὶ ἁμωσγέπως ἀνθρώπειον. καὶ 
ἦν γε τὰ μαθήματα αὐλῶν * ἀκούοντας μὴ ἐκμαΐί- 
νεσθαι, καὶ τυμπάνων ἀράβου κροτοῦντος μὴ 
ταράττεσθαι, καὶ κηλεῖσθαι σύριγγι, φέρειν δὲ καὶ 

3 3 

ἤχους ἐκμελεῖς ὅ καὶ ποδῶν ἐμβαινόντων ψόφον 

καὶ pony συμμιγῆ: ἐξεπονήθησαν δὲ καὶ ἀνθρώπων 
πλῆθος μὴ δεδιέναι. ἦν δὲ καὶ ἐκεῖνα διδάγματα 
ἀνδρικά, πρὸς τὴν τῆς πληγῆς καταφορὰν μὴ θυ- 
μοῦσθαι, μηδὲ μὴν ἀναγκαζομένους λυγίζειν τι 
τῶν μελῶν καὶ κάμπτειν ὀρχηστικῶς τε καὶ χορι- 
κῶς εἶτα ἐς θυμὸν ἐξάπτεσθαι, καὶ ταῦτα ῥώμης 
τε καὶ ἀλκῆς εὖ ἥκοντας. φύσει μὲν οὖν τοῦτο 
πλεονέκτημα ἤδη καὶ μάλα γεννικόν, μὴ ἔχειν 
ἀτάκτως μηδὲ  ἀπειθῶς πρὸς παιδεύματα ἀνθρω- 
mud: ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀπέφηνεν αὐτοὺς ὁ ὀρχηστοδιδάσκα- 
dos καὶ μάλα γε σοφούς, καὶ ἠκρίβουν τὰ ἐκ τῆς 
᾿ παιδεύσεως, οὐκ ἐψεύσαντο τῆς διδασκαλίας τὸν 
πόνον, φασίν, ἔνθα ἐπιδείξασθαι τὰ παιδεύματα 
αὐτοὺς ἡ χρεία σὺν τῷ καιρῷ παρεκάλει. δώδεκα 
μὲν γὰρ τὸν ἀριθμὸν ὅδε 6 χορὸς ἦσαν: παρῆλθόν 
γε μὴν ἐντεῦθεν τοῦ θεάτρου καὶ ἐκεῖθεν νεμηθέντες, 
καὶ εἰσήεσαν ἁβρὰ μὲν βαΐνοντες, θρυπτικῶς δὲ 
τὸ σῶμα πᾶν διαχέοντες, καὶ ἠμπείχοντο χορευτι- 
Kas στολὰς καὶ ἀνθινάς. καὶ τοῦ γε χορολέκτου 
τῇ φωνῇ μόνον ὑποσημήναντος οἱ δὲ ἐπὶ στοῖχον 
ἤεσαν, φασίν, εἰ τοῦτο ἐκέλευσεν 6 διδάξας. εἶτα 

3 7 “- 
: ἀγωγόν. 2 εἰ μέν τι ἐνῆν Cobet. 
- ‘ ~ 
ἐπαυτομολῆσαι. ., καὶ αὐλῶν. 



them with delicacies and the most appetising food, 
varied so as to allure and entice them into abandon- 
ing all trace of ferocity and into becoming renegades, 
that is tame and to some degree human. So what 
they learnt was not to go wild at the sound of flutes, 
not to be alarmed at the beating of drums, to be 
charmed by the pipe and to endure discordant notes, 
the beat of marching feet, and the singing of crowds. 
Moreover they were thoroughly trained not to be 
afraid of men in masses. And further their dis- 
ciplining was manly in the following respects: they 
were not to get angry at the infliction of a blow, nor, 
when obliged to move some limb and to sway in time 
to dance or song, to burst into.a rage, even though 
they had attained to such strength and courage. Now 
to refrain by instinct from misbehaving and from 
flouting the instruction given by a man is a virtue and 
a mark of nobility. When therefore the dancing- 
master had brought them to a high degree of pro- 
ficiency, and they performed accurately what he had 
taught them, they did not disappoint the labour 
spent on their training (so they say) in the place 
where in due time the occasion demanded that they 
should display what they had been taught. Now 
this troupe was twelve in number, and they advanced 
in two groups from the right and the left sides of the 
theatre. They entered with a mincing gait, sway- 
ing their whole body in a delicate manner, and they 
were clothed in the flowered garments of dancers. 
And at no more than a word from the conductor they 
formed into line (so we are told)—supposing that to 
have been their teacher’s order. Then again they 


5 Jac: ἐμμελεῖς. 


πα pict maeasniounnsse said 


> 7 , > : 
ad πάλιν περιήρχοντο ἐς κύκλον, ὑποσημήναντος 

ἰέναι ταύτῃ" καὶ εἰ ἐξελίττειν ἔδει, ἔπραττον αὐτό, 
καὶ ἄνθη μέντοι ῥιπτοῦντες ἐκόσμουν τὸ δάπεδον 
οἷδε, μέτρῳ καὶ φειδοῖ δρῶντες, Kat τι καὶ} 
ἐπεκτύπουν τοῖς ποσί, χόρειόν τε ὃ καὶ συμμελὲς 
ὁμορροθοῦντες οἱ αὐτοί. Δάμωνα μὲν οὖν καὶ 
Σπίνθαρον καὶ ᾿Αριστόξενον καὶ Φιλόξενον καὶ ἀλ- 
λους ἐπαΐειν μουσικῆς κάλλιστα καὶ ἐν ὀλίγοις 
ἐξετάζεσθαι τήνδε τὴν σοφίαν θαυμαστὸν μέν 
ἄπιστον δὲ καὶ παράλογον οὐδαμῶς" τὸ δὲ alrtov, 
ἄνθρωπος ζῷόν ἐστι λογικὸν καὶ νοῦ καὶ λογισμοῦ 
χωρητικόν' ζῷον δὲ ἄναρθρον συνιέναι καὶ ῥυθμοῦ 
καὶ μέλους καὶ φυλάττειν σχῆμα. καὶ ἐμμέλειαν 
μὴ παρατρέπειν καὶ ἀποπληροῦν τῶν διδαχθέντων 
τὴν ἀπαίτησιν, φύσεως δῶρα ταῦτα ἅμα καὶ 
ἰδιότης καθ ἕκαστον ἐκπληκτική. τὰ δὲ ἐπὶ 
τούτοις καὶ ἐκμῆναι ὃ τὸν θεατὴν ἱκανά" χαμαι- 
ζήλων κλινῶν στιβάδες * ἐν τῇ ψάμμῳ τοῦ θεάτρου 
τεθεῖσαι, εἶτα ἐδέξαντο τυλεῖα ® καὶ ἐπὶ τούτοις 

Ἀ ? > ἢ 
OT 6 ? > 7 Ξ 
ρωμνὴν ποικίλην, οἰκίας ὃ μέγα εὐδαίμονος καὶ 

[4 ~ 
το ee σαφῆ 7 μαρτύρια: καὶ κυλίκια ἦν 
lon \ “~ 
πο υτελῆ παρακείμενα καὶ κρατῆρες χρυσοῖ καὶ 
“a 3 a a 
ἀργυροῖ, καὶ ev αὐτοῖς ὕδωρ πάμπολυ, tpamelai 

: i / 
Te παρέκειντο θύου τε Kat ἐλέφαντος εὖ μάλα 

͵ ‘1 > ? 5 > “~ 
| ooBapat, Kat hv er αὐτῶν κρέα καὶ ἄρτοι, παμβο- 
ρωτάτων ἐμπλῆσαι Caw 1 ἱκανὰ 5 
senda μπλῆ pwv γαστέρας ἱκανὰ ταῦτα. 
“Ὁ ~ 2 
ἐπεὶ δὲ τὰ τῆς παρασκευῆς ἔκπλεά τε καὶ ἀμφιλαφῆ 
Ω - 7 
ἦν, παρῆλθον οἱ δαιτυμόνες, ἕξ μὲν ἄρρενες, ἰσά- 
1 καί τι Kai] αὐτίκα δ᾽. | 
5. σι, 3. ἐκμᾷ 

4 Wytt: ὡς στιβάδες. 

5 σύλια. 



wheeled into a circle when he so ordered them, and 
if they had to deploy, that also they did. And then 
they sprinkled flowers to deck the floor, but with 

moderation and economy, 
stamped, keeping time in a 

That .Damon therefore, 
xenus, Philoxenus, and oth 
music and should be numbered among th 

and now and again they 
rhythmical dance. 

that Spintharus, Aristo- 
ers should be experts in 

e few for 

their knowledge of it is certainly matter for wonder 
but by no means incredible or absurd. The reason 

is that man is a rational animal capable of under- 
standing and logical thought. But that an in- 
articulate animal should comprehend rhythm and 

melody, should follow th 

dance without a false 

lessons required of it—these a 
Nature, and each one is a singularity th 

with amazement. 

But what followed was enough 

e movements of a tragic 

step, fulfilling all that its 

re gifts bestowed by 
at fills one. 

to send the specta- 

tor wild with delight. On the sand of the theatre 

were placed mattresses 0 

f low couches, and on these 

in turn cushions, and over them embroidered cover- 
lets, clear evidence of a house of great prosperity and 

ancestral wealth. And close at 

hand were set costly 

goblets and bowls of gold and of silver, and in them 

a large quantity of water; 

and beside them were 

placed tables of citrus wood and of ivory, of great 
were laden with meat and 

magnificence, and they 

bread enough to satisfy 
voracious animals. So a 

were completed in all 

queters came on, Six males and an equal number of 

ee -».».....--ο-.--....------- 

6 + 2 9, 
και οἰκίας. 

their abundance, 

the stomachs of the most 
s soon as the preparations 

the ban- 

i a 

7 σαφῶς. 


at a banquet 

ἀν το Se 




ριθμοι δὲ αἱ θήλειαι αὐτοῖς" καὶ of μὲν 1 ἀρρενωπὸν 
στολὴν εἶχον, αἱ δὲ θῆλυν, καὶ κατεκλίνησαν 3 σὺν 
κοσμῳ συνδυασθέντες ἄρρεν τε καὶ θῆλυ. καὶ 
ὑποσημήναντος τὰς προβοσκίδας ὡς χεῖρας κεκο- 
ἀσμένως προύτεινον, καὶ ἐσιτοῦντο εὖ μάλα 
σωφρόνως" καὶ οὔτε τις αὐτῶν ἔδοξεν ἀδηφάγος 
οὔτε μὴν προτένθης τις ἢ τῆς μοίρας τῆς μείζονος 
ἁρπακτικός, ὡς ὁ ἱϊέρσης. ὁ παρὰ τῷ Ἐενοφῶντι 
τῷ χρυσῷ. ἐπεὶ δὲ πίνειν ἔδει, ἑκάστῳ κρατὴρ 
παρετέθη, καὶ ἀρυτόμενοι ταῖς προβοσκίσι τὸ 
ποτὸν ἔπινον κεκοσμημένως, εἶτα ἀπέρραινον σὺν 
παιδιᾷ καὶ οὐχ ὕβρει. πολλὰ δὲ καὶ ἄλλα ἀνέγρα- 
pay ® τοιαῦτα τῆς ἰδιάτητος τῶνδε τῶν ζῴων 
σοφὰ καὶ ἐκπληκτικά. ἐγὼ δὲ εἶδον καὶ γράμματα 
γράφοντα ἐπὶ πίνακος -Ῥωμαῖα ἀστραβῶς τῇ 
προβοσκίδι καὶ ἀτρέπτως: πλὴν ἐπέκειτο <4) 4 
χεὶρ τοῦ διδάξαντος ἐς τὴν τῶν γραμμάτων 
παιδαγωγοῦσα. περιγραφήν, ἔστε ἀπογράψαι τὸ 
ζῷον" τὸ δὲ ἀτενὲς ἑώρα κάτω. πεπαιδευμένους 
εἶναι τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς τῷ ζῴῳ καὶ γραμματικοὺς 
εἶπες av. 

12. "Ἔχει μέντοι καὶ 6 λαγὼς ὅ συμφυεῖς ἰδιό- 
τητας. ἐκπεπταμένοις μὲν γὰρ τοῖς βλεφάροις 
καθεύδει, κάτηγορεϊ δὲ αὑτοῦ τὰ ἔτη τρώγλας 
τινὰς ὑποφαίνων. φέρει δὲ καὶ ἐν τῇ νηδύι τὰ 
μὲν ἡμιτελῆ, τὰ δὲ ὠδίνει, τὰ δὲ ἤδη οἱ τέτεκται. 

οἱ μὲν ἐλέφαντες. Ὁ 2 { 

3 Schn: ἀνέγραψα. a 
4 <m> add. Schn. 




ON ANIMALS, II. 11-12 

females; the former were clad in masculine garb, the. 
latter in feminine; and they took their places in 
orderly fashion in pairs, a male and a female. And 
at a signal they reached forward their trunks 
modestly, as though they were hands, and ate with 
great decorum. And not one of them gave the 
impression of being a glutton nor yet of trying to 
forestall others or of being inclined to snatch too 
large a portion, as the Persian did who occurs in 
Xenophon the golden.? . And when they wanted to 
drink, a bowl was placed by each one, from which 
they sucked up the water with their trunks and 
drank it in an orderly manner, and then proceeded to 
squirt <the attendants» ὃ in fun, not by way of insult. 

Many similar stories have been recorded showing 
the astounding ingenuity of these animals. And I 
myself have seen one actually with its trunk writing 
Roman letters on a tablet in a straight line without 
any deviation. The only thing was that the in- 

‘structor’s hand was laid upon it, directing it to the 

shape of the letters until the animal had finished 
writing; and it looked intently down. You would 
have said that the animal’s eyes had been taught 
and knew the letters. 

12. The Hare has certain innate. characteristics. 
For one thing it sleeps with its eyelids open; for 
another it proclaims its age when it half shows certain 
apertures, Also it carries some of its young half- 
formed in its womb, some it is in process of bearing, 
others it has already borne. : 

& Xen. An. 7.3. 23; Arystas was however an Arcadian, not 
a Persian. ‘Golden,’ cf. Diog. La. 10. 8 Πλάτωνα χρινοῦν, 

Lauer. 3. 12 [Epicurt] aurea dicta. 
> Or ‘each other’? 

The Hare 


Siac τα στῶ ἡπονγχνσατωνν γα ται συν tt 


18. Ta κήτη τὰ μεγάλα πάντα 1 ἄνευ -κυνῶν 
δεῖται τοῦ ἡγεμόνος, καὶ τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς ἐκείνου 
ἄγεται. ἔστι δὲ ἰχθὺς μικρὸς 5 καὶ λεπτός, τὴν 
κεφαλὴν προμήκης" στενὸν <Sé>4 αὐτῷ τὸ 
οὐραῖον συμπέφυκεν, ὡς οἱ τούτων λέγουσι σοφοί. 
εἴτε δὲ αὐτὸν ἐκεῖνον παρέδωκε τῷ κήτει ἡ φύσις 
ἑκάστῳ, εἴτε φιλίᾳ αὐτῷ ὅ ἑκὼν πρόσεισιν, οὐκ 
οἶδα- φύσεως δὲ ἀνάγκην εἶναι τὸ πραττόμενον 
μᾶλλον πεπίστευκα. νήχεται γὰρ ὅδε 6 ἰχθὺς 
οὐδεπώποτε ἑαυτῷ, πρόεισι δὲ τῆς τοῦ κήτους 
κεφαλῆς, καὶ ἡγεμών ἐστιν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ὡς εἰπεῖν 
οἴαξ. προορᾷ γοῦν ἐκείνῳ τὰ πάντα καὶ προαισθά- 
νεται τῷ αὐτῷ, καὶ προδιδάσκει ἕκαστα τῆς 
οὐρᾶς τῷ ἄκρῳ, καὶ παρέψαυσε τούτῳ, καὶ ἔδωκε 
σύνθημα, καὶ τῶν μὲν φοβερῶν ἀνέστειλεν, ἐπί γε 
μὴν τὰ θρέψοντα προάγει, καὶ τὴν ἐκ τῶν θηρατῶν 
ἐπιβουλὴν διδάσκει σημείῳ τινὲ ἀτεκμάρτῳ, καὶ 
τῶν τόπων ὧν οὐ χρὴ τοσοῦτον θηρίον ἐπιβῆναι 
προμηνύει, ἵνα μή πρτε ἄρδην ἐς ἕρμα περισχεθὲν 
ἀπόληται. ἡ τοίνυν τοῦ βίου ὑπόθεσις τῷ μεγίστῳ 
τὸ βράχιστόν ἐστιν. ἔοικε δὲ καταπιανθὲν τὸ 
Cov μήτε ὁρᾶν ἔτι μήτε ἀκούειν, εἶναι δὲ πρόβλημα 
καὶ τῆς ὄψεως καὶ τῆς ἀκοῆς τῶν σαρκῶν τὸν 
ὄγκον. οὐχ ὁρᾶται δὲ τοῦ κήτους ἔρημος, GANG 
ἀνάγκη, τοῦ πάντων αὐτῷ τῶν προειρημένων 
αὐτίου προαπολωλότος, καὶ ἐκεῖνο ἀπολέσθαι. 

1 ὀλίγου πάντα. 
ἃ ζδέςΣ add. Η. 
5 Reiske: αὐτῶν. 
8 Jac: πρό 
: πρόεισιν. 
1 Abresch: αὐτῷ. 

2 Ges: μακρός.. 



13. All the large fishes, with the exception of the Fishes and 
Shark, require a leader, and are guided by its eyes. leaders 

The leader is a small, slim fish with an elongated 
head, but its tail is narrow, according to the authori- 
ties on the subject. But whether Nature has con- 
ferred upon each large fish the aforesaid guide, or 
whether it associates with the large fish of its own 
free will out of friendliness, I am unable to say, but 
I prefer to believe that this is done under the com- 

᾿ pulsion of Nature, for this fish never swims by itself, 

but moves in front of the large fish’s head and is its 
leader and, as it were, tiller. [or instance, it fore- 
sees and takes previous notice of everything on be- 
half of the large fish; it forewarns it of everything 
by the tip of its tail, and by its contact signals to the 
fish, keeping it away from what is to be feared but 
leading it on to what will feed it. And by some 
invisible sign it warns the fish that its pursuers have 
designs upon it, and gives timely indication of those 
spots which a creature of its size ought not to ap- 
proach, if it is not to be surrounded and perish utterly’ 

on some reef. | Ὅν 
So then the first essential for the life of the largest 
of creatures is the smallest. And it seems that when 
the large fish becomes very fat it can no longer see 
nor hear, the vast bulk of its flesh being an-obstacle 
to sight and to hearing. But the ‘leader ’ is never 
seen apart from the large fish; if however, with its 
responsibility for the services described above, it 
dies first, then the large fish is bound to die 
also. | | 7 


E ~ > / / : 
14. Χαμαιλέων τὸ ζῷον ἐς μίαν 1. χρόαν οὐ 
’ " cia ” 7 a 
πέφυκεν οὔτε ὁρᾶσθαι οὔτε γνωρίζεσθαι, κλέπτει 
δὲ ἑαυτὸν πλανῶν τε ἅμα καὶ παρατρέπων τὴν 
τῶν ὁρώντων ὄψιν. εἰ γὰρ περιτύχοις μέλανι τὸ 
> € Ἁ > / A f 3 / ᾿ς 
εἶδος, ὁ δὲ ἐξέτρεψε τὸ μόρφωμα ἐς χλωρότητα, 
ὥσπερ οὖν μεταμφιεσάμενος3' εἶτα μέντοι ἀλλοῖος 
ἐφάνη γλαυκότητα 8 ὑποδύς, καθάπερ προσωπεῖον 
ἕτερον ἢ στολὴν ὑποκριτὴς ἄλλην. ἐπεὶ τοίνυν 
ay? of 3 “ : bb ‘ \ 7 \ 
ταῦθ᾽ οὕτως ἔχει, pain Tis av Kat THY φύσιν μὴ 
καθέψουσαν μηδὲ ἐπιχρίουσαν φαρμάκοις, ὥσπερ 
οὖν ἢ Μήδειάν τινα ἢ Κίρκην, καὶ ΐ 
φαρμακίδα εἶναι. 

15. Πομπίλον ὅ πελάγιον καὶ βυθῷ φιληδοῦντα 
εἰδέναι χρὴ μάλιστα ἰχθύων ὧν ἴσμεν ἀκοῇ" μισεῖ 
δὲ ἢ αὐτὸς τὴν γῆν ἢ τὸν ἰχθὺν ἐκείνη. τεμνούσας 
δὲ ἄρα μέσον τὸν πόρον τὰς ναῦς οἵδε οὗ πομπίλοι 

ὥσπερ οὖν ἐρωμένας προσνέοντες δορυφοροῦσι, καὶ: 
; 7 

“- ‘ > A vA <4 
δεῦρο καὶ ἐκεῖσε περιέρχονται γχορεύοντες ® ἅμα 
A ~ ἕξ ee Ss / ¢ fa 
καὶ πηδῶντες. οὗ μὲν οὖν περίνεῳ omdcov7 
3 “~ 8 “~ ~ δὲ Δ 9 ? : a 3 7 
ἀφεστᾶσι8 τῆς γῆς, οὐδὲ ἕν αὐτοῖς εἰδέναι 
΄ δ . Se κα , θαι 10 μέ 
πάρεστι δήπου" οἱ δὲ ναῦται, κλέπτεσθαι 19 μέντοι 
" > a \ tA θὲ ” θ va \ 11 ᾿ fd 
καὶ αὐτοῖς τὸ ἀληθὲς εἴωθεν. ot ye μὴν © πομπίλοι 

/ uv , > 7 4 A ? . 
μακρόθεν ἤσθοντο δίκην εὐρίνου κυνὸς τὸ θήραμα 

e / f \ ,ὔ »" 
᾿ἑλούσης τάχιστα, καὶ οὐκέτι τοσοῦτος αὐτοὺς 
7 ᾿ 7] 7 3 4 
ἔρως νεὼς καταλαμβάνει, ws παραμένειν, ἀλλὰ 
1 εἰς ἐδίαν μίαν. | 
3 μεταμφιασάμενος. 
3 Pauw: λευκότητα. 
4 καὶ μῶντοι καί. 
5 Ges here and below: πόμφυ-. 
ὃ καὶ δεῦρο. . . xopedovres] καὶ ἐκεῖθι περιέρχονται xopevovres 
καὶ δεῦρο. 


sites ¥ 
ale T Ey stiles TELE 

ΠΤ sniteetsstst freee 

ἐκείνην : 



ON ANIMALS, II. 14-15 

14. The Chameleon is not disposed to remain of Te τ 

one and the same colour for men to see and recognise, 
but it conceals itself by misleading and deceiving the 
eye of the beholder. Thus, if you come across one 
that appears black, it changes its semblance to green, 
as though it had changed its clothes; then again it 
assumes a bluish-grey tint and appears different, like 
an actor who puts on another mask or another gar- 
ment. This being so, one might say that even 
Nature, though she does not boil anyone down nor 
apply drugs, like a Medea or a Circe, is also a 


15. You must know that the Pilot-fish frequents the 
open sea and loves to dwell in the depths more than 
all others of which we have heard tell. But either it 
detests the land or the land detests the fish. Well, 
when vessels are cleaving the mid-ocean these Pilot- 
fish swim up as though they were in love with them and. 
attend them like a bodyguard, circling this way and 
that as they gambol and leap. Now the passengers 


ave of course totally unable to tell how far they 
are from land, and even the sailors themselves are 

frequently mistaken as to the true fact. The 

Pilot-fish however can tell from a long way off, 

like a keen-scented hound which immediately gets 
wind of the prey, and then they are no longer so 
captivated by the vessel as to stay at her. side, but 

nnn τ ΜΕ τσ aa 
.ι8. ἀφεστάναι. 

ς f 
7 Jac: πάντες ὁπόταν. ! , 
10 Jac: καὶ πταίεσθαι. 

® οὐδέν MSS always. 
1L ἀλλ᾽ οἵ γε μήν. 



οἷα ὑπὸ συνθήματι ἀθρόοι γενόμενοι 1 ᾧχοντο ? 
ἀπιόντες. καὶ ἴσασιν ἐντεῦθεν οἱ τῆς νεὼς ἄρχοντες 
ὅτι ἄρα χρὴ περιβλέπειν γῆν οὐ πυρσοῖς τεκμαι- 
ρομένους ἀλλὰ τοῖς προειρημένοις πεπαιδευμένους. 

9 7 3 
16. ᾿Ερύθημα ὃ εἴ ποτε ἐπανατέλλει καὶ ὠχρία- 
σις ἃ ἐπὶ ψιλῆς τῆς δορᾶς καὶ τριχῶν γυμνῆς, 
> \ 

(θαυμαστὸν οὐδέν»5: τάρανδος δὲ τὸ ζῷον, ἀλλὰ 

οὗτός γε θριξὶν αὐταῖς τρέπει. ἑαυτόν, καὶ πολύ- 
χροιαν ἐργάζεται μυρίαν, ὡς ἐκπλήττειν τὴν ὄψιν. 
ἔστι δὲ Σκύθης, καὶ τὰ TvOTat® παραπλήσιος 
ταύρῳ καὶ τὸ μέγεθος. τούτου τοι καὶ τὴν δορὰν 
ἀγαθὴν ἀντίπαλον αἰχμῇ ταῖς αὑτῶν ἀσπίσι 
περιτείναντες νοοῦσιν ? οἱ Σικύθαι. Ν 

17. Πελάγιος ἰχθὺς τὴν λῆξιν, τὴν ὄψιν μέλας, 

τὸ μῆκος κατὰ μεμετρημένην ἔγχελυν, λαβὼν 19 
ἐξ ὧν ὁρᾷ τὸ ὄνομα, θεούσῃ νηὶ καὶ μάλα γε ἐξ 
οὐρίας 11 προσφθαρεὶς καὶ τῆς πρύμνης τὸ ἄκρον 
ἐνδακών, ἢ ὥσπερ οὖν ἵππον στομίῳ ἀπειθῆ καὶ 
τραχὺν χαλινῷ, σκληρῷ βιαιότατα ἀνακρούσας, 
ἀναστέλλει τῆς ὁρμῆς καὶ πεδήσας ἔχει: καὶ 
μάτην μὲν τὰ ἱστία μέσα πέπρησται, ἐς οὐδὲν δὲ 

“a ¢ Ψ LA 3 7 Ξ 
υσῶσιν οἱ ἄνεμοι, ἄχος δ᾽ ἔχει τοὺς πλέοντας. 

συνιᾶσι δὲ οἱ ναῦ L τῆς νεὼ ἱ ; 
ναῦται, καὶ τῆς νεὼς γνωρίζουσι τὸ 

1 Reiske: γένοιντο. 
2 πάντες. 
8 3 θ 4 
᾿ς ἐρυθήματα. , 
ὠγχρίασι ; t ἀνθρώ ῦ 
a Χρίασ iS καὶ γενέσθαι πελιδνὸν καὶ ἀνθρώπῳ ταῦτα καὶ 
ἡρίοις ἀλλά. 

ὼ (θαυμαστὸν οὐδέν» add. Ces. : 

δ᾽ νῶτα corrupt. 

7 γνροῦσι καί. 



Οὐ ΝΜ μον μεν ὸιουοςςςο ἔσο. I ane 

So castnsboidy dcaptndasnaninrrens bi 


ON ANIMALS, II. 15-17 

mass as at a signal and are off and away. There- 
upon those in control of the vessel know that they 
must look around for land, not because they judge 
by beacons but because they have been instructed 
py the aforesaid fish. 

16. If at any time a flush or a pallor appears on ἃ The 
man’s bare and hairless skin it causes no astonish- Terandus 

ment. But the animal known as Tarandus (elk?) 
transforms itself hair and all, and can adopt such an 
infinite variety of colours as to bewilder the eye. 
It is a native of Scythia and in its [hide Ὁ] 5 and its size 
resembles a bull; and the Scythians cover their 
shields with its hide and consider it a good counter 

to a spear. 

17. There is a fish whose province is the open sea, 
black in appearance, as long as an eel of moderate size, 
and deriving its name from what it does : with evil pur- 
pose it meets a vessel running at full speed before 
the wind, and fastening its teeth into the front of 
the prow, like a man vigorously curbing with bit and 
tightened rein an intractable and savage horse, it 
checks the vessel’s onrush and holds it fast. In vain 
do the sails belly in the middle, to no purpose do the 
winds blow, and depression comes upon the pas- 
sengers. But the sailors understand and realise what 
ails the ship; and it is from this action that the fish 

a Perhaps ‘ coats,’ 7.e. summer and winter coats of hair. 

cc Cr ee . 

8 Reiske: νῆξιω. 9 κατὰ τήν. 10 λαχών. 
11 οὐρίας καὶ τῶν ἱστίων κεκολπωμένων. 

12 δακών. 



Bor a ee eee 




‘6 ae) 56 > 7 ea 3 EN 

πάθος. καὶ ἐντεῦθεν ἐκτήσατο τὸ ὄνομα: ἐχενηΐδα 
~ ξ 

γὰρ καλοῦσιν οἱ πεπειραμένοι. | : 

18. ᾽Αναβαψει μὲν ἡ τέχνη Kal ἐς τριγονέαν 
διδασκαλίας παρ᾽ ἱΟμήρῳ ty περὶ τῶν τετρωμένων 
τε καὶ φαρμάκου δεομένων. παιδεύεται μὲν γὰρ 
ὁ Μενοιτίου Ἰ]άτροκλος ὑπ᾽ ᾿Αχιλλέως ἰατρικήν, 
Αχιλλεὺς δὲ ὃ Πηλέως ὑπὸ Χείρωνος τοῦ Κρόνου. 
καὶ ἐν ἡρωσί τε καὶ θεῶν παισὶν ἦν τὰ μαθήματα * 
φύσιν εἰδέναι ῥιζῶν καὶ πόας διαφόρου χρῆσιν καὶ 
φαρμάκων κρᾶσιν καὶ ἐπαοιδὰς ἔς τε φλεγμονὴν 
ἀντιπάλους, καὶ ἀναστεῖλαι αἷμα, καὶ ὅσα ἄλλα 
ἐκεῖνοί ye? ἤδεσαν: καὶ μέντοι καὶ οἱ τοῦ χρόνου 
κάτω ἃ ἀνίχνευσάν τινα ἀλλὰ τούτων γε τῶν 
σοφισμάτων ἡ φύσις οὐδὲν ἐδεῖτο: καὶ κατηγορεῖ 
ὁ ἐλέφας. ὅταν γοῦν ἐς αὐτὸν ἔλθῃ δόρατα καὶ 
βέλη πολλά, ἐλαίας πασάμενος ὃ ἄνθος ἢ ἔλαιον 

> ‘4 > “ \ 3 4 
αὐτό, εἶτα πᾶν τὸ ἐμπεσὸν ἀπεσείσατο, καὶ ἔστιν 

αὖθις ὁλόκληρος. 

A 7 \ “~ “~ “- 
19. Kai τόδε τὸ θαῦμα τοῦδε τοῦ ζῴου ἴδιον 
τεκεῖν β ἐφ Ἵ to wf Oi ef 2 : 
v βρέφος οὐκ οἶδεν ἄρκτος, οὐδὲ ὁμολογήσει 
39 Ν ‘ 
τις ἐξ ὠδίνων ἰδὼν τὸ ἔκγονον ζῳογόνον εἶναι 
4 ξ A > 4 “A ᾿ 
αὐτήν, ἀλλὰ ἡ μὲν ἐλοχεύθη, τὸ δὲ εἰκῇ κρέας καὶ 
> + 
ἄσημόν τε καὶ ἀτύπωτον Kal ἄμορφον. ἡ δὲ ἤδη 
“a \ / 4 , 
φιλεῖ καὶ γνωρίζει {τὸ 7 τέκνον, καὶ ὑπὸ τοῖς 
1 παρὰ τῷ Ὅ. 
3 Ax ¢ “a 
μαθήματα ὁποῖα. 
3 Jac: τε. 
Jac: κάτω καὶ ἐν ἥρωσΐ re Kat θεῶν τῷ. 
τι. : 
πάσσων, v.l. πάσας. 

{τόδ add. H. 

saa vo of 



tues tin Pr ci ea 

Ἂν να aS εβνφοαλευνονρφρη EAT EAI BIOM ρα ue Bch SLE EINE ESCA νου LWEE SSE pe OE MEA EAE ‘ J soca 

ON ANIMALS, II. 17-19 

has acquired its name, for those who have had 
experience call it the Ship-holder.* 

18. In Homer skill in treating the wounded and Medicine in 
- ὍΝ the Heroic 
persons in need of medicine goes back as far as the Age 
third generation of pupil and master. Thus Patro- 
clus, son of Menoetius, is taught the healing art by 
Achilles,’ and Achilles, son of Peleus, is taught by 
Cheiron, son of Cronus. And heroes and children of 
the gods learnt about the nature of roots, the use of 
different herbs, the concocting of drugs, spells to 
reduce inflammations, the way to staunch blood, and 
everything else that they knew. And moreover 
there are discoveries which men of a later age have 
made. But that Nature really has no need of these 
ingenuities is proved by the case of the Elephant ; The 
for instance, when it is assailed with spears and a Weber 
shower of arrows, it eats the flower of the olive ° 

or the actual oil, and then shakes off every missile 

that has pierced it and is sound and whole again.’ 

19. [And here is another strange feature peculiar The Bear 
to this animal.]¢ The Bear is unable to produce a RUE one 
cub, nor would anyone allow, on seeing its offspring 
immediately after birth, that it had borne a living 
thing. Yet the Bear has been in labour, though the 
lump of nondescript flesh has no distinguishing mark, 

‘no form, and no shape. But the mother loves it and 
recognises it as her child, keeps it warm beneath her 

2 This is the Sucking-fish or Remora; see Thompson, Gk. 
fishes, p. 70. 

ὃ Hom. Jf. 11. 831. 

¢ ‘Unde Ael. florem oleae duxerit, nescio’ (Schneider). 

4 If these words belong here, the order of the chapters has 
been confused: ch. 19 should follow one on Bears. 



a , \ t a ae 
μηροῖς θάλπει, καὶ λεαΐνει TH γλώττῃ, καὶ ἐκτυποῖ 
ἐς a θ i ὔ A ἥ \ “ Ἁ 3 “a 

pUpa, καὶ μέντοι καὶ κατὰ μικρὰ ἐκμορφοΐ, 

4 ᾿ὃ \ 3 “n ~ 2 7) 
καὶ ἰδὼν ἐρεῖς τοῦτο ἄρκτου σκυλάκιον. 

7 ᾿ > | 
, 20. Kepara ἀκλινῆ καὶ ὀρθὰ ἕστηκε ταύροις. 
\ \ ~ 
ἅπασι, καὶ διὰ ταῦτα ὡς ἐς ὅπλον 6 ἄνθρωπος, 

4 \ 3 4 ¢ ~ 
οὕτω ToL καὶ ἐς κέρας ὁ ταῦρος τεθύμωται. βόες 
δὲ ᾿Ερυθραῖοι κινοῦσι τὰ 1 κέρατα ὡς ὦτα. 

_ ai. Γῆ μὲν Αἰθιοπίς (γείτων δὲ καὶ μάλα 
ἀγαθὸς καὶ ᾿ἀξιόζηλος τὸ τῶν θεῶν λουτρόν, ὃ 
Ὅμηρος ἡμῖν Orceavov ᾷδει) οὐκοῦν ἥδε ἡ γῆ 
δρακόντων “μήτηρ ἐστὶ μεγέθει μεγίστων: καὶ 
γάρ τοι καὶ ἐς τριάκοντα ὀργυιὰς προήκουσι, καὶ 
TO ὄνομα μὲν τὸ ἀπὸ γενεᾶς οὐ καλοῦνται, φονέας 
δὲ ἐλεφάντων φασὶν αὐτούς, καὶ ἁμιλλῶνται πρὸς 
γῆρας τὸ μήκιστον οἵδε οἱ δράκοντες. καὶ λόγοι 
μὲν Αἰθίοπες ἐνταῦθά μοι ἵστανται. λέγουσι δὲ 
Φρύγιοι λόγοι καὶ ἐν Φρυγίᾳ γίνεσθαι 5 δράκοντας, 
καὶ προήκειν αὐτοὺς ἐς δέκα ὀργυιάς, καὶ μεσοῦν- 
TOS θέρους ὁσημέραι μετὰ πλήθουσαν ἀγορὰν 
ἐξέρπειν τῶν φωλεῶν. καὶ παρὰ τῷ ποταμῷ τῷ 
καλουμένῳ Ῥυνδάκῳ τὸ μέν τι τῆς σπείρας 
ἁπήρεισαν ἐς τὴν γῆν, τὸ λοιπὸν δὲ σῶμα ἀνα- 
στήσαντες πᾶν, ἀτρέμα καὶ ἡσυχῆ τὴν φάρυγγα 
ἀνατείναντες καὶ μέντοι καὶ τὸ στόμα ἀνοίξαντες, 
εἶτα τὰ πτηνὰ ἕλκουσιν οἱονεὶ ἴυγγι τῷ ἄσθματι. 
τὰ δὲ ἐς τὰς ἐκείνων ἐσπίπτει γαστέρας ὑπὸ τῆς 
παρ αὐτῶν ἐκπνοῆς συρόμενα αὐτοῖς πτεροῖς. 

1 . f 
Jac: Kai. 2 Schn: γένεσθαι. 

* On the coast of Ionia opposite Chios. 



Aad Pe Ae aS ae ty δὲ Ὧν : 

ON ANIMALS, II. 19-27 

thighs, smooths it with her tongue, fashions it into 
limbs, and little by little brings it into shape; and 
when you see it you would say that this is a Bear's 

20. All Bulls have inflexible and rigid horns, and 
this is why, just as a man puts passion into his 
weapons, so a bull puts passion into its horns. But 
the oxen of Erythrae * can move their horns as they 
do their ears. — 

91. The land of Ethiopia (the place where the gods 
bathe, celebrated by Homer under the name of 

- Ocean,® is an excellent and desirable neighbour), 

this land, I say, is the mother of the very largest 
Serpents. For, you must know, they attain to a 
length of one hundred and eighty feet, and they are 
not called by the name of any species, but people say 
that they kill elephants, and these Serpents rival 

the longest-lived animals. Thus far the accounts 

from Ethiopia. But according to -accounts from 
Phrygia there are Serpents in Phrygia too, and these 
grow to a length of sixty feet, and every day in mid- 
summer some time after noon they creep out of their 
lairs. And on the banks of the river Rhyndacus ὃ 
while supporting part of their coils on the ground, 
they raise all the rest of their body and, steadily and 
silently extending their neck, open their mouth and 
attract birds by their breath, as it were by a spell. 
And the birds descend, feathers and all, into their 
stomach, drawn in by the Serpents’ breathing. And 

> Hom. II. 1. 428. 
¢ The Rhyndacus rises in mt Olympus in Mysia and flows 
N into the Propontis. pe 


The Oxen 
of Erythrae 

The Snakes 
of Ethiopia 
and Phrygia 


A lanl \ δὴ > ὔ “-“ ᾿ 
καὶ ταῦτα μὲν ἴδια ἐκείνοις δρᾶται ἐς ἡλίου ἡ 

’ 2 > e Ἁ ς 
δυσμάς" εἶτα ἑαυτοὺς οἱ δράκοντες ἀποκρύψαντες 3 

3 ων \ ’ “ - - 
ἐλλοχῶσι τὰς ποίμνας καὶ ἐκ τῆς νομῆς ἐπὶ τὰ 

7 “- 
αὔλια ἰούσας αἱροῦσι,32 καὶ πολὺν φόνον * ἐργασά- 
‘ & ἱ 
μενοι καὶ {τοὺς »ὅ νομέας συνδιέφθειραν πολλάκις, 
καὶ ἔχουσι δεῖπνον ἄφθονόν τε καὶ ἀμφιλαφές. 

22. Ταῖς ἀφύαις 6 πηλὸς γένεσίς ἐστι 80 
ἀλλήλων. δὲ οὐ τίκτουσιν οὐδὲ ἐπιγίνονται, πηλὸς 
δὲ ἐν τῇ θαλάττῃ καὶ πάνυ ἰλυώδης ὅταν συστῇ 
καὶ γένηται μέλας, ἀλεαίνεταί τεῦ φύσει τινὶ 

3 7 \ ? 4 
ἀπορρήτῳ τε Kat ζῳογόνῳ καὶ μεταβάλλεται καὶ. 

ἐς ζῷα τρέπεται πάμπολλα. καὶ αἵ γε ἀφύαι 
ταῦτά ἐστι, σκωλήκων δίκην ἐν τῷ βορβόρῳ καὶ 
τοῖς μυσαροῖς τικτομένων ἐκείνων. γενόμεναι δὲ 
αἱ ἀφύαι νηκτικώτατον χρῆμά εἰσι, καὶ δρῶσιν 
ὃ πεφύκασιν, εἶτα ἄγονταί τινι αἰτίᾳ θαυμαστῇ ἐς 
τὰ σωτήρια, ἔνθα ἕξουσι σκέπην καὶ πρόβλημα, 
H μέλλει βιώσιμα αὐταῖς ἔσεσθαι. εἴη δ᾽ ἂν ἡ 
καταφυγὴ ἢ πέτρα - ἀνεστῶσα ἐπὶ μέγα καὶ 
ὑψηλὸν ἢ οἱ καλούμενοι KpiBavor'® elev δ᾽ ἂν 

Ω 9 5 ὔ 7 “A 
αὗται 5 κολπώδεις πέτραι βρωθεῖσαί © τε ὑπὸ τῶν. 

: f ~ ‘4 4 “~ 
κυμάτων τῷ χρόνῳ καὶ κοῖλαι γεγενημέναι. 
“Ῥ 3 “ ς 4 : 
ταῦτα δὲ ἄρα αὐταῖς ἡ φύσις ἔδειξε κρησφύγετα, 
~ 7 \ ,ὔ ; 

wore ὑπὸ τοῦ σάλου μὴ παίεσθαι μηδὲ ἀφανίζεσθαι 
ἄσθ “a ᾽ὔ > \ id \ Ἁ 3 ’ 

ἀσθενεῖς γάρ εἰσι καὶ ἥκιστα πρὸς τὰς ἐκείνων 

7 3 ,ὔ A 
ἐμπτώσεις ἀντίτυποι. τροφῆς δὲ δέονται οὐδὲ 
: Ἁ 3 7 
εν, ἀπόχρη γε μὴν ἀλλήλας περιλιχμήσασθαι. 
if \ 3 

? 7 

3 A 3 ~ 
ἄγρα δὲ αὐτῶν νήματα ἄγαν λεπτὰ καὶ ἐρραφέντα 

1 ἰδίᾳ 2 ὁ j 
: ἰδίᾳ. ὑποκρύψαντες. 
. Wytt: αἴρουσιν. 4 φθόρον. 
<rovs> add. Η. 8 τε ὑφ᾽ ἡδονῆς ἑαυτοῦ. 



ον OO ames 8 

nd Rhine et PIE 




ON ANIMALS, II. 21-22 

these singular practices they continue until sun- 
down; next, the Serpents hide and lie in wait for 
the flocks, and as they return to the sheepfolds from 
the pasture they fall upon them, and after a terrible 
slaughter they have frequently killed the herdsmen 
as well, thus obtaining a generous and abundant 


92. Sprats are born of mud; they neither beget The Sprat 

nor are begotten of one another, but when the mud 
in the sea becomes altogether slimy and thick and 
turns black, it is warmed by some inexplicable and 
life-giving principle, undergoes a transformation, and 
is changed into innumerable living creatures. The 
Sprats are these creatures, resembling worms which 
are generated in mire and filth. And as soon as born, 
Sprats are excellent swimmers, and they do it natur- 
ally. Then by some mysterious agency they are led 
to safe places where they will find shelter and pro- 
tection, so that it will be possible for them to live. 
And their place of refuge is likely to be either some 
rock that rises to a great height or what are called 
‘baker’s pots’; these would be rocks full of em- 
brasures which the waves have in time eaten away 
until they have become hollow. These then are the 
retreats to which Nature has pointed them so that 
they shall not be battered and demolished by the 
swell of the sea; for they have little strength and 
are powerless to resist the impact of the waves. 
They need no food, indeed it is enough for them to 
lick one another. The way to catch them is to use 
exceedingly fine thread with thin pieces from the 

7 > Ξ Η ξ 4 ~ ¢ φ 
ἐστι. κρίβανοι ὑπὸ τῶν ἁλιέων. 
9. ἂν αἱ. 10 Reiske: βρίθουσαι. 
: 121 


warp of garments laced in. This device should be 
quite sufficient for catching and securing them, 
though for the capture of other fish it would be 
utterly inadequate. 

4 ~ e 
τούτοις ἀραιὰ στημόνια TOV ἱματίων.1 Kal τέχνημα 
“ - “ 
μὲν εἴη ἂν ® τοῦτο καὶ μάλα ye ἀρκοῦν 8 és αἵρεσίν 
A ἅλ ᾽ ~ 3 ὃ \ ἄλλ > θ 7 7 
τε καὶ ἅλωσιν αὐτῶν, ἐς δὲ ἄλλων ἰχθύων θήραν 
ἥκιστα. | 

23. Should you strike a Lizard with a stick and The ri 
either on purpose or by accident cut it In two, 
neither of the two parts is killed, but each moves 

~ 3 / 
23. Tov σαῦρον εἰ παΐσας ὁ εἴτε ἑκὼν εἴτε καὶ 
3 , ¢? ὃ ; ὃ La 50 ? 5 
: κατὰ τύχην ῥάβδῳ μέσον διατέμοις, οὐδέτερον 

αὐτῷ , τῶν μέρ ὧν ἀποτέθνηκεν, ἀλλὰ ΧΡ is “καὶ separately and by itself, and lives, both the one and 
καθ΄ €avTo πρόεισί τε Kat CH δύο ποσὶν ἐπισυρόμε- the other trailing on two feet. Then when the . 
νον τὸ ἡμίτομον ὃ καὶ ἐκεῖνο καὶ τοῦτο. εἶτα parts meet—for the forepart frequently unites with 
ὅταν συνέλθῃ (σύνεισι yap πρὸς τὸ λεῖπον. τὸ the hinder—the two join up and coalesce after their 
ἕτερον πολλάκις), συνδυασθέντε συνηλθέτην ἐκ separation. And the Lizard, now one body, al- 
τῆς διαιρέσεως" καὶ ἑνωθεὶς ὃ σαῦρος, τοῦ μὲν though a scar gives evidence of what it has suffered, 
πάθους τὸ ἴχνος αὐτῷ κατηγορεῖ ἡ οὐλή, περιθέων yet runs about and maintains its former method of 
δὲ Kal τὴν ἀρχαίαν βιοτὴν ἔχων ἔοικε τῶν προει- life exactly like one of its kind that has had no such 
ρημένων μὴ πεπειραμένῳ. experience. 


24. The poison of serpents is a thing to be dreaded, thes 
but that of the Asp is far worse. Nor are remedies 
and antidotes easy to discover, however ingenious 
one may be at beguiling and dispelling acute pains. 
Yet after all there is in man also a certain mysterious 
poison, and this is how it has been discovered. If 
you capture a Viper and grasp its neck very firmly 
and with a strong hand, and then open its mouth and 
spit into it, the spittle slides down into its belly and ΤΣ 
has so disastrous an effect upon it as to cause the 
Viper to rot away. From this you see how foul can 

24. ᾿Ιὸς μὲν 6 τῶν ἑρπετῶν δεινός ἐστι, καὶ ὅ 
γε τῆς ἀσπίδος ἔτι μᾶλλον. καὶ τούτου a ἀντίπαλα 
καὶ ἀμυντήρια ῥᾳδίως οὐκ ἂν εὕροι τις, εἰ καὶ 
σοφώτατος εἴη κηλεῖν τε ὀδύνας καὶ ἀφανίζειν. 

Ἢν δὲ ἄρα καὶ ἐν ἀνθρώπῳ τις ἰὸς ἀπόρρητος,. 
καὶ πεφώραται τὸν τρόπον ἐκεῖνον. ἔχιν εἰ λά- 

Bots, καὶ πάνυ εὐλαβῶς τε καὶ ἐγκρατῶς τοῦ 
τραχήλου κατάσχοις, καὶ διαστήσας τὸ στόμα 
εἶτα αὐτῷ ὃ προσπτύσειας, ἐς τὴν νηδὺν κατολι- 
σθάνει τὸ πτύαλον, καὶ γίνεταί ot τοσοῦτον κακὸν 
ὡς σήπειν τὸν ἔχιν. ἔνθεν ὃ τοι καὶ ἀνθρώπῳ 


Ὁ eae LCRA ae Sts 



ξ ΡΞ ΝΑ πε _ 
~ 3 4 παίσας κατὰ τοῦ βρέγματος most MSS, π. κατὰ τὸ μέσον Υ. 
* Gow: ἀραιῶν στημονίων τὰ ἱμάτια MSS, ἐρεῶν Bernhardy, : 5 οὐθέτερον. 
; : ἢ ΡΞ 7 
τιλμάτια Haupt. } 6 ἡμίτομον τῶν ζῴων. 
2 4 : Φ 2s 4 
ταῦταις. ¢ ἔπι τούτων. 
3 2 ἣν ? bi 82> aA 9 ὅθεν 
ἀρκοῦν μηχάνημα. : ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ. ' 



δῆγμα ἀνθρώπου μιαρόν ἐστι καὶ κινδυνῶδες 
οὐδενὸς θηρίου μεῖον. 

25. Ἔν «ὥρᾳ θερείῳ,. ἀμητοῦ κατειληφότος καὶ 
τῶν σταχύων τριβομένων ἐν τῷ δίνῳ, κατὰ ἴλας 
συνίασιν ot μύρμηκες, καθ᾽ ἕνα ἰόντες καὶ κατὰ 
δύο δέ, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐς τὸν τρίτον στοῖχον 2 ἔρχονται, 
τοὺς ἑαυτῶν οἴκους καὶ τὰς συνήθεις στέγας ἀπο- 
λείποντες: εἶτα ἐκλέγουσι τῶν πυρῶν καὶ τῶν 
κριθῶν, καὶ τὴν αὐτὴν χωροῦσιν ἀτραπόν. καὶ 
οὐ μὲν ἀπίασιν ἐπὶ τὴν τῶν προειρημένων συλ- 
λογήν, οἱ δὲ κομίζουσι τὸν φόρτον, καὶ πάνυ 
αἰδεσίμως καὶ πεφεισμένως ἀλλήλοις ὑπαφίσταν- 
ται 5 τῆς ὁδοῦ, καὶ μᾶλλον τοῖς ἀχθοφόροις οἱ 
κοῦφοι: κατελθόντες δὲ ἐς τὰ οἰκεῖα τὰ σφέτερα 4 

Α ’ὔ \ > - “ 

καὶ πληρώσαντες τοὺς ἐν τῷ μυχῷ σφίσι σιρούς,5 
7 f ; 

εκάστου σπέρματος διατρήσαντες τὸ μέσον, TO 

μὲν ἐκπεσὸν δεῖπνον γίνεται τῷ μύρμηκι ἐν τῷ 
τέως, τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν ἄγονόν ἐστι. παλαμῶνται δὲ 
ἄρα οἱ γενναῖοι οἰκονόμοι καὶ φρουροὶ τοῦτο, ἵνα 
μὴ τῶν ὄμβρων περιρρευσάντων, εἶτα ἔκφυσιν 
ὁλόκληρα ἐκεῖνα ὄντα λάβῃ τινὰ καὶ ἀναθήλῃ, καὶ 
τούτων γενομένων ἀτροφίᾳ καὶ λιμῷ διὰ χειμῶνος 
περυπέσωσι, καὶ αὐτοῖς ἐξαμβλώσῃ ἡ σπουδή. 
φύσεως μὲν δὴ καὶ μύρμηκες λαβεῖν δῶρα εὐτύχη- 


\ ~ 
σαν Kat ταῦτα ὡς ἄλλα. 

0. 2 3 A “ 
26. Οὐδέποτε ἀετὸς οὔτε πηγῆς δεῖται οὔτε. 

i f : ? 
γλίχεται κονίστρας, ἀλλὰ καὶ δίψους ἀμείνων 
͵ὔ ᾽ὔὔ 
ἐστί, καὶ καμάτου φάρμακον οὐκ ἀναμένει πορι- 

,ὔ 4 ‘ 
1 βερείῳ περὶ τὰς ἅλως. 5 τὸ. - στοιχεῖον. 







ON ANIMALS, II. 24-26 

be the bite of one man to another and as dangerous 
as the bite of any beast. : 

95. In the summertime when the harvest is im The Ant 

and the corn is being threshed on the threshing-floor, 
Ants assemble in companies, going in single file or 
two abreast—indeed they sometimes go three 
abreast—after quitting their homes and customary 
shelters. Then they pick out some of the barley 
and the wheat and all follow the same track. And 
some go to collect the grain, others carry the load, 
and they get out of each other’s way with the utmost 
deference and consideration, especially those that 
are not laden for the benefit of those that are. 
Then they return to their dwellings and fill the pits in 
their store-chamber after boring through the middle 
of each grain. What falls out becomes the Ant’s 
meal at the time; what is left is infertile. This is a 
device on the part of these excellent and thrifty 
housekeepers to prevent the intact grain from put- 
ting out shoots and sprouting afresh when the rains 
have surrounded them, and to preserve themselves 
in that case from falling victims during the winter 
to want of food and to famine, and their zeal from 
being blunted. ‘It is to Nature then that Ants 
too owe these and other fortunate gifts. 

26. At no time does the Eagle need water or long The Eagle 

for a dusting-place; he is on the contrary superior to 
thirst and looks for no medicine for weariness from 

8 ἀφίστανται H. 
4 σφέτερα of γενναῖοι. 
5. Jac: σιροὺς πυρῶν τε καὶ κριθῶν. 


ῸΑΒΙΑΝ π᾿: τς 

σθὲν -ἔξωθεν, ὑπερφρονῶν δὲ καὶ -τῶν ὑδάτων καὶ 
7 4 

τῆς ἀναπαύσεως τὸν αἰθέριον τέμνει πόλον, Kal 
ὀξύτατα ὁρᾷ ἐκ πολλοῦ τοῦ αἰθέρος καὶ ὑψηλοῦ. 
καὶ τόν γε τῶν πτερῶν αὐτοῦ ῥοῖζον καὶ τὸ τῶν 
θηρίων ἀτρεπτότατον ὁ δράκων ἀκούσας μόνον 
παραχρῆμα 5. κατέδυ. καὶ ἀσμένως ἠφανίσθη. 
βάσανος δέ οὗ τῶν νεοττῶν τῶν γνησίων ἐκείνη 
ἐστίν. ἀντίους τῇ αὐγῇ τοῦ ἡλίου ἵστησιν αὐτοὺς 
ὑγροὺς * ἔτι καὶ ἀπτῆνας" καὶ ἐὰν μὲν σκαρδαμύξῃ 
τις τὴν ἀκμὴν τῆς ἀκτῖνος δυσωπούμενος, ἐξεώσθη 
τῆς καλιᾶς, καὶ ἀπεκρίθη τῆσδε τῆς ἑστίας: ἐὰν 
δὲ ἀντιβλέψῃ καὶ μάλα ἀτρέπτως, ἀμείνων ἐστὶν 
ὑπονοίας καὶ τοῖς γνησίοις ἐγγέγραπται, ἐπεὶ 
αὐτῷ πῦρ τὸ οὐράνιον ἡ τοῦ γένους ἀδέκαστός τε 
καὶ ἄπρατος * ἀληθῶς ἐστιν ἐγγραφή. | 

27. Ἣ στρουθὸς ἡ μεγάλη λασίοις. μὲν τοῖς 
πτεροῖς ἐπτέρωται, ἀρθῆναι δὲ καὶ ἐς βαθὺν ἀέρα 
μετεωρισθῆναι φύσιν οὐκ ἔχει. θεῖ δὲ ὥκιστα, 
καὶ τὰς παρὰ τὴν πλευρὰν ἑκατέραν πτέρυγας. 
ἁπλοῖ, καὶ ἐμπῖπτον τὸ πνεῦμα κολποῖ δίκην 
ἱστίων αὐτάς. ὃ ᾿ | | 

ν᾿ > ἡ ; “A > 
28. Τὴν ὠτίδα <7d>® Cov ὀρνίθων εἶναι didur- 
, 2 2 “ ᾿ 
πότατον ἀκούω. καὶ. TO? μαρτύριον, τῶν μὲν 
MM 2 ? “AD ~ σι : vo 
ἄλλων ζῴων καὶ ἐν λειμῶσι καὶ ἐν αὐλῶσι νεμομέ- 
. . ~ 2 ane \ @ . 7 2 iid ν 
νων καταφρονεῖ: ἵππον δὲ ὅταν θεάσηται, ἥδιστα 
, 7 ᾿ “-- Ἤν ΠΣ 
προσπέτεται Kal πλησιάζει κατὰ τοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώ- 
πων ἱππεραστάς. - ἘΝ 

τὸν ἀέρα τέμνει πολύν. , 3. καὶ παραχρῆμα. 
Jac: ἀργούς. .. 4 Pauw: ἄγραπτος. 

εὐ GUNES ROLLED EELS DOERR EERIE RS AUER GST HLTH υὐρρ πῇ dais ca dssse UNS x ikea ΕΣ 

ON ANIMALS, II. 26-28 

any outside source, but scorning water ‘and repose he 
cleaves the atmosphere and gazes with piercing eye 
from the vast expanse of heaven on high. And at 
the mere sound of those rushing wings even that 
most intrepid of all creatures, the great serpent, dives 
at once into its den and is glad to disappear. And 
this is the way in which the Eagle tests the legitimacy 
of his young ones. He plants them, while they are 
still tender and unfledged, facing the rays of the sun, 
and if one of them blinks, unable to endure the 
brightness of the rays, it is thrust out of the nest and 
banished from that hearth. If however it can face 
the sun quite unmoved, it is above suspicion ‘and is 
enrolled among the legitimate offspring, since the 
celestial fire is an impartial and uncorrupt register of 
its origin. Ὁ. ia | 

27. The Ostrich is covered with thick feathers, but The Ostrich 
its nature does not permit it to rise from the ground | 
and mount aloft into the sky. Yet its speed is very 
great, and when it spreads its wings on either side, 
the wind meeting them causes them to belly like 
sails. | : 3 7 

28, Among birds the Bustard is, I am told, the The Bustard 

- most fond of horses. And the proof of this is that it 

scorns all other animals that live in field or glen, but 
that when it catches sight of a horse, it delights to. 
fly up to it and to keep it company, just like men 
who are devoted to horses. - 

5 αὐτάς, πτῆσιν δὲ οὐκ older. 
. 6. (τὸς add. Η. 

7 τούτου. 



“~ ~ . 3 ‘ : 

29. Μυῖα ἐμπεσοῦσα ἐς ὕδωρ, εἰ καὶ ζῴων 
3 4 θ f LAAG ~ vw > > 4 2 a 
ἐστὶ θρασυτάτη, ἀλλὰ γοῦν οὔτ᾽ ἐπιτρέχει,5 οὔτε 
νηκτική ἐστι, καὶ διὰ ταῦτα ἀποπνίγεται. εἰ δὲ 
αὐτῆς ἐξέλοις τὸν νεκρόν, καὶ τέφραν ἐμπάσειας 

, “-- 3 

καὶ καταθείης ὃ ἐν ἡλίου αὐγῇ, ἀναβιώσῃ τὴν 

30. ᾿Αλεκτρυόνα εἴτε πριάμενος εἴτε δῶρον 
λαβὼν ἐς τὴν ἀγέλην τὴν σεαυτοῦ καὶ τοὺς 
” 1 5 θ ζῶ 29 λ 3 Dict © οὐκ ἃ 7 
ὄρνιθας τοὺς ἠθάδας ἐθέλοις ἀριθμεῖν,Σ οὐκ ἀπολύ- 
σεις οὐδὲ ἀφήσεις εἰκῆ καὶ ws ἔτυχεν αὐτόν" "εἰ 

> f 
δὲ μή, φυγὰς παραχρῆμα οἰχήσεται ἐς τοὺς 
οἰκείους καὶ τοὺς συννόμους, εἰ καὶ πάνυ πόρ- 
ρωθεν εἴη οὗτος. δεῖ δὲ ἄρα αὐτῷ φρουρὰν 
- A A 5 »" ¢€ 4 , ¢ ’ 
περιβαλεῖν καὶ δεσμὰ ἀφανῆ ὑπὲρ τὰ ᾿Ηφαίστου 
τὰ ὋὉμήρεια. καὶ o γε λέγω τοιοῦτόν ἐστι. 

7 > 45 e 3 , > , ; \ \ 
τράπεζαν ἐφ᾽ ἧς ἐσθίεις ἐς μέσον καταθεὶς καὶ 
τὸν ὄρνιθα λαβὼν καὶ τρὶς αὐτὸν τὴν προειρη- 

Α ~ 
μένην σκηνὴν περιαγαγών, μέθες τὸ ἐντεῦθεν 
“ ξ᾿» “᾿ “4 “ 
ἄφετον ἀλᾶσθαι σὺν τοῖς ὄρνισι τοῖς οἰκέταις" ὁ 
δὲ οὐκ ἀπαλλάττεται, ὥσπερ οὖν πεπεδημένος.. 

31. Ἢ σαλαμάνδρα τὸ ζῷον οὐκ ἔστι μὲν τῶν 
πυρὸς ἐκγόνων, ὥσπερ οὖν οἱ καλούμενοι πυρί- 
γονοι, θαρρεῖ δὲ αὐτὸ καὶ χωρεῖ τῇ φλογὶ ὁμόσε, 
καὶ ὡς ἀντίπαλόν τινα σπεύδει καταγωνίσασθαι. 
καὶ τὸ μαρτύριον, περὶ Ἷ τοὺς βαναύσους καλιν- 
δεῖται καὶ τοὺς χειρώνακτας τοὺς ἐμπύρους. ἐς 
ὅσον μὲν οὖν ἐνακμάζει τὸ πῦρ αὐτοῖς, καὶ συνερ- 


8. ὥυγχέ 

4 > »- ῖν 
ἀριθμεῖν καὶ ἔχειν. 

1 + é 4 4 > 
εἰ Kal] καὶ yap εἰ. 
8. καταθήσεις. 



ON ANIMALS, 11. 29-32 

99. When a Fly falls into the water, though it is Ths Fly 
of all creatures the most daring, yet it can neither 
yun upon the surface nor swim, and hence it drowns. 
If however you pick out the dead body, sprinkle 
ashes upon it, and place it in the sunshine, you will 
bring the Fly to life again. 

30. If you want to add a Cockerel, whether bought The 
. Oockerel 

or presented, to your flock of domestic fowls, you 

must not release him nor let him loose at random 

and in a casual way; otherwise he will immediately 

desert and go back to his own kin and mates, how- 

ever far away from them he be. So you must set 

upon him a guard and fetters more invisible than 

those of Hephaestus in Homer [Od. 8. 274-]. What 

I prescribe is this. Place the table at which you eat, 
in the open, seize the Cockerel, and when you have 
taken him three times round the aforesaid platform, 
then let him go free to wander with the fowls of the 
house. He will not go away any more than if he were 
chained up. 

31. The Salamander is not indeed one of those Ld ad 
fire-born creatures like the so-called ‘ Fire-flies,’ ¢ 
yet it is as bold as they and encounters the flame and 

is eager to fight it like an enemy. And the proof of 

this is as follows. Its haunts are among artisans and 
craftsmen who work at the forge. Now so long as 
their fire is at full blast and they have it to help 

@ See ch. 2. 

5 ἐκγόνων οὐδὲ ἐξ αὐτοῦ τίκτεται. 
6. καὶ τούτου τὰ μαρτύρια. 
? παρά. 
VOL. I. F 

γόνα δι 
ἐρενν σον τὴ 

ORGIES NG een Re te aE 




ΠΝ. Ἢ ᾿ : ‘ ν΄ " - 
γὸν τῇ τέχνῃ ἔχουσιν αὐτὸ καὶ κοινωνὸν τῆς 
re) : 

: ? ¢€ 

σοφίας, ὑπὲρ τοῦδε τοῦ ζῴου οὐδὲ Ev φροντίζουσιν" 

ὅταν δὲ τὸ μὲν ἀποσβεσθῇ καὶ μαρανθῇ, μάτην δὲ 
αἱ φῦσαι καταπνέωσιν, ἐνταῦθα ἤδη τὸ ζῷον τὸ 
εἰρημένον ἀντιπρᾶττόν σφισιν ἴσασι καλῶς. ἀνιχ- 
νεύσαντες οὖν τὸ θηρίον καὶ τιμωρησάμενοι, τὸ 
πῦρ ἐντεῦθεν αὐτοῖς ἐξάπτεται, καὶ ἔστιν εὐπειθές, 
καὶ οὐ σβέννυται τῇ συνηθείᾳ τρεφόμενον. 

82. Kuxvos δέ, ὅνπερ οὖν καὶ θεράποντα ᾿Απόλ- 
λωνι ἔδοσαν ποιηταὶ καὶ λόγοι μέτρων ἀφειμένοι 
πολλοί, τὰ μὲν ἄλλα ὅπως μούσης τε καὶ δῆς 
ἔχει εἰπεῖν οὐκ. οἶδα: πεπίστευται δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν 
ἄνω τοῦ χρόνου ὅτι τὸ κύκνειον οὕτω καλούμενον 

3 > > θνή wn δὲ + εὐ 4. Ἀ. ξ 
ᾷσας εἴτα ἀποὔνησκει. τίμᾳ OE ἀρὰ αὕτον Ἢ. 

φύσις καὶ τῶν καλῶν καὶ ἀγαθῶν ἀνθρώπων 
μᾶλλον, καὶ εἰκότως: εἴ γε τούτους μὲν καὶ 
ἐπαινοῦσι καὶ θρηνοῦσιν ἄλλοι, ἐκεῖνοι. δὲ εἴτε 
τοῦτο ἐθέλοις εἴτε ἐκεῖνο, ἑαυτοῖς νέμουσιν. 


83. Κροκόδιλος μὲν ὅπως ἔχει μεγέθους καὶ ὁ 


᾿ Α φ 3 4 ~ 4 7 
τέλειος Kal ὃ ἐκγλυφεὶς πρῶτον, καὶ μέντοι καὶ 

: ¢ \ a 
γλώττης ὅπως, καὶ εἰ κινεῖ 3 τὴν γένυν, καὶ 

. , -ς ¢ 7 7 4 7 Ἂ 
ποτέραν τῇ ἑτέρᾳ προσάγει, πολλοὶ λέγουσι. 
7 ᾿ ~ : ~ . . 

κατέγνωσαν δὲ dpa τοῦ ζῴου τοῦδέ. τινες ὅτι 
/ “- 

τίκτει ὃ τοσαῦτα wa ὅσαις ἂν ὁ ἡμέραις ἐπῳάζον ὃ 
: Py Oy . ὦν ὁ ἀρ δα» Ὁ δὲ "ἢ. ᾿ 

εἶτα ἐκγλύψῃ τὰ νεόττια- ἤδη δὲ ἔγωγε ἤκουσα, 
ξ 5 “-- 

6 κροκόδιλος ὅταν ἀποθάνῃ, σκορπίον ἐξ αὐτοῦ 
/ , “ 

τίκτεσθαι, κέντρον δὲ ἄρα οὐραῖον αὐτὸν ἔχειν 
“ A 

λέγουσιν ἰοῦ πεπληρωμένον. 


συνεργὸν αὐτοῖς." 2 εἰ κινεῖ] Reiske : ἐπικινεῖ," 


ON ANIMALS, IL. 31-33 

‘their craft and to share their skill, they pay not 

the smallést attention to this animal. When how- 
ever the fire goes out or languishes and the bel- 
lows blow in vain, then at once they know full 
well that the aforesaid creature is working’ against 
them. Accordingly they track it down and. exact 
vengeance; and then the fire is lit, is easily coaxed 
up, and does not go out, provided it is kept fed with 
the usual material. | 

32. The Swan is assigned by poets and many prose- The Swan 
writers as servant to Apollo, but in what other rela- ee 
tion it stands to music and song I do not know. Yet 
the ancients believed that when it has sung what is 

called its ‘ swan-song,’ it dies. In that case Nature 

honours it more highly than it does noble and up- 
right men, and rightly so, for while others praise 
and lament them, Swans praise or, if you will, lament 
themselves. | 

33. Many writers tell us about the size of the ΤῊΝ ai 
Crocodile both when fully grown and when first “°°” 
hatched, and further, about its tongue, and whether 

it moves its jaw and which jaw it closes upon the 

other. There are those too who have observed that _ 

this animal lays as many eggs as the days during 

_ which it sits upon them before hatching out its young. 

And I have myself heard that when a Crocodile dies 
a scorpion is born from it; and they do say that it 
has a sting in its tail which is full of poison. 

3 4 

ἂν καί. 
ἍἌ 3 ᾽ 
ὃ Jac: ὅπως ἂν ἀποθάνοι. 


τίκτει μέν. 
5 > é cd 
ἐπῳάζουσιν ὄρνεις, 


34. El σαφῆ ταῦτα καὶ μὴ ἀμφίλογα, ᾿Ινδῶν 
᾿ λόγοι πειθέτωσαν: ἃ δὲ νῦν ἐρῶ, τῆς ἐκεῖθεν 
φήμης διακομιζούσης, ταῦτά ἐστιν. ὁμώνυμον τῷ 
φυτῷ κιννάμωμον ὄρνιν ἔγωγε τοῦ παιδὸς τοῦ 
Νικομάχου λέγοντος ἤκουσα. καὶ τὸν μὲν ὄρνιν 
κομίξειν Σ τὸ φερώνυμον τοῦτο δὴ φυτὸν es 
Ἰνδούς, εἰδέναι δὲ ἄρα τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ὅπου τε ὃ 
καὶ ὅπως φύεται οὐδὲ ἕν. 

, \ 
35. Αἰγύπτιοι κλύσματα Kal κάθαρσιν γαστρὸς 
: f , -“ 
οὐκ ἔκ τινος ἐπινοίας ἀνθρωπίνης λέγουσι μαθεῖν, 

διδάσκαλον δέ σφισι τοῦ ἰάματος τοῦδε τὴν ἶβιν 
ἄδουσιν. καὶ ὅπως ἐξεπαίδευσε τοὺς πρώτους 
ἰδόντας, ἐρεὶ ἄλλος: σελήνης δὲ αὔξησιν καὶ 
μείωσιν ὅτι οἶδε, καὶ τοῦτο ἤκουσα. καὶ ὅτι τὴν 
τροφὴν ἑαυτῇ ὑφαιρεῖ καὶ προστίθησι κατὰ τὴν 
τῆς θεοῦ καὶ λῆξιν καὶ πρόσθεσιν, πυθέσθαι ποθὲν 
οὐκ εἰμὶ ἔξαρνος. 

é é 

36. Kévrpov πικρότατον Kat κίνδυνον φέρον 
». 4 € " nw fa 

ἁπάντων μᾶλλον ἡ τρυγὼν ἡ ἐκ τῆς θαλάττης 

dyer. καὶ τὸ μαρτύριον, εἰ μὲν ἐς δένδρον τεθηλὸς 

> δέ , 3 

καὶ εὖ μάλα ἀναθέον ἐμπήξειας αὐτό, οὔτε ἐς 

> > "» > . 

ἀναβολὰς οὔτε χρόνῳ ὕστερον ἀλλ᾽ ἤδη αὖον τὸ 
-» > ὔ 5» 7 

δένδρον" εἰ δέ τι τῶν ζῴων ἀμύξειας, ἀπέκτεινας. 

ton 3 ? 
37. Ἢ μυγαλῆ * és ὅσον μὲν τὴν ἄλλως πρόεισι, 
a ~*~ 37 4 
tay ἔχει, καὶ ἐσπείσατο αὐτῇ ἡ φύσις, ἐάν γε μὴ 
“a . 5 / 2 A 
ἄλλῃ τινὶ τύχῃ καταληφθῇ καὶ ἀπόληται. ἐπὰν 
ΟΠ Bernhardy: κομίζειν ἐντεῦθεν. 
2 τὸ φυτόν. 8 Reiske: γε. 
4 μυγαλὴ καὶ yap τοῦτο ποίημα ὕλης. 


URGE Sect νος J 

ON ANIMALS, II. 34-37 

34. If these facts are certain and beyond dispute, 
then let this story from India carry conviction. 
What I propose to tell has been brought from thence 
by report and is as follows. 1 have learnt from the 
son of Nicomachus [Arist. HA 616 a 6] that there is a 
bird named Cinnamon like the plant, and that the 
bird brings this plant, which is named after it, to the 
Indians, but that these people have no knowledge 
where and how the plant grows. 

35. The Egyptians assert that a knowledge of 

clysters and intestinal purges is derived from no dis- 

_covery of man’s, but they commonly affirm that it 

was the Ibis that taught them this remedy. And 
how it instructed those who were the first to see it, 
some other shall tell. And I have also heard that it 
knows when the moon is waxing and when waning ; 
and I cannot deny that I have learnt from some source 
that it diminishes or increases its food according as 

‘the goddess herself diminishes or increases. 


The Ibis 

and clysters 

36. The Sting-ray in the sea has a far fiercer and The 

more dangerous sting than all other creatures. The 
proof is that if you fix it in a flourishing tree that has 
grown to a great height, then without any delay, 
before any time has elapsed, the tree immediately 
withers. And if you allow the sting to scratch any 
living creature, you kill it at once. 


37. So long as the Shrew-mouse proceeds as chance The Shrew- 

directs, it can live, and Nature is on friendly terms 
with it, unless it is overtaken by misfortune from 

@ See 17. 21. 



‘ : ; 3 ? € 1. ᾿ ἐλάσεις, 
τς δὲ ἐς ἁρῤματοτροχιὰν ἐμπέσῃ, οἱονεί πέδῃ .κατεί- 

ληπται καὶ μάλα ἀφανεῖ, καὶ τέθνηκε. δηχθέντι 
δὲ ὑπὸ μυγαλῆς φάρμακον ἐκεῖνο. ἐκ τῆς τῶν 
τροχῶν διαδρομῆς ἡ ψάμμος ἀρθεῖσα ἐπεπάσθη 
τῷ δήγματι, καὶ ἔσωσε παραχρῆμα. ᾿ 

58, Καὶ ταῦτα δὲ ὑπὲρ τῆς Αἰγυπτίας ἴβεως 
προσακήκοα. ἱερὰ τῆς σελήνης ἡ ὄρνις ἐστί. 
τοσούτων γοῦν ὃ ἡμερῶν τὰ wa ἐκγλύφει, ὅσων 
ἡ θεὸς αὔξει τε καὶ λήγει. τῆς δὲ Αἰγύπτου 

- } ἢ : 4 ~ 
οὔποτε ἀποδημεῖ. τὸ δὲ αἴτιον, νοτιωτάτη χωρῶν 

ἁπασῶν Αἴγυπτός ἐστι, καὶ ἡ σελήνη δὲ νοτιωτάτη 
τῶν πλανωμένων ἄστρων πεπίστευται. ἑκοῦσα 
μὲν οὖν οὐκ ἂν ἀποδημήσειεν ἡ ἴβις" εἰ δέ τις 
ἐπιθέμενος αὐτῇ κατὰ τὸ καρτερὸν ἐξαγάγοι, ἡ δὲ 
ἀμύνεται τὸν ἐπιβουλεύσαντα, ἐς οὐδὲν αὐτῷ τὴν 
σπουδὴν προάγουσα ἑαυτὴν γὰρ ἀποκτείνει 
λιμῷ, καὶ ἀνόνητον τὴν προθυμίαν ἀποφαίνει τῷ 
προειρημένῳ. βαδίζει δὲ ἡσυχῆ καὶ κορικῶς, καὶ 
οὐκ ἂν αὐτὴν θᾶττον ἢ βάδην προϊοῦσαν θεάσαιτό 
τις. καὶ τούτων αἱ μέλαιναι τοὺς πτερωτοὺς 
ὄφεις ἐξ ᾿Αραβίας ἐς Αἴγυπτον. παρελθεῖν οὐκ 
ἐπιτρέπουσι, τῆς γῆς τῆς φίλης προπολεμοῦσαι" 
αἱ δὲ ἕτεραι τοὺς ἐξ Αἰθιοπίας κατὰ τὴν τό 
Νείλου ἐπίκλυσιν ἀφικνουμένους ἀπαντῶσαι δια- 
φθείρουσιν. ἢ τί ἂν ἐκώλυσε διὰ τῆς ἐκείνων 
ἐπιδημίας τοὺς Αἰγυπτίους ἀπολωλέναι; 

᾿ ~ . ” : 
39. ᾿Ακούω δέ τι Kal γένος ἀετῶν, Kal ὄνομα. 

: ΄σ' ‘ 3 f A 
αὐτῷ xpvoderov ἔθεντο, ἄλλοι δὲ. ἀστερίαν τὸν 

1 Reiske: οὖν. 2 προαγαγοῦσα. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 37-39 

some other quarter and is killed. When however it 
falls into a rut, it is caught, so to say, in quite 
invisible fetters and dies. The remedy for a man 
who has been bitten by a Shrew-mouse is as follows. 
Take some sand from the wheel-track, sprinkle it on 
the bite, and it cures him immediately. 

38. Here is another story relating to the Egyptian The Ibis 

Ibis which I have heard. The bird is sacred to the 
moon. At any rate it hatches its eggs in the same 
number of days that the goddess takes to wax and 
to wane, and never leaves Egypt. The reason for 
this is that Egypt is the moistest of all countries and 
the moon is believed to be the moistest of all planets. 
Of its own free will the Ibis would never quit Egypt, 
and should some man lay hands upon it and forcibly 
export it, it will defend itself against its assailant and 
bring all his labour to nothing, for it will starve itself 
to death and render its captor’s exertions vain. It 
walks quietly like a maiden, and one would never see 
it moving at anything faster than a foot’s pace. The 
Black Ibis does not permit the winged serpents from 
Arabia to cross into Egypt, but fights to protect the 
land it loves, while the other kind encounters the 
serpents that come down the Nile when in flood and 
destroys them. Otherwise there would have been 
nothing to prevent the Egyptians from being killed 
by their coming. 

89. There is, Iam told, a species of eagle to which The Golden 

men have given the name of ἡ Golden Eagle,’ though 


αὐτὸν καλοῦσιν' ὁρᾶται δὲ οὐ πολλάκις. λέγει 
δὲ ᾿Αριστοτέλης αὐτὸν θηρᾶν καὶ νεβροὺς καὶ 
λαγὼς καὶ γεράνους καὶ χῆνας ἐξ αὐλῆς. μέγιστος 
δὲ ἀετῶν εἶναι πεπίστευται, καὶ λέγουσί γε 1 καὶ 
ταύροις ἐπιτίθεσθαι αὐτὸν κατὰ τὸ καρτερόν, καὶ 
περιηγοῦνται τὸ ἔργον τὸν τρόπον τοῦτον. ὁ μὲν 
κεκυφὼς κάτω νέμεται ὃ ταῦρος: ὃ δὲ ἀετὸς ἐπὶ 
τῷ τένοντι τοῦ ζῴου καθίσας ἑαυτὸν παίει τῷ 
στόματι συνεχέσι τε καὶ καρτεραῖς ταῖς πληγαῖς" 
ὁ δὲ ὥσπερ οἰστρηθεὶς ἐξάπτεται, καὶ 7} ποδῶν 
ἔχει φυγῆς ἄρχεται. καὶ ἕως μέν ἐστιν εὐήλατα, 
6 ἀετὸς ἥσυχός ἐστι καὶ ἐπιποτᾶται παραφυλάτ- 
των: ὅταν δὲ τὸν ταῦρον θεάσηται πλησίον 
κρημνοῦ γεγενημένον, κυκλώσας τὰ πτερὰ καὶ 
φ [4 ᾿ -" “ > “~ > ,ὔ 4 > 
ὑπερτείνας αὐτοῦ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν, ἐποίησε τὰ ἐν 
ποσὶ μὴ προϊδόμενον 5 κατενεχθῆναι βιαιότατα. 
εἶτα ἐμπεσὼν καὶ ἀναρρήξας τὴν γαστέρα, ῥᾳδίως 
χρῆται τῇ ἄγρᾳ, ἐς ὅσον ἐθέλει. θήρας δὲ ἀλλο- 
τρίας οὐχ ἅπτεται κειμένης, ἀλλὰ χαίρει τοῖς 
ἑαυτοῦ πόνοις, κοινωνίαν τε τὴν πρὸς ἄλλον ἥκιστα 
ἐνδέχεται. κορεσθεὶς δὲ. εἶτα τοῦ λοιποῦ πονηρὸν 
ἄσθμα καὶ δυσωδέστατον καταπνεύσας, ἄβρωτα 
τοῖς ἄλλοις τὰ λείψανα ἐᾷ. καὶ μέντοι καὶ ἀλ- 
λήλων ἀπῳκισμένας οἰκοῦσι καλιὰς ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ 
διαφέρεσθαι ὑπὲρ θήρας [καὶ λυπουμένους λυπεῖν 
πολλάκις]. | : 

ON ANIMALS, IT. 39-40 

others call it Asterias (starred). And it is seldom 
seen. Aristotle says* that it hunts fawns, hares, 
cranes, and geese of the farmyard. It is believed to 
be the largest of eagles; at any rate men say that it 
attacks bulls with violence, and its method of attack 
they describe as follows. The bull is feeding with 
his head down, and the Eagle alights upon his neck 
and with its beak delivers a rain of powerful blows. 
And the bull goes wild as though stung by a gadfly, 
and sets off to run as fast as he can go. So long 
as the land makes going easy the Eagle bides its 
time, flying above him and watching. But directly 
it sees the bull near a precipice it makes an arch with 
its wings, covers the bull’s eyes so that he cannot see 
what is before him, and down he goes with a fearful 

its method 
of attacking 

crash. Whereupon the Eagle pounces, rips open his _ 

stomach, and has no difficulty in enjoying its prey to. 

its heart’s content. But the prey killed by some 
other creature it will not touch: rather it delights 
in its own labours and will not for one moment admit 
any other creature to share them. Later when it 

has gorged itself, it breathes over the rest of the 

carcase a foul and most ill-smelling air, leaving the 
remains unfit for any other animal to eat. 
more, Eagles build their nests far apart from one 
another so as to avoid quarrelling over their prey [and 
being a constant source of mutual hurt}. 

What is - 

40. It seems that Eagles are full of affection even #¢ Bagi, 
towards their keepers; witness the Eagle that to its keeper 

belonged to Pyrrhus, which (they say) on the death 

~ 4 4 4 

40. Ἦν {δὲν dpa γένος ἀετῶν καὶ πρὸς τοὺς 

Ὁ > \ ξ΄’ “a 

τρέφοντας φιλόστοργον, ὥσπερ οὖν καὶ ὁ τοῦ 
~ \ > : “a ~ 

Πύρρου. τοῦτόν τοί φασι Kat ἐπαποθὰνεῖν ὃ τῷ 

4 The passage is not to be found in his extant works. 

4 ¢8€ add. H. 

2 G. Hoffmann: προειδ-. 
5 Jac: ἐναποθανεῖν. 

1 γε εἰς τοὺς κρῆτας. 

8 [καὶ . . . πολλάκις] del. Η. 

136 137 



δεσπότῃ τροφῆς ἀποστάντα. ἤδη δὲ καὶ ἀνδρὸς 

3 7 3 A / 7 ~ ὃ ,ὕ ; 
ἰδιώτου ἀετὸς τρόφιμος καομένου τοῦ δεσπότου 

ἐς τὴν πυρὰν ἑαυτὸν ἐνέβαλεν: οἱ δὲ οὐκ ἀνδρός, 
ἀλλὰ γυναικὸς τὸ θρέμμα εἶναί φασι. ζηλοτυπώτα- 
τον δὲ ἄρα ἦν 1 ζῷον ἀετὸς πρὸς τὰ νεόττια. ἐὰν 
γοῦν θεάσηταί τινα προσιόντα, ἀπελθεῖν ἀτιμώρη- 
τον οὐκ ἐπιτρέπει: παίει γὰρ τοῖς πτεροῖς αὑτὸν 
καὶ τοῖς ὄνυξι λυμαίνεται, καὶ ἐπιτίθησίν οἱ 
πεφεισμένως τὴν δίκην: οὐ γὰρ χρῆται τῷ στόματι. 

41. Ἔστι δὲ θαλαττίων ζῴων τρίγλη λιχνότατον, 
καὶ ἐς τὸ ἀπογεύσασθαι παντὸς τοῦ παρατυχόντος 
ἀναμφιλόγως ἀφειδέστατον. καί τινες καλοῦνται 
λεπρώδεις αὐτῶν, σπάσασαι τὸ ὄνομα ἐκ τῶν 
χωρίων, ἅπερ οὖν πέτρας ἔχει λεπράς ® τε καὶ 
ἀραιάς, καὶ φυκία μέσα τούτων δασέα, καὶ που 
καὶ ὑποκάθηται πηλὸς ἢ. ψάμμος. φάγοι δ᾽ ἂν 
τρίγλη καὶ ἀνθρώπου νεκροῦ καὶ ἰχθύος" φιληδοῦσι 
δὲ μᾶλλον τοῖς. μεμιασμένοις καὶ κακόσμοις. 

42. Θηρᾶσαι καὶ μάλα γε ἱκανοὶ καὶ οὐδέν τι 
μεῖον τῶν ἀετῶν ἱέρακές εἰσιν, ἡμερώτατοι δὲ 
ὀρνίθων πεφύκασι καὶ φιλανθρωπότατοι, τὸ μέγεθος 
ἀετῶν οὐκ ὄντες ὀλιγώτεροι. ἀκούω δὲ ὅτι ἐν 
τῇ Θράκῃ καὶ ἀνθρώποις εἰσὶ σύνθηροι ἐν ταῖς 
ἑλείοις ἄγραις. καὶ ὃ τρόπος, ot μὲν ἄνθρωποι τὰ 
δίκτυα ἁπλώσαντες ἡσυχάζουσιν, οἱ δὲ ἱέρακες 
ὑπερπετόμενοι φοβοῦσι 3 τοὺς ὄρνεις * καὶ συνωθοῦ- 

~ 7 “-- Ὁ, 
σιν. ἐς τὰς τῶν δικτύων περιβολάς. τῶν οὖν 

»-» > 7 , 3 / 
ἡρημένων ot Θρᾷκες μέρος ἀποκρίνουσι καὶ ἐκεὶ- 
4 / 
vous, καὶ ἔχουσιν φίλους ὅ πιστούς: μὴ δράσαντες 
1 καὶ ζηλοτυπώτατον δὲ ἦν. 2 Ges: λεπτάς. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 40-42 

of its master abstained from food and died too. And 
there was once an Eagle reared by a private citizen 
which threw itself on to the pyre where its master’s 
body was burning. Some say that it had been reared 
not by aman but by a woman. The Eagle is appar- 

ently the most jealous guardian of its young. At and to its 

any rate if it sees anyone approaching them, it does 
not allow him to depart unpunished, for it beats him 
with its wings and lacerates him with its talons; and 

. the punishment it inflicts is moderate, for it does not 

use its beak. 

41. The Red Mullet is of all sea animals the most ee 

gluttonous and indisputably the most unrestrained in 

tasting everything it comes across. And some of 

them are known as ‘ roughs,’ deriving their name 
from places where there are rough rocks full of holes 
and thick growths of seaweed in them, and where 
there is a bottom of mud or sand. A Red Mullet 
would eat the dead body of a man or of a fish, and 
its special delight is in filthy, ill-smelling food. 

42. Falcons are excellent at fowling and are no The Falcon 

whit inferior to eagles; they are by nature the tamest 
of birds and the most attached to man; in size they 
are as large as eagles. And I am told that in Thrace 
they even join with men in the pursuit of marsh-fowl. 
And this is how they do it. The men spread their 
nets and keep still while the Falcons fly over them 
and scare the fowl and drive them into the circle of 
nets. For this the Thracians allot a portion of their 
catch to the Falcons and find them trusty friends; 

3 καὶ φοβοῦσι. 4 ὄρνις. 5 αὐτούς, 



a . ~ ? 3 # 

δὲ τοῦτο ἑαυτοὺς τῶν συμμάχων ἐστέρησαν. 

: , 1, ¢ 7 es \ 1 oy 4; 
μάχεται δὲ ὃ τέλειος ἱέραξ καὶ πρὸς ἀλώπεκα καὶ 

4 2 7 4 Ἀ 7 7 ‘4 
πρὸς ἀετόν, καὶ yumi μάχεται πολλάκις. καρδίαν 
δὲ οὐκ ἂν φάγοι ποτὲ ἱέραξ, τελεστικὸν δήπου 
δρῶν καὶ μυστικὸν ἐκεῖνος τοῦτο. νεκρὸν δὲ 
v 3 Ἄ ct? e ὔ [ 3 4 
ἄνθρωπον ἰδὼν ἱέραξ, ὡς λόγος, πάντως ἐπιβάλλει 

“» ~ ΄ \ - 
γῆς τῷ ἀτάφῳ (καὶ τοῦτο μὲν αὐτῷ οὐ κελεύει, 

Σόλων 1), οὐδὲ 2. σώματος ἅψεται. μένει (de>? 
ἄγευστος καὶ ποτοῦ, ἐὰν ἐς αὔλακα ἐποχετεύῃ εἷς 
ἄνθρωπος: πεπίστευκε γὰρ αὐτὸν πονούμενον 
ζημιοῦν ὑφαιρούμενος ἐκ τῆς ἐκείνου χρείας ὕδωρ" 
3 \ 7. 3 7 > / ~ e f/f 

εἰ δὲ πλείους ἐπάρδοιεν, ἀφθονίαν τοῦ ῥεύματος 
δ A e A , A 3 ) A LA 

ὁρῶν, ws φιλοτησίας τινὸς ἐξ αὐτῶν μεταλαμβάνει, 
καὶ πίνει ἡδέως. | 

48. "Ἔστι φῦλον ἱεράκων, καὶ καλεῦται κεγχρηΐς, 
\ ~ ὃ -" δὲ Ὁ 4 3 ,ὔ δὲ 7 xv 
Kal ποτοῦ δεῖται οὐδὲ ἕν. dpeirns δὲ γένος ἄλλο 
ΟΝ , ¢ ,ὔ Ῥ  ὅ 3 ὃ ~ λόθ λ ‘ 
αὐτῶν: καὶ ἑκάτερός ® ἐστι δεινῶς φιλόθηλυς, καὶ 
ἕπεται κατὰ τοὺς δυσέρωτας, οὐδὲ ἀπολείπεται. 
3 Ἁ ξ 4 3 7} los e 4 
εἰ δὲ ἡ γυνὴ ἀπέλθοι που παραλαθοῦσα, 6 δὲ 
ὑπεραλγεῖ καὶ βοᾷ, καὶ ἔοικε λυπουμένῳ ἐρωτικῶς 
“" 7 ‘4 4 4 37 es 3f\ o~ 
εὖ μάλα. καμόντες δὲ THY ὄψιν ἱέρακες, εὐθὺ τῶν 
αἱμασιῶν ἴασι, καὶ τὴν ἀγρίαν θριδακίνην ἀνασπῶ- 

\ 4 3 \ 7 ~ 3 27 \ \ : 
σι, Kal τὸν ὀπὸν αὐτῆς πικρὸν ὄντα καὶ δριμὺν 

ON ANIMALS, II. 42-43 

if they do not do so, they at once deprive themselves 
of helpers. Now the full-grown Falcon will fight 
both with a fox and with an eagle; with a vulture 
it frequently fights. But a Falcon will never eat 
the heart, thereby presumably fulfilling some mystic 
rite. If a Falcon sees the dead body of a man 
(so it is said), it always heaps earth upon the un- 
buried corpse, though Solon® laid no such injunc- 
tion upon it, and will never touch the body. And it 
even refrains from drinking if a solitary man is 
engaged in leading off water into a channel, feeling 
sure that it will cause damage to the man who so 
labours if it purloins the water which he needs. But 
if several men are engaged in irrigating, it sees that 
the stream is abundant and takes its share from the 
loving-cup, so to speak, which they offer, and is glad 
to drink. 

43. There is a species of hawk known as the Kestrel the Kestrel, 
which has no need whatever to drink. Another te Ottes 

species is the Orites Hawk. Both species are remark- 
ably addicted to the female bird and pursue it after 
the manner of lovesick men and never cease from the 
pursuit. But should the female chance to disappear 
without the male noticing it, he is overcome with 
grief and cries aloud and is like one in the depths of 
woe from love. : 

e 4 - > ~ ? ΄οἷὦ ΄“- id \ 
ὑπὲρ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αἰωροῦσι τῶν σφετέρων, Kat 

λειβόμενον δέχονται, καὶ τοῦτο αὐτοῖς ὑγίειαν When Hawks are troubled with their eyesight they The Hawk 

and eye- 

? 4 4 4 A 4 ? 4 “ 
ἐργάζεται. λέγουσι δὲ καὶ τοὺς ἰατρικοὺς χρῆσθαι 

1 Σόλων, ὡς ᾿Αθηναίοις ἐπαίδευσε δρᾶν. 
2 Jac: εἰ δέ. 

3 <dé> add. Ges. 

4 δέεται οὐδέν. 

5 Schn: ἕκαστος. 


go straight to some stone wall and pull up some wild troupies 

lettuce and then holding it above their eyes allow 
the bitter, astringent juice to drip in; and this 
restores their health. And men say that doctors use 

α Solon, of Athens, c. 640-c. 560 B.c., reformed the laws and 
constitution, . 



~ “ 7 2... Ἁ ’ a ᾿ ’ 
τῷδε τῷ φαρμάκῳ ἐς τὴν χρείαν τῶν καμνόντων 

\ ᾽ ? i “~ 3 / ¢ wf , 
τὴν αὐγήν, καὶ ἐκ τῶν ὀρνίθων ἡ ἴασις κέκληται" 
; \ ~ ἡ 3 
καὶ οὐκ ἀρνοῦνται μαθηταὶ ἀκούοντες ὀρνίθων οἱ 

ON ANIMALS, II. 43-44 

this drug for the benefit of those whose sight is 
affected, and the remedy derives its name from these 

birds. And men. do not refuse to be called the 
disciples of birds; rather they admit as much. 

ἄνθρωποι, ἀλλὰ ὁμολογοῦσι. λέγεται δὲ καὶ | 
ime a Hawk at Delphi Hawk 

θεοσύλην ἐν Δελφοῖς ἐλέγξαι ποτὲ ἱέραξ, ἐμπίπτων _ It is said that once upon ἃ ti ταις 
proved a man guilty of sacrilege by swooping upon sacrilege 

> A ἃ , A 4 f , A. 
τε αὐτῷ καὶ παίων τὴν κεφαλήν. πιστεύονται δὲ 

ε a ἢ 
εἶναι ἱέρακες καὶ νόθοι, ἀντικριθέντες + πρὸς τὰς. 


τῶν ἀετῶν φυλάς. ἦρος δὲ ἀρχομένου οἱ ἐν Αὐ- 

é ~ € # ? ~ 
γύπτῳ τῶν ἁπάντων δύο. προαιροῦνται, καὶ ἀπο- ks 

Zr: : f 7 ‘ > 2 
στέλλουσι κατασκεψομένους νήσους τινὰς ἐρήμους, 

? 2.2 aA A , , > ¢ 7 
αὐπτέερ ~ OVV ΤΉς ιβύης προκείντου. εὐτὰ UTTOOT pEe~ 


φουσιν οὗτοι, καὶ ἡγοῦνται τῆς πτήσεως τοῖς 

ἄλλοις. οἱ δὲ ἥκοντες ὃ ἑορτὴν ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐπιδημίας 
τοῖς 4 ἐν τῇ Λιβύῃ παρέχουσι: σίνονται γὰρ οὐδὲ 
ἕν. παρελθόντες δὲ ἐς τὰς νήσους, ἃς οἱ πρῶτοι 
θεασάμενοι. τῶν ἄλλων ἐπιτηδειοτέρας σφίσιν 
ἔκριναν, ἐνταῦθα κατὰ πολλὴν τὴν γαλήνην τε καὶ 
ἡσυχίαν ὅ ἀποτίκτουσι καὶ ἐκγλύφουσι, καὶ θηρῶν- 
σαι στρουθοὺς καὶ πελειάδας, καὶ τοὺς νεοττοὺς 
ἐν ἀφθόνοις ἐκτρέφουσιν: εἶτα ἤδη παγέντας καὶ 
ἐκπετησίμους γεγενημένους παραλαβόντες ἐς τὴν 
Αὔγυπτον ἀπάγουσιν, ὥσπερ οὖν ἐς τὰ οἰκεῖα 
(τὰν πατρῷα τὰς ἐν τοῖς συντρόφοις χωρίοις 


ς» fd ~ 
44, Αἱ iovdides ἰχθῦς εἰσι πέτραις ἔντροφοι, Kat 
» ~ 4 ᾿ 
ἔχουσιν ἰοῦ τὸ στόμα ἔμπλεων καὶ ὅτου ἂν ἰχθύος 
; ) 
᾿ἀπογεύσωνται, ἄβρωτον ἀπέφηναν αὐτόν. ἤδη δὲ 

. € ς LA ¢ / -- 
καὶ οἱ ἁλιεῖς ἡμιβρώτῳ καρίδι περιτυχόντες, καὶ 

1 ἀνακριθέντες. 2 ὅσαιπερ. 
8 Jac: ἑκόντες. 4 Jac: ἀποδημίας τῆς. 
4 ε ͵ 
5 χὴν ἡσυχίαν. 6 {τάν add. H.. 


him and striking his head. It is also believed that 
Hawks are bastards, if they be compared with the 
various kinds of eagles. 

At the beginning of spring the Hawks of Egypt Hew 

select two from all their number and despatch them 
to reconnoitre certain desert islands off the coast of 
Libya. When they return they act as leaders to the 
rest in their flight. And their arrival is the occasion 
of rejoicing on the part of the Libyans at their 
sojourn, for they do no damage whatever. And hav- 
ing reached the islands which the original scouts 
decided were the most suitable for them, they there 
lay and hatch their eggs in complete security and 
peace; and they hunt sparrows and pigeons and rear 
their young in an abundance of food. Then when 
these have grown strong and are able to fly, they 
take the young birds with them back to Egypt as 
though they were going to their own homes, that 
is to their haunts in regions they have grown to 

44, Rainbow Wrasses are nurslings of rocks, and ἐν ἌΝ 


their mouth is full of poison, and whatever fish they 
touch they render uneatable. Indeed if it should 
happen that fishermen, coming upon a half-eaten 

prawn and fancying that their catch is unsaleable, | 

4. A certain species with short, round leaves was known as 
Hieracion, for the reason stated; cp. Plin. HN 20. 7. 



> iam i \ oe 2 : Ψ 3 3 Z 
ἀξιώσαντες 1 τὸ θήραμα ἄπρατον ov, εἰ amoyev- 
σαιντο αὐτοῦ, κλονοῦνται τὴν γαστέρα καὶ στρέ- 
φονται. λυποῦσι δὲ καὶ τοὺς ἐν ταῖς ὑδροθηρίαις 
ὑποδυομένους τε καὶ νηχομένους, πολλαὶ καὶ 
δηκτικαὶ προσπίπτουσαι, ὡς αὐτόχρημα ἐπὶ τῆς 

γῆς αἱ μυῖαι’ καὶ δεῖ σοβεῖν. αὐτὰς ἢ κολάζεσθαι © 

ἐσθιόμενον: σοβοῦντι δὲ ἐκ τῆς ἀσχολίας ἀπόλωλε 
τὸ ἔργον. 

45. Λαγὼς δὲ θαλάττιος βρωθεὶς καὶ θάνατον 
ἤνεγκε πολλάκις, πάντως δὲ τὴν γαστέρα ὠδύνησεν. 
τίκτεται δὲ dpa? ἐν πηλῷ, καὶ οὐκ ὀλιγάκις ταῖς 
3 7 / v > 4 a 4 f 
ἀφύαις συναλίσκεται: εἴη δ᾽ ἂν κατὰ τὸν κοχλίαν 
τὸν γυμνὸν τὸ εἶδος. 

46. Γὺψ νεκρῷ πολέμιος. ἐσθίει γοῦν ἐμπεσὼν 
ὡς ἐχθρὸν καὶ φυλάττει τεθνηξόμενον. καὶ μέντοι 
καὶ ταῖς ἐκδήμοις στρατιαῖς ἕπονται γῦπες, καὶ 
μάλα γε μαντικῶς ὅτι 3 ἐς πόλεμον χωροῦσιν 
εἰδότες, καὶ ὅτι μάχη πᾶσα ἐργάζεται νεκρούς, καὶ 
τοῦτο ἐγνωκότες. γῦπα δὲ ἄρρενα οὔ φασι γίνε- 
σθαί ὁ ποτε, ἀλλὰ θηλείας ἁπάσας: ὅπερ ἐπιστά- 
μενα τὰ ζῷα καὶ ἐρημίαν τέκνων δεδιότα ἐς 
ἐπιγονὴν ὅ τοιαῦτα δρᾷ. ἀντίπρῳροι τῷ νότῳ 

f - , ? 
πέτονται: εἰ δὲ μὴ εἴη νότος, TH εὔρῳ κεχήνασι, 

~ a / \ 4 
καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα ἐσρέον πληροῖ αὐτάς, καὶ κύουσι 
~ “᾿ A X 
τριῶν ἐτῶν. λέγουσι δὲ νεοττιὰν μὴ ὑποπλέκειν 

1 ἑαυτῶν ὑπὸ πενίας ἀξιώσαντες. 
2 δὲ ἄρα] γάρ. 

3 γε μαντικῶς ὅτι] μ. ὅτι γε. 

4 γενέσθαι. 

5 Jac: ἐπιγονὴν τέκνων. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 44-46 

should taste it, they are assailed by convulsions and 
torments in their stomach. And the Wrasses also 
molest those who dive and swim in pursuit of fish, 
falling upon them in great numbers and biting them, 
exactly like flies on land; so that one must either 
beat them off or be tormented by being eaten up. 

But while one is busy beating them off, there is no 
time to attend to one’s work. 

45. The Sea-hare when eaten has often been the The Sea- 
cause even of death; in any case it causes pains in “™ 
the stomach. It is born in the mud and is not infre- 
quently caught along with sprats. In appearance it 
is not unlike a snail without its shell. 

46. The Vulture is the dead body’s enemy. At The Vulture 
any rate it swoops upon it as though it were an δάνει- - 
sary and devours it, and watches a man who is in 
the throes of death. Vultures even follow in the 
wake of armies in foreign parts, knowing by prophetic 
instinct that they are marching to war and that every 
battle provides corpses, as they have discovered. 

It is said that no male Vulture is ever born: all All Vultures 
Vultures are female. And the birds knowing this °°“ 
and fearing to be left childless, take measures to pro- 
duce them as follows. They fly against the south 
wind. If however the wind is not from the south, 
they open their beaks to the east wind, and the in- 
rush of air impregnates them, and their period of 
gestation lasts for three years. But the Vulture is 
said never to make anest. The Aegypius* however, The 
which is on the border-line between the vulture and eeypius 
the eagle, is both male and female, and is black in 

α Perhaps the Lammergeier. 



γῦπα. τοὺς δὲ αἰγυπιούς, ev μεθορίῳ γυπῶν 

δ 4 5 ~ S \ +» \- \ 
ὄντας καὶ ἀετῶν, εἶναι καὶ ἄρρενας καὶ THY χρόαν. 
,ὔ y A 3 ε 
πεφυκέναι μέλανας. καὶ τούτων μὲν ἀκούω καὶ 
4 ~ 4 4 4 ? : Ξ 
νεοττιὰς δείκνυσθαι: γῦπας δὲ μὴ @a τίκτειν 

7 . Ἁ \ 30} 4 ς 2 A 

πέπυσμαι, νεοττοὺς δὲ ὠδίνειν. καὶ ὡς ἀπὸ 
a i > \ “~ a . 
γενεᾶς κατάπτεροί. εἰσι, καὶ τοῦτο ἤκουσα. 

41. Ἰκτῖνος ἐς ἁρπαγὴν ἀφειδέστατος. οἵδε 3 

~ \ > > - 3 ,) id 34 
τῶν μὲν ἐξ ἀγορᾶς ἐμποληθέντων κρεαδίων ἐὰν 
γένωνται κρείττους, ἥρπασαν προσπεσόντες, τῶν 


\ 32 “A “ 4 ,ὔ >. wh f 
δὲ ἐκ τῆς τοῦ Διὸς ἱερουργίας οὐκ ἂν προσάψαιντο. 

Ἢ δὲ ὄρειος ἅρπη τῶν ὀρνίθων προσπεσοῦσα 
τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς ἀφαρπάξει. : 

48. Képaxes Αἰγύπτιοι, ὅσοι τῷ Νείλῳ παρα- 
διαιτῶνται,)2 τῶν πλεόντων τὰ πρῶτα ἐοίκασιν 
ξ ᾽ > “a > o~ 4 a 
ἱκέται εἶναι, λαβεῖν τι αἰτοῦντες: καὶ λαβόντες 

ἐ # 3 7 Ὄ 
μὲν ἡσυχάζουσιν, ἀτυχήσαντες δὲ ὧν ἥτουν 
συμπέτονται, καὶ ἑαυτοὺς καθίσαντες ἐπὶ τὸ κέρας 

- ~ : f : i 
τῆς νεὼς τῶν σχοίνων ἐσθίουσί τε καὶ διατέμνουσι 

Ἁ Ld ᾽; 4 7 4 ¢ 
τὰ ἅμματα. Λίβυες δὲ κόρακες, ὅταν οἱ ἄνθρωποι 

,ὔ A 
φόβῳ δίψους ὑδρευσάμενοι πληρώσωσι τὰ ἀγγεῖα 

, ~ ~ / 2.7 ~ 
ὕδατος, καὶ κατὰ τῶν τεγῶν θέντες ἐάσωσι τῷ. 

2.“ 4 Ὁ 7 3 > ~ ? 

ἀέρι τὸ ὕδωρ φυλάττειν ἄσηπτον, ἐνταῦθα ἐς 
- Α εὕὔ, f 

ὅσον μὲν αὐτοῖς τὰ ῥάμφη κάτεισιν ἐγκύπτοντες, 

χρῶνται τῷ ποτῷ ὅταν δὲ ὑπολήξῃ, ψήφους 

Σ Pont “A . 
κομίζουσι καὶ τῷ στόματι καὶ τοῖς ὄνυξι, καὶ 
ἐμβάλλουσιν ἐς τὸν κέραμον: καὶ αἱ μὲν ἐκ τοῦ 

- ‘ : . on te 
βάρους ὠθοῦνται καὶ ὑφιζάνουσι, τό ye μὴν ὕδωρ 
θλ t > λ a Α f s 7 ἘΞ ας 

ιβόμενον ἀναπλεῖ. καὶ πίνουσιν εὖ μάλα εὐ- 

1 οἵδε εἰ δέοι. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 46-48 

colour, and I am told that their nests are pointed out. 
But I have been informed that Vultures do not lay 
eggs, but that in their birth-pangs they produce 
chicks, and that these are feathered from birth I have 
also heard. : , 

47. There is no limit to the robberies of the Kite. The Kite 
If they can manage pieces of meat on sale in the | 

market, they pounce upon them and carry them off; 
on the other hand they will not touch sacrifices 
offered to Zeus. But the Mountain Kite * pounces 
upon birds and pecks out their eyes. 

48. The Ravens in Egypt which live beside the ΤῊΣ ena 

Nile at first appear to be begging of the people sailing 
on the river, soliciting to be given something. And 
if they are given, they stop begging; but if their 
solicitations fail, they fly in a mass and perch on the 

sailyards of the ship and proceed to eat the ropes and — 

to cut the cords. | 

But the Ravens of Libya, when men through fear 
of thirst draw water and fill their vessels and place 
them on the roof so that the fresh air may keep the 

water from putrefying, the Ravens, I say, help 

themselves to drink by bending over and inserting 
their beaks as far as they will go. And when the 
water gets too low they gather pebbles in their 
mouth and claws and drop them into the earthen- 
ware vessel. Now the pebbles are borne down by 
their weight and sink, while the water owing to their 
pressure rises. So the Ravens by a most ingenious 

4 See 1. 35 n. 

2 προσδιαιτῶνται, -διαιροῦνται. 


The Raven 

in Libya 


μηχάνως οἱ κόρακες, εἰδότες φύσει τινὶ ἀπορρήτῳ 
δύο σώματα μίαν χώραν μὴ δέχεσθαι. 

49, Λέγει ᾿Αριστοτέλης εἰδέναι τοὺς κόρακας 
διαφορὰν γῆς εὐδαίμονός τε καὶ λυπρᾶς, καὶ ἐν 
μὲν τῇ παμφόρῳ τε καὶ πολυφόρῳ κατά τε ἀγέλας 
καὶ πλήθη φέρεσθαι, ἐν δὲ τῇ ἀγόνῳ καὶ στερίφῃ 
κατὰ δύο. τούς γε μὴν νεοττοὺς τοὺς ἐκτραφέν- 
τας ! τῆς ἑαυτῶν ἕκαστος καλιᾶς φυγάδας ἀποφαί- 

ς \ ¢ a 
νουσιν' ὑπὲρ ὅτου (αὐτοὶ éavrois>*® τροφὴν 
, Ἁ “ ᾿ 
μαστεύουσι, καὶ τοὺς γειναμένους σφᾶς μὴ 

50. Ὑπονύξαντες ἰὸν ἀφιᾶσιν ἰχθύων κωβιὸς 
καὶ δράκων καὶ χελιδών, οὐ μὴν ἐς θάνατον: ἡ 
τρυγὼν δὲ ἀποκτείνει παραχρῆμα τῷ κέντρῳ. 
καὶ λέγει γε Λεωνίδης ὁ Βυζάντιος ἰχθύων φύσεώς 
χε καὶ κρίσεως ἄπειρον ἄνθρωπον ἁρπάσαντα ἐκ 
δικτύου τρυγόνα (ᾧετο δὲ ἄρα ὁ δυστυχὴς ψῆτταν 
εἶναι) φέροντα ὦ ἐπικόλπιον ἐμβαλεῖν καὶ βαδίζειν," 
ὥς τι ἀγαθὸν εὑρόντα καὶ ἐς ἐμπολὴν κερδαλέον 
ἑαυτῷ ὃ ἅρπαγμα. ἡ δὲ ἄρα ἤλγησε πιεζομένη, 
καὶ παίει τῷ κέντρῳ Teipaca,’ καὶ ἐξέχεε τοῦ 
δυστυχοῦς κλέπτου τὰ σπλάγχνα. καὶ ἔκειτο παρὰ 
τῇ τρυγόνι νεκρὸς 6 φώρ, ἐναργὴς ἔλεγχος ὧν 
οὐκ εἰδὼς ἔδρασεν. 

ε ᾽ 
51. 'O κόραξ, οὐκ ἂν αὐτὸν ἐς τόλμαν ἀθυμότε- 
wv ~ > ~ - 
ρον εἴποις τῶν ἀετῶν. ὁμόσε γὰρ καὶ αὐτὸς τοῖς 

1 2 ᾿ , , 

ἐκτραφέντας διώκουσι καί. 

2 ζαὐτοὶ ἑαυτοῖς» add. Schn. 

4 φέροντα ὡς εἶχεν. 


8 ἐκτρέφουσιν. 

5 βαδίζειν ἵνα λάθῃ. 


: ΠΣ 


ON ANIMALS, II. 48-51 

‘contrivance get their drink; they know by some 
_ mysterious instinct that one space will not contain 

two bodies. 

49. Aristotle asserts [HA 618 b 11] that Ravens 
know the difference between a prosperous and a 
barren country, and in one that produces all things in 
plenty they move about in flocks and great numbers, 
but in a barren and unfruitful country in pairs. As 
to their young ones, when fully grown, every Raven 
panishes them from its nest. For that reason they 
seek their food <for themselves) and neglect to care 
for their parents. 

50. Among fishes the Goby, the Weever, and the 
Flying Gurnard emit poison when they prick one; 
not that they are deadly; whereas the Sting-ray 
with its barb kills on the spot. And Leonidas of 
Byzantium tells how a man who knew nothing of 
fishes and could not distinguish them, stole a Sting- 
ray from a fishing-net—the poor fellow must have 
taken it for a flounder—, took it and put it in his 
bosom and walked off as though he had found some- 
thing good, some spoil whose sale would be profitable 
to him. But the Sting-ray hurt by the pressure, 
struck and pierced him with its sting, causing the 
wretched thief’s bowels to gush out. And there the 
thief lay dead beside the Sting-ray, clear evidence 
of what he had done in his ignorance. 

51. Of the Raven you might say that it has a spirit 
no less daring than the eagle, for it even attacks 

pee tt “-ἧ΄΄΄-ς.---ς---ς-ῥρ-.---ς-ςςς-- 

δ f nA 7 ὃ ᾽ 
εαύτῷῳ ἐχειν.- ἐείρασᾶα- 


The Raven 


A. Sting-ray 

The Raven, 
its daring 


ζῴοις. χωρεῖ, οὐ μέντοι τοῖς βραχυτάτοις, add’ 
ὄνῳ τε καὶ ταύρῳ: κάθηταί τε γὰρ κατὰ τῶν 
τενόντων καὶ κόπτει αὐτούς, πολλῶν δὲ καὶ 
(τοὺς >? ὀφθαλμοὺς ἐξέκοψεν ὁ κόραξ. μάχεται 
δὲ καὶ ὄρνιθι ἰσχυρῷ, τῷ καλουμένῳ αἰσάλωνι:" 
καὶ ὅταν θεάσηται ἀλώπεκι μαχόμενον, τιμωρεῖται" 
πρὸς γὰρ ἐκείνην ἔχει τινὰ φιλίαν. ἦν δὲ ἄρα 
ὀρνίθων πολυκλαγγότατός τε καὶ πολυφωνότατος" 
μαθὼν γὰρ καὶ ἀνθρωπίνην προΐησι φωνήν. 
φθέγμα δὲ αὐτοῦ παίζοντος μὲν ἄλλο, σπουδάζοντος 
δὲ ἕτερον: εἰ δὲ ὑποκρίνοιτο τὰ ἐκ τῶν θεῶν, 
ἱερὸν ἐνταῦθα καὶ μαντικὸν φθέγγεται. ἴσασι δὲ 
διὰ τοῦ θέρους ἐνοχλούμενοι ῥύσει γαστρός, καὶ 
διὰ ταῦτα ἑαυτοὺς ὑγρᾶς τροφῆς ἀγεύστους 

δ2. Λέγει δὲ ᾿Αριστοτέλης τῶν ζῴων τὰ μὲν 
ur | | 

ζῳοτόκα εἶναι, τὰ δὲ φὰ τίκτειν, τὰ δὲ σκώληκας: 
\ - rs: .3 - 

καὶ ζῷα μὲν ἀνθρώπους γεννᾶν καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ. ὅσα 

os 3 3 ? ; 
τριχῶν ἐστιν ἐπήβολα, καὶ τὰ κητώδη τῶν 

ἐνύδρων: τούτων δὲ .τὰ μὲν αὐλόν, βράγχια δὲ 
3 3 - \ 7 Ε 

οὐκ ἔχειν, οἷον δελφῖνα καὶ φάλλαιναν. 

: 53. Mvoois ἄγουσιν ἄχθη βόες, καὶ κεράτων 
ἀἄμοιροΐ εἰσι. λέγω δὲ τὴν ἀγέλην ἄκερων ὁρᾶσ- 
θαι 2 οὐκέτι διὰ ᾿ κρύος, ἀλλὰ τῶν βοῶν τῶνδε 
ἰδίᾳ φύσει, καὶ τὸ μαρτύριον παρὰ πόδας" 
γίνονται γὰρ καὶ ἐν Σικύθαις κεράτων * οὐκ ἀγέρα- 

1 Shag add. Η. 
2 λέγω. . . ὁρᾶσθαι] λέγονται. .. ὁρᾶν. 
53. Reiske: ἰδία φύσις. ᾿ 

ON ANIMALS, II. 51-53 

animals, and: not the smallest either, but asses and 
bulls. It settles on their neck and pecks them, and 
in many cases it actually gouges out their eyes. And 
it fights with that vigorous bird the merlin, and when- 
ever it sees it fighting with a fox, it comes to the fox’s 
rescue, for it is on friendly terms with the animal. 
The Raven must really be the most clamorous of 
birds and have the largest variety of tones, for it can 

be taught to speak like a human being. For playful 

moods it has one voice, for serious moods another, and 
if it is delivering answers from the gods, then its voice 
assumes a devout and prophetic tone. | 

its various 

Ravens know that in summer they suffer from its diet 

looseness of the bowels; for that reason they are 
careful to abstain from moist food. 

52. Aristotle tells us [HA 489 Ὁ 1] that some ani- 
mals are viviparous, others oviparous, that others 
again produce grubs. The viviparous are man and 
all other creatures that have hair, and among marine 
animals the cetaceans. And of these some have a 
blow-hole but no gills, like the dolphin and the 
whale. | 

53. In Moesia ὁ the Oxen draw loads and are horn- 
less. And I maintain that it is not due to the cold 
that herds are to be seen without horns, but that it 
is due to the peculiar nature of the Oxen. And the 
proof is to hand, for even in Scythia there are oxen 

α Moesia (Gk. Mucia), bounded on the N by the Danube, 
on the S by the Balkan mts, corresponded (roughly speaking) 
to the northern half of the modern Yugoslavia and Bulgaria. 


4 Reiske: κεράτων ἐν X. 




Oxen of 


7 3 \ ὃ 4 5 7’ λ “ , ? 
στοι βόες. ἐγὼ dé ἀκούω λέγοντός τινος ἐν συγ- 
σὰ 4 , ὃ Φ 3 oh “~ 
γραφῇ καὶ μελίττας Σικυθίδας εἶναι, ἐπαΐειν τε τοῦ 
᾿ , +O \ 4 A ‘4 \ ΄. 3 
κρύους οὐδὲ ἕν, καὶ μέντοι καὶ πιπράσκειν ἐς 
‘ / ? 3 3 al 
Μυσοὺς κομίζοντας Σκύθας οὐκ ὀθνεῖόν σῴισιν 
? Ἁ > Ἁ , % ? 3 ¢ > A 
ἀλλὰ αὐθιγενὲς μέλι Kal κηρία ἐπιχώρια. εἰ δὲ 
3 ? ξ 7 ὔ 7 > 4 ¢ 4 
ἐναντία “Ἡροδότῳ λέγω, μή μοι aylécbw: ὃ yap 
ley t ? \ εἴ / 9 ὃ 9 > 3 
ταῦτα εἰπὼν ἱστορίαν ἀποδείκνυσθαι ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ 
3 ᾿ 3 ¥ ¢ aA 2 7 
ἀκοὴν ἄδειν ἔφατο ἡμῖν ἀβασάνιστον. 

ὅ4. Τῶν θαλαττίων πυνθάνομαι μόνον τὸν σκά- 
ρον τὴν τροφὴν ἀναπλέουσαν ἐπεσθίειν, ὥσπερ 
> \ 4 7 a 4 A “ ? 
οὖν καὶ τὰ βληχητά, ἃ δὴ καὶ μαρυκᾶσθαι λέγουσιν. 

δῦ. Ὃ γαλεὸς ὠδζψει διὰ τοῦ στόματος ἐν τῇ 
θαλάττῃ, πάλιν τε ἐσδέχεται τὰ βρέφη, καὶ 
ἀνεμεῖ ταῖς αὐταῖς ὁδοῖς ζῶντα καὶ ἀπαθῆ. 

56. Μυὸς ἧπαρ καὶ μάλα ἐκπληκτικῶς τε καὶ 
a Ro, / > fic = 4 
παραδόξως τῆς μὲν σελήνης αὐξανομένης λοβὸν 
ἑαυτῷ τινα ἐπιτίκτει ὁσημέραι μέχρι διχομήνου" 
εἶτα αὖ πάλιν ὑπολήγει μειουμένου τοῦ μηνὸς τὸν 
” λ 7 2 4 3.3." 39. . ἃ ~ λί θ > / 
ἰσον Λόγον," ἔστ᾽ * av ἐς * σῶμα κατολίσθῃ avei~ 
δεον. ἀκούω δὲ ἐν τῇ Θηβαΐδι χαλάξ j 
cov. ἀκούω δὲ ἐν τῇ Θηβαΐδι χαλάζης πεσούσης 
ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ὁρᾶσθαι μύας, ὧν τὸ μὲν πηλός 
> v 4 \ 4 3 2 A \ > "ἡ 3? * 
ἐστιν ἔτι, TO δὲ σὰρξ ἤδη. ἐγὼ δὲ αὐτὸς ἐκ τῆς 
᾿Ιταλικῆς Νέας πόλεως ἐλαύνων ἐς Δικαιαρχίαν 
ὕσθην βατράχοις, καὶ τὸ μὲν μέρος αὐτῶν τὸ πρὸς 
»" ~ 4 7 ra ἐν > Ff 3 \ 
τῇ κεφαλῇ εἷρπε, Kal δύο πόδες ἦγον αὐτό, TO δὲ 
1 Schn: τοιαῦτα. | 
3 ὑπαφανίζον ἔστ᾽. τς ἃ εἰς ἕν, 

4 The original Greek name of Puteoli. 

ON ANIMALS, II. 53-56 

not destitute of the glory of horns. And I have 

learnt from one who records the fact in his history 
that there are even Bees in Scythia and that they do Boos in 
not mind the cold at all. And what is more, the “ye 
Scythians bring and sell to the Moesians honey, 
which is no alien produce but native, and honey- 
combs of their own country. - 

If I contradict Herodotus [5. 10], I hope he will not 
be angry with me, for the man who reported these 
things vowed that he was presenting the results of 
his own enquiry and not merely repeating what he 
had heard and what we could not verify. 

54. I learn that of saltwater fishes the Parrot ΤῸ ἘΕΡῸΙ 
Wrasse alone regurgitates its food and eats it after- 
wards, as sheep do, which are said to chew the cud. 

55. The Shark brings forth its young through its The Shark 
mouth in the sea and takes them back again and then young 
disgorges them by the same channel alive and 
unharmed. | a 

56. The liver of the Mouse has the most astound- The Mouse 
ing and unexpected habit of growing a lobe day by ** ae 
day as the moon waxes, up to the middle of the 
month. Then again in proportion as the month 
declines, so the lobe gradually dwindles until it loses 
its shape and disappears into the body. | 

And I am told that when it hails in the Thebaid, A shower of 
mice are to be seen on the earth, and one part οὔτ 
them is still mud while the other is already flesh. 

And I myself on a journey from Naples to 

Dicaearchia * encountered a shower of frogs, and the of frogs 
forepart of them was crawling, supported by two feet, 




rae , “ yw 

ἐπεσύρετο ἔτι ἄπλαστον, Kal ἐῴκει EK τινος ὕλης 
Ly -. - ᾿ x 
ὑγρᾶς συνεστῶτι. 

57. Τὸ τῶν βοῶν ἄρα πάγχρηστον ἦν γένος } 

1 3 ‘4 ’ : : 
καὶ ἐς γεωργίας κοινωνίαν Kal ἐς ἀγωγὴν φόρτου 

διαφόρου. καὶ γαυλοὺς 2 ἐμπλῆσαι βοῦς ἀγαθός 
ἐστι, καὶ βωμοὺς κοσμεῖ, καὶ ἀγάλλει πανηγύρεις, 
καὶ πανθοινίαν παρέχει. καὶ ἀποθανὼν δὲ βοῦς 
γενναῖόν τι χρῆμα καὶ ἀξιέπαινον. μέλιτται γοῦν 
ἐκ τῶν ἐκείνου λειψάνων ἐκφύονται, ζῷον φιλεργό- 

\ o~ ἴω \ . 
τατον καὶ τῶν καρπῶν τὸν ἄριστόν τε καὶ yAVKLOTOV 

>, > 7 
ἐν ἀνθρώποις παρασκευάζον, τὸ μέλι. 

: Η yan 
1 γένος καὶ ἀνθρώποις ζῷον λυσιτελέστατον. 
- , 
2 Reiske: γάλακτος : 


ON ANIMALS, II. 56-57 

while the other part trailed behind, still formless, 
seeming to consist of some moist substance. 

57. Oxen are after all the most serviceable crea- 
tures. At sharing the farmer’s labours, at carrying 
loads of various kinds, at filling the milk-pail—at all 
these things the Ox is excellent. He graces the 
altars, gladdens festivals, and provides a solemn 
banquet. And even when dead the Ox is a splendid 
creature deserving our praise. At any rate bees are 
begotten of his carcase—bees, the most industrious of 
creatures, which afford the best and sweetest of fruits 
that man has, namely honey. 




1. Μαυρουσίῳ δὲ ἀνδρὲ ὃ λέων καὶ ὅδοῦ 
κοινωνεῖ καὶ πίνει τῆς αὐτῆς πηγῆς ὕδωρ. ἀκούω 
δὲ ὅτι καὶ ἐς τὰς οἰκίας τῶν Μαυρουσίων ot 

λ 7 “- @ 3 a > ἢ > ᾿.-" 
ἔοντες φοιτῶσιν, ὅταν αὐτοῖς ἀπαντήσῃ ἀθηρία 

A 3 3 4 3 3 7? \ oN \ 
Kat λιμὸς αὐτοὺς ἰσχυρὸς περιλάβῃ. καὶ ἐὰν μὲν 
παρῇ <o>+ ἀνήρ, ἀνείργει τὸν λέοντα καὶ ἀναστέλ-- 
λει διώκων ava κράτος" ἐὰν δὲ 6 μὲν ἀπῇ, μόνη 
δὲ ξ 4 K ~ ‘4 L {πὰ > 3 > ~ 
δὲ ἡ γυνὴ αταλειφθῇ, λόγο ς αὐτὸν ἐντρεπτικοῖς 
ἴσχει τοῦ πρόσω καὶ ῥυθμίζει, σωφρονίζουσα 
ἑαυτοῦ κρατεῖν καὶ μὴ φλεγμαίνειν ὑπὸ τοῦ λιμοῦ. 
ἐπαΐει δὲ ἄρα λέων φωνῆς Μαυρουσίας, καὶ ὁ 

- a / os ~ 
νοῦς τῆς ἐπιπλήξεως TH γυναικὶ τῆς πρὸς τὸ 
θηρίον τοιόσδε ἐστίν, ὡς ἐκεῖνοι λέγουσι: ‘od δὲ 

? bins td Ἂ e ~ ? 4 > 4 Ἅ 
οὐκ αἰδῇ λέων ὧν 6 τῶν ζῴων βασιλεὺς ἐπὶ τὴν 
> A 
ἐμὴν καλύβην ἰών, Kat γυναικὸς δεόμενος ἵνα τρα- 
dfs, καὶ δίκην ἀνθρώπου λελωβημένου τὸ σῶμα 

“ 3 ? ef δ 
ἐς χεῖρας γυναικείας ἀποβλέπεις, ἵνα οἴκτῳ καὶ 

λέ 7 Φ ὃ 7 ᾿ “ 2 ὃ / 2 > / ¢ ~ 

ἐλέῳ τύχης dv δέῃ; dv? δέον ἐς ὀρείους ὁρμῆσαι 
διατριβὰς ἐπί τε ἐλάφους καὶ βουβαλίδας καὶ τὰ 
λοιπὰ ὅσα λεόντων δεῖπνον ἔνδοξον. κυνιδίου δὲ 
LONE ? 3 > “- on ? \ € 
ἀθλίου dice? ἀγαπᾷς παρατραφῆναι. Kat ἡ 
μὲν ἐπάδει τοιαῦτα, ὃ δὲ ὥσπερ οὖν πληγεὶς τὴν 
ψυχὴν καὶ ὑποπλησθεὶς αἰδοῦς ἡσυχῆ καὶ κάτω 
βλέπων ἀπαλλάττεται, ἡττηθεὶς τῶν δικαίων. εἰ 

δὲ ἵπποι καὶ κύνες διὰ τὴν συντροφίαν ἀπειλούντων 

1 <6> add. Jac. 2 ὅν del, Cobet. 

3 4 ᾽ 
φύσει προσεοικώς. 


1. A Lion will accompany a Moor on his journey 
and will drink water from the same spring. An 
am told that Lions even resort to the houses of 
Moors when they fail to find any prey and are over- 
taken by the pangs of hunger. And if the master of 
the house happens to be there, he keeps the Lion off 
and drives him away, pursuing him vigorously. If 
however he is out and his wife is left all alone, then 
with words that put the Lion to shame she checks his 
approach, restrains him, and admonishes him to con- 
trol himself and not to allow his hunger to incense 
him. The Lion, it seems, understands the Moorish 
tongue; and the sense of the rebuke which the 
woman administers to the animal is (so they say) as 

The Lion in 

follows. ‘Are not you ashamed, you, a Lion, the 

king of beasts, to come to my hut and to ask a woman 
to feed you, and do you, like some cripple, look to a 
woman’s hands hoping that thanks to her pity and 
compassion you may get what you want !—You who 
should be on your way to mountain haunts in pursuit 
of deer and antelopés and all other creatures that 
lions may eat without discredit. Whereas, like some 
sorry lap-dog, you are content to be fed by another.’ 
Such are the spells she employs, whereupon the Lion, 
as though his ‘heart ‘smote him and he were filled 
with shame, quietly and with downcast eyes moves 
off, overcome by the justice of her words. 

Now if horses and hounds through being reared in 



ἀνθρώπων συνιᾶσι καὶ καταπτήσσουσι, καὶ Mav- 
ρουσίους οὐκ ἂν θαυμάσαιμι λεόντων ὄντας 
συντρόφους καὶ ὁμοτρόφους αὐτοῖς ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν 
ἐκείνων ἀκούεσθαι. τοῖς γάρ τοι βρέφεσι τοῖς 
ἑαυτῶν μαρτυροῦσιν ὅτι τοὺς σκύμνους τῶν 
λεόντων τῆς ἴσης τε καὶ ὁμοίας διαίτης ἀξιοῦσι 
καὶ κοίτης μιᾶς καὶ στέγης" καὶ ἐκ τούτων καὶ 
φωνῆς τῆς προειρημένης ἀκούειν τοὺς θῆρας, οὐδὲν 
οὔτε ἄπιστον οὔτε παράδοξον. 3 

: “A v4 7 
2. Ἵππου δὲ τῆς Λιβύσσης πέρι Λιβύων λεγόν- 
των ἀκούω τοιαῦτα. ὥὦκιστοι μέν εἰσιν ἵππων, 
7 δὲ ” 1 3 θά 9 N\3 δὲ ω 
καμάτου δὲ 4+ τι αἰσθάνονται " <H>° ovde ἐν. 
λεπτοὶ δὲ καὶ οὐκ εὔσαρκοι, ἐπιτήδειοί γε μὴν 
καὶ φέρειν ὀλιγωρίαν δεσπότου εἰσίν. οὔτε γοῦν 
“ ¢ 
αὐτοῖς κομιδὴν προσφέρουσιν ot δεσπόται, οὐ 

καταψῶντες, οὐ καλινδήθραν ἐργασάμενοι, οὐχ. 

ξ 4 > ,ὔ > , / > 
ὁπλὰς ἐκκαθαίροντες, οὐ κόμας κτενίζοντες, οὐ 
? ς 7 3 7 4 3 Ἁ 
χαίτας ὑποπλέκοντες, οὐ λούοντες καμόντας, ἀλλὰ 
: f 
ἅμα τε διήνυσαν τὸν προκείμενον δρόμον, καὶ 
ta A Ἁ A. 
ἀποβάντες νέμεσθαι ἱᾶσι. καὶ λεπτοὶ μὲν καὶ 
> ’ ¢ 7 3. 4 7 Ἅ λῳ 
αὐχμώδεις οἱ Λίβυες, ἐπὶ τοιούτων δὲ καὶ ἵππων 
“- “ 4 
ὀχοῦνται. coBapot δὲ Μῆδοι καὶ aBpot, Kat 
f δ 
μέντοι καὶ οἱ ἐκείνων ὃ ἵπποι. gains ἂν αὐτοὺς 
Fans “ \ ~ “~ 
τρυφᾶν adv τοῖς δεσπόταις Kat TH μεγέθει τοῦ 
7 \ χὰ ? uv 4 \ ~ Can \ 
σώματος καὶ τῷ κάλλει, ἤδη δὲ καὶ τῇ χλιδῇ καὶ 
a ~ “᾿ A ~ 
τῇ θεραπείᾳ τῇ ἔξωθεν. ταῦτά τοι καὶ περὶ τῶν 
κυνῶν ἔπεισι νοεῖν μοι. κύων Κρῆσσα κούφη καὶ 
‘ , 
ἁλτικὴ καὶ ὀρειβασίαις σύντροφος: καὶ μέντοι 
1 Reiske: δή. 
8 47) add. Reiske. 

5 ἐκείνων τοιοῦτοι. 

2 Schn: atofovrat. 
4 καταψῶντες Kapovras. 



their company understand and quail before the 
threats of men, I should not be surprised if Moors 
too, who are reared and brought up along with Lions, 
are understood by these very animals. For the 
Moors profess to treat lion-cubs to the same kind οὗ. 
food, the same bed, and the same roof as their own 
children. Consequently there is nothing incredible 
or marvellous in Lions understanding human speech 
as described abave. 

9. Concerning the Libyan Horse this is what I have The Horses 

learnt from accounts given by the Libyans. These © 

Horses are exceedingly swift and know little or noth- 
ing of fatigue; they are slim and not well-fleshed but 
are fitted to endure the scanty attention paid to them - 
by their masters. At any rate the masters devote 


no care to them: they neither rub them down nor — 

roll them nor clean their hooves nor comb their 
manes nor plait their forelocks nor wash them when 
tired, but as soon as they have completed the journey 
they intended they dismount and turn the Horses 
loose to graze. Moreover the Libyans themselves 
are slim and dirty, like the Horses which they ride. 

The Persians on the other hand are proud and deli- of Persia 

cate, and what is more, their Horses are like them. 
One would say that both horse and master prided 
themselves on the size and beauty of their bodies and 
even on their finery and outward adornment. 

And here is a point which occurs to note in Hounds of 
s Ld . n 
connexion with Hounds. The Cretan Hound is ¢ountries 

nimble and can leap and is brought up to range the 

6 ΝΜ θ AY “-ν θ 7 sf? 3 8 # 4θ ΄- 

ἔξωθεν καὶ τῇ θρύψει ἐοίκασιν αἰσθανομένοις μεγέθους τε τοῦ 
᾿ ? “ lal 

σφετέρου καὶ κάλλους καὶ ὅτι χλιδῶσι τῷ κόσμῳ. - 

VOL. I. | | G 


καὶ αὐτοὶ Κρῆτες τοιούτους αὑτοὺς παραδεικνύασι, 1 
καὶ ᾷἄδει ἡ φήμη. θυμικώτατος δὲ κυνῶν Μολοσ- 
σός, ἐπεὶ θυμωδέστατοι καὶ οἱ ἄνδρες. ἀνὴρ δὲ 

? \ ὔ > / > , \ 
Kappavios Kat κύων ἀμφότεροι ἀγριωτάτω και, 

μειλιχθῆναι ἀτέγκτω," φασιν. 

3. Ἴδια δὲ ἄρα φύσεως ζῴων καὶ ταῦτα ἦν. 
ὃν οὔτε ἄγριον οὔτε ἥμερον ἐν ᾿Ἰνδοῖς γίνεσθαι 3 
λέγει Krnoias, πρόβατα δὲ τὰ ἐκείνων οὐρὰς 
πήχεως ἔχειν τὸ πλάτος πού φησιν. 

4. Οἱ μύρμηκες of ᾿Ινδικοὶὺ <ot>* τὸν χρυσὸν 
φυλάττοντες οὐκ ἂν διέλθοιεν τὸν καλούμενον 
Καμπύλινον ποταμόν. ᾿Ισσηδόνες δὲ τούτοις συνοι- 
κοῦντες ® τοῖς μύρμηξι . . «ὁ καλοῦνταί τε καί 
εἰσιν. | 

fo A “a 
5. Φαγοῦσα ὄφεως χελώνη καὶ ἐπιτραγοῦσα 
ὀριγάνου ἐξάντης γίνεται τοῦ κακοῦ, ὃ πάντως 
αὐτὴν Ἰ ἀνελεῖν ἔμελλεν. 
Ἁ \ 3 , Ζ \ 
Περιστερὰν δὲ ὀρνίθων σωφρονεστάτην Kat Ke- 
7 > 3 f 7 3 7 / 
κολασμένην és ἀφροδίτην μάλιστα ἀκούω λεγόν- 
᾽ A 
των: οὐ γάρ ποτε ἀλλήλων διασπῶνται, οὔτε ἡ 
\ ~ Ἁ -ν 
θήλεια, ἐὰν μὴ ἀφαιρεθῇ τύχῃ τινὶ τοῦ συννόμου, 
¢ ἮΝ \ - [4 
οὔτε 6 ἄρρην, ἐὰν ® μὴ χῆρος γένηται. 
Πέρδικες δὲ ἀκράτορές εἰσιν ἀφροδίτης: οὐκοῦν 
‘ > a \ # > ,ὔ ῳ 4 3 
τὰ φὰ τὰ γεννώμενα ἀφανίζουσιν, iva μὴ ἄγωσιν 
1 περιδεικνῦσι. 
Schn: ἀγριώτατοι. . . ἄτεγκτα. 
Schn: γενέσθαι. 
<ot> add. Jac. 

συνοικοῦντές γε. 

oo 1 FF ἐδ WN 


_ birds the most temperate and restrained in its sexual nence: 


mountains. Moreover the Cretans show the same 
qualities, such is the common report. Among 
Hounds the Molossian is the most high-spirited, for 
the men also of Molossia are hot-tempered. In 
Carmania too both men and Hounds are said to be 
most savage and implacable. 

3. The following also are examples of the peculiari- India, 
ties of animal nature. Ctesias reports that neither ao 
the wild nor the domestic Pig exists in India, and he 
says somewhere that Indian Sheep have tails one its sheep 

cubit in width. | 

4. The Ants of India which guard the gold will not The Ants of 
cross the river Campylinus.? And the Issedonians ® **"* 
who inhabit the same country as the Ants . . . they 
are called, and so they are. 

5. If a Tortoise eats part of a snake and thereafter Marjoram, 
some marjoram, it becomes immune from the poison sae ee 
which was bound to be quite fatal to it. 2 

I have heard people say that the Pigeon is of all The Pigeon, 
relations. For Pigeons never separate, neither the 
female bird unless by some mishap she is parted from 
her mate, nor the male unless he is widowed. | 

Partridges on the other hand are unrestrained in The | 
their indulgence. For that reason they destroy the aylokeche 
eggs that have been laid, in order that the female tence 

¢ Not identified. Ὁ ; a ΕΝ ~ 

> The Issedonians appear to have inhabited a region to the 
NE of the Caspian Sea. 

8 tg 

1 αὐτὴν ἐκ τῆς τροφῆς. ἦν." 



¢ 7 »-Ν ΚᾺ A > \ 
ai θήλειαι παιδοτροφοῦσαι τῆς πρὸς αὑτοὺς 
ὁμιλίας ἀσχολίαν. 

7 4 7 e A “~ \ 4 
6. Λύκοι ποταμὸν διανέοντες, ὕπερ τοῦ μὴ πρὸς 
“ “-- > = 3 
βίαν ἐκ τῆς τοῦ ῥεύματος ἐμβολῆς ἀνατρέπεσθαι 
ἕρμα ἴδιον αὐτοῖς ἡ φύσις συμπλάσασα ἐδιδάξατο 

, 3 > ‘4 \ A 3 A! 
σωτηρίαν ἐξ ἀπόρων καὶ pada εὔπορον. Tas 

> AN A 3 7 ? 4 4 > ? 
οὐρὰς τὰς ἀλλήλων ἐνδακόντες, εἶτα ἀντιπίπτουσι 
“.Μ > ~ 
τῷ ῥεύματι, καὶ ἀλύπως 1 διενήξαντο καὶ ἀσφαλῶς. 

7. "Ovots θηλείαις βρώμησιν ἡ φύσις οὐκ 
ἔνειμε, φασί. κύνας δὲ ἀφώνους ἀποφαίνειν ταῖς 
ὑαίναις 5 ἡ αὐτὴ παρέσχεν. εὐωδία δὲ καὶ μύρον 
γυψὶν αἴτια θανάτου. κύκνων δὲ κώνειον ὄλεθρος. 
κάμηλον δὲ ὡς δέδοικεν ἵππος ἔγνω Κῦρός τε καὶ 
Ἰζροῖσος, ὥς φασιν. 

8. Τὰ βρέφη τὰ τῶν ἵππων ὅταν αἱ μητέρες 
καταλίπωσι πρὸ τῆς ἐκείνων ἐκθρέψεως οἷον 
ὀρφανά, ἐκτρέφουσι μετὰ τῶν οἰκείων παιδίων 
οἰκτείρουσαι αἱ ἄλλαι αὐτά. 

~ > Pa > 4 , 1, ¢ 
9. Κορῶναι ἀλλήλαις εἰσὶ πιστόταται, καὶ ὅταν 
3 f 7 / “-“" 
ἐς κοινωνίαν συνέλθωσι, πάνυ σφόδρα ἀγαπῶσι 
“- Δ 7 ~ A ~ 
odds, καὶ οὐκ ἂν ἴδοι τις μιγνύμενα ταῦτα τὰ ζῷα 
5 \ , [1 
ἀνέδην καὶ ὡς ἔτυχεν. λέγουσι δὲ οἱ τὰ ὑπὲρ 
τούτων ἀκριβοῦντες ὅτι ἂν ® 
3 Xr \ 7 9 7 δὲ Ἁ ON \ > 
τὸ λοιπὸν χηρεύει. ἀκούω δὲ τοὺς πάλαι καὶ ἐν 
“a 7 Α , € \ ? 
τοῖς γάμοις μετὰ τὸν ὑμέναιον ᾿ τὴν κορώνην 
1 ἀλύπως ye MSS, a. τε Reiske. 
2 «as daivas ὅταν αὐταῖς τὴν σκιὰν ἐπιβάλῃ. 
8 κἄν" 


5 , 4 Ψ 
ἀποθάνῃ τὸ ἕτερον, 



birds may not be too busy with nursing their chicks 
to have time for sexual intercourse. 

6. When Wolves swim across a river Nature has Wolves _ 
devised for them an original safeguard to prevent τον 
them from being forcibly carried away by the impact 
of the stream and has taught them how to escape 
from difficulties, and that with ease. Fastening their 
teeth in one another’s tails they then breast the — 
stream and swim across without harm or danger. 

7. It is said that Nature has not bestowed the Animal anti- 
power of braying upon she-Asses. Nature too has a 
enabled Hyenas to stop hounds from barking. The 
fragrance of perfumes causes death to Vultures; 
hemlock is the bane of Swans; Cyrus and Croesus 
learned how Horses dread camels, so the story 
goes. . 

8. When Mares desert their foals and leave them, Mares ana 
like orphans, before they are fully weaned, other [958 
Mares take compassion on them and bring them up 
with their own foals. | ; 

9. Crows are exceedingly faithful to each other, The Crow 
and when they enter into partnership they love one facity ον 
another intensely, and you would never see these 
creatures indulging freely in promiscuous intercourse. 

And those who are accurately informed about them 
assert that if one dies, the other remains in widow- 
hood. Ihave heard too that men of old used actually. 

at weddings to sing ‘the Crow ’@ after the bridal 
4 Cp. Carm. pop. 31 (Diehl, Anth. lyr. Gr.) and L-S® s.v. 

3 f 



ddew,! σύνθημα ὁμονοίας τοῦτο τοῖς συνιοῦσιν 
> 19 5 7 διδά ᾿ : sas Ξὰ 4 9 
ἐπὶ 5 παιδοποιίᾳ διδόντας. οἱ de*% Eedpas ὀρνίθων 
A / λ 7 3 3 ? A 4 
καὶ πτήσεις παραφυλάττοντες οὐκ εὐσύμβολον 
“- ‘4 ,ὔ 
ὀπυίουσιν ὅ εἷναί φασιν ὑπακοῦσαι κορώνης μίας .® 
ἐπεὶ δὲ. ἡ γλαθξ ἐστιν. αὐτῇ πολέμιον, καὶ νύκτωρ 
a “a “~ € A 
ἐπιβουλεύει τοῖς @ois τῆς κορώνης, ἡ δὲ μεθ᾽ 
ἡμέραν ἐκείνην ταὐτὸ δρᾷ τοῦτο, εἰδυῖα ἔχειν τὴν 
“-- “- 3 ζ΄΄᾿ 
ὄψιν τηνικαῦτα τὴν γλαῦκα ἀσθενῆ. 

10. "Eyivov τὸν χερσαῖον οὐκ ἄσοφον οὐδ᾽ 

5 “a / “~ >. 4 7 € Ua > “ 
ἀμαθῆ ταμιείας τῆς ἐς τὴν χρείαν ἡ φύσις ἐποίησεν. 

τ 3 A \ a ~. / Ἁ 4 ξ a 3 
ἐπεὶ γὰρ δεῦται τροφῆς διετησίου, τὰ δὲ wpata οὐ 
~ : A a aA 

πᾶσα wpa δίδωσιν, ἑαυτὸν ἐν ταῖς τρασιαῖς κυλίει, 

“ ‘ [4 A / 
φασί, καὶ τῶν ἰσχάδων τὰς περιπαρείσας, at 

Α 3 f 8 “A 2 # θ Cos ΄- I 
πολλαὶ ἐμπήγνυνται 8 ταῖς ἀκάνθαις, ἡσυχῆ κομίζει 

1 2 , Ns ay a. 2 
καὶ ἀποθησαυρίσας φυλάττει, καὶ ἔχει λαβεῖν ἐκ 
“- lan ῳ ? > ei 3 ? 3 
τοῦ φωλεοῦ, ὅτε πορίσαι οὐχ οἷόν τε ἔξωθέν ἐστιν. 

11. "Ἤδη μέντοιϑ καὶ τῶν ζῴων τὰ ἀγριώτατα 
πρὸς τὰ ὀνῆσαι δυνάμενα εἰρηναῖα καὶ ἔνσπονδά 
ἐστι, τῆς συμφυοῦς κακίας ἐς τὴν χρείαν παραλυ- 
θέντα. 6 γοῦν κροκόδιλος νήχεταί τε ἅμα καὶ 
κέχηνεν. ἐμπίπτουσιν οὖν at βδέλλαι. ἐς -αὐτὸν 
καὶ λυποῦσιν. ὅπερ εἰδὼς ἰατροῦ δεῖται τοῦ 
τροχίλου: πλήρης γὰρ αὐτῶν γενόμενος, ἐπὶ τὴν 
ὄχθην προελθὼν κατὰ τῆς ἀκτῖνος κέχηνεν. ὃ 
τοίνυν τροχίλος ἐμβαλὼν τὸ ῥάμφος ἐξάγει τὰς 
προειρημένας, καρτερεῖ δὲ. ὠφελούμενος 6 κροκόδι- 

3 γε. 

1 καλεῖν. ο 3 ἐπὶ τῇ. 
4 3.7 > , 
εὐσύμβολον εἰς μαντείαν. 
. δ Pierson: ὀττεύουσιν mss and H, who regards ὑπακοῦσαι 

corrupt. | , ae 

166. : 



song by way of pledging those who came together 

for the begetting of children to be of one mind. 

While those who observe the quarters from which 

birds come and their flight, declare that to hear a 
single Crow is an evil omen at a wedding. Since the 

Owl is an enemy of the Crow and at night has designs Ow! ana 
upon the Crow’s eggs, the Crow by day does the same yee 
to her, knowing that at that time the Owl's sight is 

10. Nature has made the Hedgehog prudent and The 
: : se : : Hedgehog 

experienced in providing for its own wants. Thus, ~ 
since it needs food to last a whole year, and since 

every season does not yield produce, it rolls among 
fig-crates (they say), and such dried figs as are pierced 

—a great number become fixed upon its prickles—it 

quietly removes, and after laying up a store, keeps 

them and can draw from its nest when it is impossible 

to obtain food out of doors. — 

11. It is a fact that the fiercest of animals will, The _ 
when the need arises, lay aside their natural savagery “°°” 
and be peaceful and gently disposed towards those 
that can be of service to them. For instance, the 
Crocodile swims with its Jaws open; accordingly 
leeches fall into them and cause it pain. Knowing © 
this it needs the Egyptian Plover as doctor. For and the 
when it is infested with leeches, it moves to the bank pen!" 
and opens its jaws to face the sun. Whereupon the 
Egyptian Plover inserts its beak and draws out the 
aforesaid creatures, while the Crocodile endures this. 

86. Gow: κορώνη pia MSS, H. 7 Retske: κυλίειν. 
2 ρ va é 

8 πήγνυνται. 9. μέν. ᾿ 




Nos καὶ ἀτρεμεῖ. καὶ ὁ μὲν ἔχει δεῖπνον τὰς 
7 ε + 3 ἡ \ 4 4 9 “~ | 
βδέλλας, ὁ δὲ ὀνίναται, καὶ TO μηδὲν ἀδικῆσαι τὸν 

τροχίλον λογίζεταί of μισθόν. 

! / 
12. Κολοιοὺς δὲ εὐεργέτας νομίζουσι καὶ Θετ- 
\ \ 3 \ 4 4 \ / 
ταλοὶ καὶ ᾿Ιλλυριοὶ καὶ Λήμνιοι, καὶ δημοσίας γε 
A o~ > 
αὐτοῖς τροφὰς ebnpicavto,* ἐπεὶ τῶν ἀκρίδων, αἵ 
a , 
λυμαίνονται 2 τοὺς καρποὺς τοῖς προειρημενοῖς, τὰ 
φὰ ἀφανίζουσί τε οἱ κολοιοὶ καὶ διαφθείρουσι τὴν 
ἐπιγονὴν αὐτοῖς. ᾿ μειοῦται δὴ κατὰ πολὺ τὰ τῶν 
ἀκρίδων νέφη, καὶ τοῖς προειρημένοις μένει τὰ 

a“ > “- 
ὡραῖα ἀσινῆ. 

18. AE γέρανοι γίνονται μὲν ἐν Θράκῃ, ἢ δὲ 
χειμεριώτατον χωρίων ἐστὶ καὶ κρυμωδέστατον 
ὧν ἀκούω. οὐκοῦν φιλοῦσι τὴν χώραν ἐν 4 
γεγόνασι, φιλοῦσι δὲ καὶ ἑαυτάς, καὶ νέμουσι τὸ 
μέν τι τοῖς ἤθεσι τοῖς πατρῴοις, τὸ δέ τι τῇ 
σφῶν αὐτῶν σωτηρίᾳ. τοῦ μὲν γὰρ θέρους κατὰ 
χώραν μένουσι, φθινοπώρου δὲ ἤδη μεσοῦντος ἐς 
Αἴγυπτόν τε καὶ Λιβύην ἀπαίρουσι καὶ Αἰθιοπίαν, 
ὥσπερ οὖν γῆς περίοδον εἰδυῖαι καὶ φύσεις ἀέρων 

Ἁ e ~ M4 Ἁ ~ 2 4 . 
καὶ ὡρῶν διαφοράς. Kal χειμῶνα ἡρινὸν διαγα- 

“ 7 - ς 7 Eda \ 3 
γοῦσαι, πάλιν ὅταν ὑπεύδια ἄρξηται καὶ εἰρηναῖα 
τὰ τοῦ ἀέρος, ὑποστρέφουσιν ὀπίσω. ποιοῦνται 
δὲ ἡγεμόνας τῆς πτήσεως τὰς ἤδη τῆς ὁδοῦ 
πεπειραμένας- εἶεν δ᾽ ἂν ὡς τὸ εἰκὸς at πρεσβύτε- 
ραι. καὶ οὐραγεῖν δὲ τὰς τηλικαύτας ἀποκρίνουσι:" 
μέσαι δὲ αὐτῶν αἱ νέαι τετάχαται. φυλάξασαι 

δὲ ἄνεμον οὖρον καὶ φίλον σφίσι καὶ κατόπιν 

ῥέοντα, χρώμεναί οἱ πομπῷ καὶ ἐπωθοῦντι ἐς τὸ 

3 Ἁ “~ 
πρόσω, εἶτα μέντοι τρίγωνον ὀξυγώνιον τὸ σχῆμα 
168 | 



service and remains motionless. So the bird gets a 

feast of leeches, while the Crocodile is benefited and 

reckons the fact that it has not injured it as the bird’s — 


12. The inhabitants of Thessaly, of Illyria, and of 
Lemnos regard Jackdaws as benefactors and have 
decreed that they be fed at the public expense, see- 
ing that Jackdaws make away with the eggs and 
destroy the young of the locusts which ruin the crops 

and Locusts 

of the aforesaid people. The clouds of locusts are — 

in fact considerably reduced and the season’s produce 
of these people remains undamaged. 

13. Cranes have their birthplace in Thrace, which 

Cranes and 

is the most wintry and the coldest region that I know mipraulolia 

of. Well, they love the country of their birth, but 
they love themselves too; so they devote part of 

their time to their ancestral haunts and part to 

their own preservation. In summer they remain 
in their country, but in mid-autumn they leave for 
Egypt, Libya, and Ethiopia, appearing to know the 
map of the earth, the disposition of the winds, and 
the variations of the seasons. And after spend- 

ing a winter like spring, when again conditions. 

are becoming tolerably settled and the sky is calm, 

they return. To lead their flight they appoint those . 

that have already had experience of the journey; 

these would naturally be the older birds, and they 

select others of the same age to bring up the rear, 

while the young ones are ranged in their midst. 

Having waited for a fair and favouring wind from 

1 ἐψηφίσαντο aide αἱ πόλεις. 3. Reiske: ἐλυμαίνοντο. 





τῆς πτήσεως ἀποφήνασαι, iva. ἐμπίπτουσαι τῷ 
ἀέρι διακόπτωσιν αὐτὸν ῥᾷοτα, τῆς πορείας 
ἔχονται. οὕτω μὲν δὴ θερίζουσί τε καὶ χειμάξζουσι 
γέρανοι: σοφίαν δὲ ἥγηνται ἄνθρωποι. θαυμαστὴν 
τοῦ Περσῶν βασιλέως ἐς ἐπιστήμην ἀέρων 
κράσεως, Σοῦσα καὶ ᾿ἘἰΚβάτανα ἄδοντες καὶ τὰς 
δεῦρο καὶ ἐκεῖσε τοῦ Πέρσου τεθρυλημένας μετα- 
βάσεις. ὅταν δὲ προσφερόμενον ἀετὸν αἱ γέρανοι 
θεάσωνται, γενόμεναι κυκλόσε 3 καὶ κολπωσάμε- 
ναι ᾿ ἀπειλοῦσιν ὡς ἀντιταξόμεναι" ὁ δὲ 4 κρούεται 
τὸ πτερόν. ἀλλήλων δὲ τοῖς “πυγαίοις ἐπερείδουσαι 
τὰ ῥάμφη, εἶτα μέντοι. τρόπον τινὰ τὴν πτῆσιν 

: | 
συνδέουσι, καὶ TOV. κάματόν σφισιν εὐκάματον 

ἀποφαίνουσι, πεφεισμένως aoa cae ἐς ἀλ- 
λήλας αἱ αὐταί. ἐν δὲ γῇ μηκίστῃ . > πηγῆς 
ὅταν τύχωσιν, ἀναπαύονται νύκτωρ ὃ καὶ καθεύ- 
δουσι, τρεῖς δὲ ἢ τέτταρες προφυλάττουσι τῶν 
λοιπῶν καὶ ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ κατακοιμίσαι τὴν φυλακὴν 
ἑστᾶσι μὲν ἀσκωλιάξουσαι, τῷ γε μὴν μετεώρῳ 
ποδὶ λίθον κατέχουσι τοῖς ὄνυξι μάλα ἐγκρατῶς τε 
καὶ εὐλαβῶς, ἵνα ἐάν ποτε "λάθωσιν ἑαυτὰς ἐς 
ὕπνον ὑπολισθάνουσαι, πεσὼν καὶ ὑποκτυπήσας ὁ 
λίθος ,ἀποδαρθάνειν καταναγκάσῃ. γέρανος δὲ 
λίθον ὅνπερ οὖν καταπίνει ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἔχειν ἕρμα, 

,ὔ Α 

χρυσοῦ βάσανός ἐστιν, ὅταν οἷον ὁρμισαμένη καὶ 

ὠὰ τὰ 8 εἶτα μέντοι ἀνεμέσῃ αὐτόν. 

1 χρήσεως. 
2 Lobeck: κύκλος. 

ἡ κολπωσάμενοι μηνοειδὲς. τὸ μέσον ἀποφήνασαι. 
ὃ δὲ ἀναχωρεῖ καί. 
5 Lacuna. 
8 νύκτωρ at λοιπαί. 
7 ἕρμα πετομένη. 


behind, and using it as an escort to speed them for- 

ward, they then form their order of flight into an 
| acute-angled triangle, in order that as they encounter 

the air they may cleave it with the least difficulty, 

and so hold on their way. This then is how Cranes 

spend their summer and winter. (But mankind 
regards. as marvellous the Persian king’s compre- 
hension of temperature, and harps on Susa and 
Ecbatana 5 and the repeated stories of the Persian’s 
journeyings to and fro.) When however the Cranes 
observe an eagle bearing down upon them, they form 
a circle and in a bellying mass threaten him with 

attack; and he retires. Resting their bills upon 
‘each other’ s tail-feathers they form in a sense a con- 

tinuous chain of flight, and sweeten their labour ὃ 
as they repose gently one upon another. And in 
some distant land . . . when they light upon some 
water-spring they rest for the night and sleep, while 
three or four mount guard for all the others; and in 
order to avoid falling asleep during their watch they 
stand on one leg, but with the other held up they 
clutch a stone firmly and securely in their claws. 
Their object is that, if they should inadvertently drop 
off to sleep, the stone should fall and wake them 
with the sound. 

Now the stone which a Crane swallows to give itself 

ballast is a touchstone for gold when regurgitated by 

the Crane after it has, SO to Say; come to anchor and 
reached land. 

4 Identified with the modern Hamadan; ; it lay at the foot 
of mt Orontes, some 200 miles N of Susa, and was a summer 
residence of the Achaemenid kings. 

> Eur. Bacc. 66 κάματον εὐκάματον. 

8. καταχθεῖσα ἔνθα ἥκει. 



14, Κυβερνήτης ἰδὼν ἐ ἐν πελάγει μέσῳ γεράνους 

ὑποστρεφούσας καὶ τὴν ἔμπαλιν πετομένας, συνεῖ- 

δὲν ἐναντίου “προσβολῇ πνεύματος ἐκείνας ἀποοτῆ- 

ναι τοῦ πρόσω" καὶ τῶν ὀρνέων. ὡς ἂν εἴποις 
μαθητὴς γενόμενος παλίμπλους ἦλθε, καὶ τὴν 
ναῦν περιέσωσε.. καὶ τοῦτο πρῶτον γενόμενον 
μάθημά τε ὁμοῦ καὶ παίδευμα (ὑπὸ τῶνδε 
<r@v>* ὀρνίθων τοῖς ἀνθρώποις παρεδόθη. 

15. Περιστεραὶ ἐν μὲν ταῖς πόλεσι τοῖς ἀνθρώ- 
ποις συναγελάζονται, Kat εἰσι πραόταται, καὶ 
εἰλοῦνται περὶ τοῖς ποσίν, ἐν δὲ τοῖς ἐρήμοις 
χωρίοις ἀποδιδράσκουσι, καὶ τοὺς. ἀνθρώπους οὐχ 
ὑπομένουσι. θαρροῦσι μὲν γὰρ τοῖς πλήθεσι, καὶ 
ὅτι μηδὲν πείσονται δυσχερὲς ἴσασι κάλλιστα. 
7 4 3 ~ \ fd i 3 ‘ 
ὅπου δὲ ὀρνιθοθῆραι καὶ δίκτυα Kat ἐπιβουλαὶ 

> -θ 3 > ~~ 3 7 
κατ᾽ αὐτῶν, ἄτρεστα οἰκοῦσιν οὐκέτι, ἵνα, εἴπω τὸ 

ἐπ᾽ αὐτῶν ἐκείνων λεχθὲν Εὐριπίδῃ. 

16. Ὅταν μέλλωσι πέρδικες πρὸς τῷ τίκτειν 
᾿ εἶναι, παρασκευάζουσιν ἑαυτοῖς ἔκ τινων καρφῶν 
τὴν καλουμένην ἅλω. πλέγμα. δέ ἐστι κοῖλον καὶ 
ἐγκαθίσαι μάλα ἐπιτήδειον. καὶ κόνιν ἐγχέαντες, 
καὶ μαλακήν τινα οἱονεὶ κοίτην ἐργασάμενοι, καὶ 
ἐνδύντες, εἶτα ἐπηλυγάσαντες ἑαυτοὺς ἄνωθεν 
κάρφεσιν ὑπὲρ τοῦ καὶ τοὺς ὄρνιθας λαθεῖν τοὺς 
ἁρπακτικοὺς καὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων τοὺς θηρευτάς, 
κατὰ πολλὴν τὴν εἰρήνην ἀποτίκτουσιν εἶτα τὰ 
@a οὐ πιστεύουσι τῇ χώρᾳ τῇ αὐτῇ, ἀλλ᾽ ἑτέρᾳ, 

1 (ὑπό add. H. 

-3 Reiske: κατακλίνουσιν. 


2 <r@v> add. Reiske. 

Bp. Ξ 


have refrained from advancing further owing to the 
assault of a contrary wind. And taught, as you 
might say, by the birds he sails home again and 
preserves his vessel. So the pilot's art, being a 
lesson and a discipline first acquired by these birds, 
has: been handed on to mankind. 

14. If a pilot observes on the high seas a flock of Cranes give 
_ Cranes turning and flying back, he realises that they s 

warning of 

15. In cities Pigeons congregate with human The Pigeon 

beings ; ; they are extremely tame and swarm about 
one’s feet; but in lonely places they flee away and 
cannot endure human beings. For it is crowds that 
give them courage, and they are well aware that they 
will be unmolested. Where however there are bird- 
catchers, nets, and schemes to take them, ‘ they 
dwell’ no more ‘ without fear,’ to quote what 
Euripides says [Jon 1198] of those same birds. 

16. When Partridges are about to lay they make The 


themselves what is called a ‘ threshing-floor ’ 
nest) out of dry twigs. Itis plaited, hollow, and well- 
suited for sitting in. They pour in dust and con- 
struct as it were a soft bed; they enter and after 
screening themselves over with dry twigs so as to 
avoid being seen by birds of prey and by human 
hunters, they lay their eggs in complete tranquillity. 
Next, they do not entrust their eggs to the same place 
but to some other, emigrating ὦ as it were, because 
@ Cp. Arist. HA 613 b 15. 

(2. @, and its nest 


e Ἀ 4 1 ὃ ὃ 7 A) 2 7 
οἱονεὶ μετοικιζόμενοι 1: δεδοίκασι yap? μή ποτε 
ἄρα φωραθῶσιν. νεοττεύοντες δὲ 8 τοὺς νεοττοὺς 

3» , 4 nw 2 - 
ὄντας ἁπαλοὺς ὑποθάλπουσι καὶ τοῖς ἑαυτῶν. 

“ Α - 
πτεροῖς ἀλεαΐνουσιν, οἱονεὶ σπαργάνοις τοῖς πτίλοις 
περιαμπέχοντες: οὐ λούουσι δὲ αὐτούς, ἀλλὰ 

f 3 4 7 34 \ 7 
κονίοντες ἐργάζονται φαιδροτέρους. ἐὰν δὲ πέρδιξ 
ἴδῃ τινὰ προσιόντα καὶ ἐπιβουλεύοντα καὶ αὐτῷ 
καὶ τοῖς βρέφεσιν, ἐνταῦθα αὐτὸς μὲν ἑαυτὸν πρὸ 
τῶν ποδῶν κυλίει τῶν τοῦ θηρατοῦ, καὶ ἐνδίδωσιν 
3 f ~ 4 “ 3 2 + ¢ 
ἐλπίδα τοῦ δύνασθαι συλλαβεῖν εἰλούμενον. καὶ ὃ 
μὲν ἐπικύπτει ἐς τὴν ἄγραν, ὃ δὲ ἐξελίττει 

, ’ - ῳ 
ἑαυτόν: καὶ διαδιδράσκει καὶ γίνεται πρὸ ὅδοῦ 

4 4 4 4 x ? e _ ἢ ὃ 
«τὰ βρέφη». ὅπερ οὖν συννοήσας 6 πέρδιξ, 
θαρρῶν ἤδη τῆς ἀσχολίας τῆς ματαίας ἀπαλλάττει 
τὸν ὀρνιθοθήραν ἀναπτάς, καὶ ἐᾷ ὅ τὸν ἄνδρα 
κεχηνότα. εἶτα ἐν ἀδείᾳ ἡ μήτηρ γενομένη καὶ 
>. -  “Ὅ Ἁ / ay ε \ 7 oA 
ev καλῷ στᾶσα τὰ βρέφη καλεῖ. of δὲ αὐτῇ 
προσπέτονται γνωρίσαντες τὸ φώνημα. πέρδιξ δὲ 

“ 3 fad “a - 
ὠδῖνα ἀπολύειν μέλλων πειρᾶται λαθεῖν τὸν σύν- 
νομον, ἵνα μὴ τὰ φὰ συντρίψῃ: λάγνος γὰρ ὧν 
οὐκ ἐᾷ τῇ παιδοτροφίᾳ σχολάζειν τὴν μητέρα. 
οὕτω δέ ἐστιν ἀκόλαστον τὸ τῶν περδίκων γένος. 
ὅταν αὐτοὺς ἀπολιποῦσαι εἶτα ἐπῳάζωσιν αἱ 

7 ε \ > ἡ > 3 A 3 7 > 4 
θήλειαι, ot δὲ ἐπίτηδες ἐς ὀργὴν ἀλλήλους ἐξά- 

πτουσι, καὶ παίουσί τε καὶ παίονται πικρότατα" 

, Φ Ὁ θ ‘ ? 7 .»Ἁ 8 ᾿ ὃ a 

Kat ὁ ye ἡττηθείς ὀχεύεται [ws ὄρνις], Kai δρᾷ 

“΄ζ 3 ὃ ¢ 7 ἡ 9. Ἂ -ς Jo € F 
τοῦτο ἀνέδην <o κρατήσας», ἔστ᾽ ἂν ὑφ᾽ ἑτέρου 

καὶ αὐτὸς ἡττηθεὶς εἶτα ἐς τὰς ὁμοίας λαβὰς 
ἐμπέσῃ. | 

μετοικιζόμενοι ἐκεῖνά τε ἐπάγονται. 

yap ev ταὐτῷ διατρίβοντες. 
‘ Fe 8 
3 δὲ ἐν χὥροις ἑτέροις ἀπαίροντές τε αὖ. 


ΠΑΝ esses aincwitn/annisatvestetisireenweser sv λον ρυνοουσνμνισσττιαρυλυμυννυνυυνυνουσοσυγφυνυγοτοούνε BLAIS AAAS eMR NAN URORb i sspoant tele EARAULEsbsisdOe Spas thd SEU esd TR PEELS SHCA 


they are afraid that they may perhaps be detected. 
And when they hatch their young they impart heat to 
them, being callow, and warm them with their wings, 
enveloping them in their feathers, as it might be 
swaddling-clothes. They do not however wash them, 
but render them more sleek by putting dust on them. 

If a Partridge sees someone approaching with evil and its 

intent against itself and its young, it thereupon rolls 
about in front of the hunter’s feet and fills him with 
the hope of seizing it as it moves this way and that. 
And the man bends down to catch his prey, but it 
eludes him. Meantime the young ones slip away and 

et some distance ahead. So when the Partridge is 
aware of this, it takes courage and releases the bird- 
eatcher from his fruitless occupation by flying off, 
leaving the man gaping. Then when the mother- 
bird is secure and advantageously placed, she calls 
her chicks, and they recognising her voice flutter 
towards her. 


The Partridge when about to lay her eggs en- The male 

deavours to hide from her mate for fear that he may 

crush them, because he is lustful and tries to prevent 

the mother from devoting her time to rearing her 
young. So incontinent a creature is the Partridge. 
When the females leave the males and brood their 
eggs, the male birds of set purpose provoke one 
another to anger and deal and receive the most 
violent blows; and the vanquished bird gets trodden, 
the victor performing unsparingly, until he in his turn 
is vanquished and is caught in like clutches. 

; «τὰ βρέφη A ᾿ Η. 4 ~ 1 ν΄} 

5 καὶ ἐᾷ] καὶ τοὺς νεοττοὺς καταλαβῶν καὶ ἐάσας. 
6 [ὡς ὄρνις ‘ verba suspecta,’ Η. 

7 <6 κρατήσας» add. Jac. 



7. Λέγει μὲν οὖν Εὐριπίδης δυσώνυμον τὸν 1 
φθόνον" οὗτος δὲ ἄρα ἐνοικεῖ καὶ τῶν ζῴων ἔστιν 
οἷς. ὁ γοῦν γαλεώτης, ὥς φησι Θεόφραστος, ὅταν 
ἀποδύσηται ᾿ τὸ γῆρας, ἐπιστραφεὶς εἶτα μέντοι 
καταπιὼν ἀφανίζει αὐτό' δοκεῖ δὲ ἐπιλήψεως 
εἶναι τὸ γῆρας τὸ τοῦδε τοῦ ζῴου ἀντίπαλον. 
οἶδε δὲ καὶ ἔλαφος τὸ δεξιὸν κέρας ἔχων ἐς πολλὰ 
ἀγαθόν, καὶ μέντοι «καὶ» κατορύττει τε αὐτὸ καὶ 
ἀποκρύπτει φθόνῳ τοῦ τοσούτων 8 τινα ἀπολαῦσαι. 
ἴυγγας δὲ ἐρωτικὰς τῷ πώλῳ συντίκτουσα ἵππος 
οἶδε: ταῦτά τοι καὶ ἅμα τῷ τεχθῆναι τὸ βρέφος 
ἡ δὲ τὸ ἐπὶ τῷ μετώπῳ σαρκίον ἀπέτραγεν. 

¢ 7. Ba ~ 
ὑππόμανες ἄνθρωποι καλοῦσιν αὐτό. καὶ ot γόητες 

τὰ τοιαῦτά φασιν ὁρμάς τινας ἑλκτικὰς ἐς μίξιν 
ἀκατάσχετον καὶ οἶστρον ἀφροδίσιον παρέχειν καὶ 
ἐξάπτειν. : οὔκουν τὴν ἵππον ἐθέλειν ἀνθρώπους 
μεταλαγχάνειν τοῦ γοητεύματος τοῦδε, ὥσπερ οὖν 
ἀγαθοῦ μεγίστου φθονοῦσαν. οὐ γάρ; 

3 ~ 3 ~ f ? A 
Ἐν τῇ Ἐρυθρᾷ θαλάττῃ * ἰχθὺν Λεωνίδης 
of υξάντιος γίνεσθαί φησι, κωβιοῦ τοῦ τελείου 
μείονα οὐδὲ ev: ἔχειν δὲ οὔτε ὃ ὀῤθαλμοὺς αὐτὸν 
οὔτ ' > 7 , ~ “~ > ¢ 
᾿ ε το μα ἐν νόμῳ τῷ τῶν ἰχθύων. προσπέ- 
wie δέ οἱ βράγχια καὶ σχῆμα κεφαλῆς, ὡς 
εἰκάσαι, οὐ μὴν ἐκμεμόρφωται εἶδος: κάτω δὲ 
΄ Ὰ 3. “κ᾿ 3 , 
ΠῚ τ τῇ γαστρὶ αὐτῷ ἐντέθλασται τύπος 
“- τ ‘ ‘ 
κολπώδης ἡσυχῆ, καὶ ἐκπέμπει σμαράγδου χρόαν. 

τοῦτον οὖν εἶναι καὶ ὀφθαλμόν οἵ φησι καὶ στόμα. 

1 ὄντα τόν. | 

2 <xai> add. H. 

Jac: τοσούτου. 

* θαλάττῃ κόλπῳ δὲ τῷ ᾿Δραβίῳ. 




aceursed thing. 
animals in which this quality resides. For instance, 

the Gecko, according to Theophrastus[ fr. 175], when 

it has sloughed its skin, turns and makes away with 

it by swallowing it. It seems that the slough of this 

creature is a remedy for epilepsy. And the Deer 

too, knowing that its right horn serves many pur-. 
poses, goes so far as to bury it and secrete it out of 
jealousy lest anyone should benefit thereby. The 

Mare also knows that with the birth of a foal she is 
producing love-spells; and that is why the moment 
the foal is born, the Mare bites off the piece of flesh 
onits forehead. Mencallit‘ mare’s-frenzy.’* And 
wizards maintain that such things produce and excite 
impulses to unrestrained sexual intercourse and a 
lecherous passion. So the Mare does not wish men 
to have any of this spell, as though she grudged them 
a boon beyond compare. And is it not so? 

18. Leonidas of Byzantium asserts that there The 
oecurs in the Red Sea a fish® of exactly the same ash 

size as a full-grown goby: it has neither eyes nor 
mouth after the manner of fishes, but grows gills and 
a kind of head, so far as one can guess, though its 
form is not perfectly developed. But lower down 
beneath its stomach is a slightly indented depression 
which emits the colour of an emerald; and this, they - 
say, is both its eye and its mouth. But anyone who 

α See 14. 18. 
> Probably the Tetrodon or Globe-fish. 

ge A ------ 

5 Schn: γενέσθαι. οὐδέ. 

17. Euripides says [fr. 403 N] that jealousy is an Jealousy 
ἦν seems that there are certain Dive” 


2 4 3 “-Ἐ 4 ray ~ ~ “~ 
ὅστις δὲ αὐτοῦ γεύεται, σὺν TH κακῷ TH ἑαυτοῦ 

ἐθήρασεν αὐτόν. καὶ τῆς διαφθορᾶς 6 τρόπος, 6 
γευσάμενος ᾧδησεν, εἶτα ἡ γαστὴρ κατέρραξε, καὶ 
6 ἄνθρωπος ἀπόλωλε. δίδωσι δὲ καὶ αὐτὸς ἁλοὺς 
δίκας. πρῶτον μὲν ἔξω τοῦ κύματος γενόμενος 
οἰδαίνει, καὶ εἴ τις αὐτοῦ ψαύσειεν,2 6 δὲ ἔτι καὶ 
μᾶλλον πίμπραται. καὶ εἴ τις ἐπιμείνειε ψαλάτ- 
των, γίνεται πᾶς ὑπὸ σήψεως διαυγέστατος, ὡς 

ξ “" εν ~ 
ὑδεριῶν: εἶτα τελευτῶν διερράγη. εἰ δὲ αὐτὸν. 

2 7 4 ~ 
ἐθέλοι τις ἔτι ζῶντα ἐς τὴν θάλατταν μεθεῖναι, 6 
7 ὔ - 

δὲ ἐπινήχεται δίκην κύστεως ἀρθείσης πνεύματι. 
- ov > o 5 

καί φησιν ὅτι ἐκ τοῦ πάθους φύσαλον ἐκάλουν 


? , ᾿ 
, 19. Φώκη δέ, ὡς ἀκούω, τὴν πυετίαν τὴν 
΄-΄» > - ¢ 4 ~ Sp - 
ἑαυτῆς ἐξεμεῖ," ἵνα μὴ τοῖς ἐπιλήπτοις ἢ ἰᾶσθαι. 
»“-ΣΟ ξ 
βάσκανον δὴ τὸ ζῷον ἡ φώκη, ναὶ μὰ τόν. 

20. Οἱ πελεκᾶνες <ot» ἐν τοῖς ποταμοῖς {τὰς 
κόγχας περιχαίνοντες εἶτα καταπίνουσιν, ἔνδον 
δὲ καὶ ἐν (τῷ) μυχῷ τῆς γαστρὸς ὑποθαλ- 
ψαντες ἀνεμοῦσι, καὶ τὰ μὲν ὀστράκια ἐκ τῆς 
ἀλέας διέστη, ὥσπερ οὖν <Ta>® τῶν ἐφθῶν, οἱ δὲ 
ἐξορύττουσι τὰ κρέα, καὶ ἔχουσι δεῖπνον. καὶ 
μέντοι καὶ οἱ λάροι, ὡς Εὔδημός φησι, τοὺς 
κοχλίας μετεωρίζοντες καὶ ὑψοῦ αἴροντες ταῖς 
πέτραις βιαιότατα προσαράττουσιν. 

7 3 
21. Λέγει Εὔδημος, ἐν Παγγαίῳ τῷ Θρᾳκίῳ 
> ἢ ~ “ Ξ Ν ᾿ 
κοίτῃ λέοντος ἐρήμῳ φυλακῆς ἐπιστᾶσαν ἄρκτον 
3 Ges: ἐκροφεῖ. 

1 γεύσεται. 2 ψαύσοι. 



ON ANIMALS, ΠῚ. 18-21 

eats it has fished to his own undoing. And this is 

how he is destroyed: the man who has eaten it 

swells up; then his stomach bursts and he dies. But . 
the fish itself when caught pays for it, for first, when 

it is out of the water, it swells, and if one touches it, 

it swells even more; while if one continues to handle 

it, it turns to corruption and becomes quite trans- 

lucent, like a man with dropsy, and finally bursts. If 
however one is prepared to return it still alive to the 

sea, it swims on the surface like an inflated bladder. 

Leonidas says that in consequence of this property 
men call it the ‘ inflater.’ 

19. The Seal, I am told, vomits up the curdled milk The Seal 
from its stomach so that epileptics may not be cured 
thereby. Upon my word the Seal is indeed a 

malignant creature. | 

20. Pelicans that live in rivers take in mussels and The Pelican 
then swallow them, and when they have warmed 
them deep within the recesses of their belly, they el 
disgorge them. Now the mussels open under the 
influence of the heat, just like the shells of things 
when cooked, and the. Pelicans scoop out the flesh 
and make a meal. So too Sea-mews, as Eudemus Ay 
observes, lift snails into the air and carry them high eal 
up and then dash them violently upon the rocks. 

21. Eudemus records how on mount Pangaeus in A Bear and 
: * > . . 7 two Lions 
Thrace a Bear came upon a Lion’s lair which was 

ὁ dof). . . {τάφο add, H; ep. Arist. HA 614 Ὁ 27. 
5 ὁτῷν add. H. 
8 ord) add. H. 

| 179 


4 4 ~ ? “- 
(τοὺς » } σκύμνους τοῦ λέοντος διαφθεῖραι διὰ τὸ 
i / : ~ , 
μικρούς τε εἶναι ἔτι καὶ aptvat odiow ἀδυνάτους. 
ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀφίκοντο 5. Ex τινος ἄγρας ὅ τε πατὴρ καὶ 

e Ζ ἃ > AY τὸ > “a “a 
ἢ μήτηρ, Kat εἶδον τοὺς παῖδας ἐν ταῖς φοναῖς, 

οἷα εἰκὸς ἤλγουν, καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν ἄρκτον ἵεντο: ἡ δὲ 
δείσασα εἴς τι δένδρον ἢ ποδῶν εἶχεν ἀνέθει, καὶ 
καθῆστο τὴν ἐπιβουλὴν τὴν ἐξ ἐκείνων ἐκκλῖναι 
πειρωμένη. ὡς δὲ ἐδόκουν τοῦ τιμωρήσασθαι τὸν 

~ ~ 3 ~ € \ f 3 
υμεῶνα ἥκειν δεῦρο, ἐνταῦθα ἡ μὲν λέαινα οὐ. 

λ ,ὔ 4 λ 7 LAA’ ¢ \ o 7 θῇ 

εἶπει τὴν φυλακὴν, ἀλλ᾽ ὑπὸ τῷ πρέμνῳ καθῆστο 
ἐλλοχῶσα καὶ ὕφαιμον ἄνω βλέπουσα, ὁ δὲ λέων, 
οἷα ἀδημονῶν καὶ ἀλύων ὑπὸ τοῦ dyous,? ἐν τοῖς 

¥ Iya \ > \ ¢ “ fd ¢ 
ὄρεσιν ἠλᾶτο, Kai ἀνδρὶ ὑλουργῷ περιτυγχάνει" 6 | 

δὲ eo ‘ > / \ 7 A 4 ,ὔ ξ 

€ ἔδεισε καὶ ἀφίησι τὸν πέλεκυν, τὸ δὲ θηρίον ὁ 
᾽ὔ; . 

λέων ἔσαινέ τε καὶ ἑαυτὸν ἀνατείνας ἠσπάζετο, 

e? > \ κ᾿. 

ὡς olos τε ἦν, καὶ τῇ γλώττῃ τὸ πρόσωπον 
? , a “a 

ἐφαίδρυνεν αὐτῷ. καὶ ἐκεῖνος ὑπεθάρρησεν, 6 τε 
f « > 

λέων περιβαλών ot τὴν οὐρὰν ἦγεν αὐτόν, καὶ 
» / 4 4 ir > 3 LAAG > ἢ “~ 

ἀφέντα ὁ τὸν πέλεκυν οὐκ εἴα, ἀλλὰ ἐσήμαινε τῷ 

4 3 2? . ~ 
moot ἀνελέσθαι. ὡς δὲ od συνίει, 6 δὲ τῷ στόματι 
ἐλάβετο, καὶ ὥρεξέν ot, καὶ εἵπετο ἐκεῖνος, ἄγει 
Ln > 3 δ ὅλ Σ ἡ λέ ¢-\5 5 

τε αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸ αὔλιον. καὶ ἡ λέαινα (ὡς »" εἶδε, 
‘ \ ra as 

Kat αὐτὴ προσελθοῦσα ὑπέσαινεδ καὶ ἑώρα 
> / \ > ἢ Ἁ 

οἰκτρόν, καὶ ἀνέβλεπε πρὸς τὴν ἄρκτον. συνιδὼν 
Log ¢ “᾿ 

οὖν ὁ ἄνθρωπος καὶ συμβαλὼν ἠδικῆσθαΐί τι τού- 

3 3 ? © > Ξε re ~ 
Tous ἐξ ἐκείνης, ws εἶχε ῥώμης. τε Kal χειρῶν, 

ἐξέκοψε τὸ δένδρον. καὶ τὸ μὲν ἀνετράπη, ἡ δὲ 

κατηνέχθη" καὶ διεσπάσαντό ye” οἱ θῆρες αὐτήν. 

1 τούς» add. Η. 2 ἀφίκετο. 
3 ἄχους ὡς ἄνθρωπος εἶτα. 
4 ἀφιέντα. 

5 <ds> add. H. 


unguarded and slew the Lion’s cubs, they being small 
and unable to protect themselves. But when the - 
father and mother returned from hunting somewhere 

“and. saw their young ones slaughtered, they were 

naturally filled with grief, and set upon the Bear. 
She in terror ran up a tree as fast as her legs could 
carry her and sat there trying to escape their fell de- 
sion. But as they came there with the intention of 
wreaking vengeance upon the murderer, the Lioness 
did not relax her watch but sat down beneath the 
tree-trunk, lying in wait and gazing upward with a 
look that meant blood. Meantime the Lion in 
anguish and distraught with grief roamed the moun- 
tains and came upon a woodcutter. The man was 
terrified and dropped his axe, but the animal fawned 
upon him and reaching upwards greeted him as well 
as it could, stroking his face withits tongue. And the 
man took courage, while the Lion, wrapping its tail 
around him, led him on and would not permit him to 

‘leave the axe but signified with its paw that he was 

ick it up. But since the man failed to under- 
oa. the Lion took it in its mouth and offered it to 
him; the man followed and the Lion led him to the 
lair. As soon as the Lioness saw him she too came 
up and began to fawn upon him with a piteous 
expression as she looked up at the Bear. So the man 
grasped their meaning and guessing that they had 
been somehow injured by the Bear, began to fell the 
tree with all the strength of his hands. And the tree 
was overturned and the Bear brought down and the 
Lions tore her to pieces. As for the man, the Lion 

6 Reiske: ἐπεσήμαινεν MSS, ὑπέσηνε Jac. 
7 σε, 


brought him back untouched and unscathed to the 
spot where it first met him and restored him to his 
original task of cutting wood. 

4 4 1 ¥ ¢ 7 
τ δὲ ; ἄνθρωπον ὁ λέων ἀπαθῆ τε καὶ ἀσινῆ 
3 4 ~ : 
πάλιν ἐπανήγαγεν ἐς τὸν χῶρον, οὗ πρότερον 
ἐνέτυχεν αὐτῷ, καὶ ἀπέδ ἢ ἐξ ἀρχῆς ὁ " 
χ D, καὶ ἀπέδωκε τῇ ἐξ ἀρχῆς ὑλοτομίᾳ. 

99. A battle between two animals of Egypt, the Ichneumon 

2 ? ? : 
22. Αἰγυπτίων μάχη θηρίων ἀσπίδος καὶ iyved- 
\ 3 4 : ΧΡ = 

2 4 ¢ 
ee καὶ ὁ μὲν ἰχνεύμων οὐκ ἀβούλως οὐδὲ 
~ 3 “ 
ἐκπὶ die ἐπὶ τὸν ἀγῶνα ἀφικνεῖται τὸν πρὸς τὸν 
> ἃ 
ἀντίπαλον, ἀλλ᾽ ὡς ἀνὴρ πανοπλίᾳ φραξάμενος, 

Ὁ 3 “" 
o~ “~ 3 
οὕτως ἐκεῖνος τῷ πηλῷ ἐγκυλίσας ὃ ἑαυτὸν καὶ. 

5 a 
“-οΟ / 
she τοῦ περιπαγέντος ἔοικεν. ἔχειν ἀρκοῦν 
πρόβ μα καὶ στεγανόν. εἰ δὲ ἀπορία εἴη πηλοῦ 
λούσας ἑαυτὸν ὕδατι καὶ ἐς ἄμμον βαθεῖαν ὑ by 
ἔτι ἐμβαλών, ἐκ τῆσδε τῆς ἐπινοίας TO 4 Ἂ 
ἜΝ Εν » ἐκ τῆσδε τῆς ἐπινοίας τὸ ἀμυντήριον 
ἀπόρων σπάσας, ἐπὶ τὴν μάχην ἔρχεται. τῆ 
τε ῥινὸς τὸ ἄκ ἱπαλὸν ὃν καὶ ἃ ἐγχρίσει τ' ἧς 
re pt pov amadov ov Kat” ἐγχρίσει TH TH 
ἀσπίδος τρόπον χὰ ἐκκεί eee 
etka ae τινὰ ἐκκείμενον φρουρεῖ τὴν 
ὑρὰν ὃ ἀνακλάσας καὶ ἁ ΐ ᾿ αὐτῆς αὐ 
ΠΟΤ. Θπν ἐλαμαθιι ποφράξας δὲ αὐτῆς αὐτό. 
ἱ Le ἢ ἀσπίς τούτου τύχῃ, τὸν ἀνταγωνι- 
στὴν ᾿ A, μά 
ἀν , καθεῖλεν: εἰ δὲ μή, μάτην τοὺς ὀδόντας τῷ 
, 2 @ πονεῖται, πάλιν τε ὃ ἰχνεύμων mpocepricas 
ἀδοκήτω y ἦ ὅμε; 
: ἐμὰ καὶ τοῦ τραχήλου λαβόμενος ἀπέπνιξε 
τὴν ἀσπίδα. νικᾷ δὲ 6 πρῶτος φθάσας. 

23. Τρέφειν μὲν τοὺ 7 ἐλ 
᾿ pew μὲν τοὺς πατέρας πελαργοὶ γεγηρα- 
κότας καὶ ἐθέλο ἱ ἐμελέτησα a Sg 
ras καὶ ουσι καὶ ἐμελέτησαν: κελεύει δὲ 
αὐτοὺς νόμος ἀνθ : HOE εἶ , 
abr Op ρωπικὸς οὐδὲ εἷς τοῦτο, ἀλλὰ 
aitia τούτων φύσις. οἱ αὐτοὶ δὲ καὶ τὰ ; 
α ous.‘ Ol αὐτοὶ δὲ καὶ τὰ ἑαυτῶν 
ἔκγονα φιλοῦσι" ὶ τὸϑ μαρτύ 
Καὶ τὸ μαρτύριον, ὅταν 6 
1 γε. ΝΙΝ 
* The sentence is ἢ is 
: neomplete : μά ἰχνεύμον 
Paes sri μὸν siege BAXNKYD 1a « ixvedpovos (ἄξιον 
8. Schn: κυλίσας. ΝΙΝ ᾿ ΙΝ 


mn ean nt nei EAL ROARS ARRAY EMA λ τ τ Ἀρερψνσ ταν νι RPO RETR FET CEA IAAP A RAR NNN TN 

Asp and the Ichneumon. . . . The Ichneumon does ™ 
not attack his adversary without deliberation or 
rashly, but like a man fortifying himself with all his’ 
weapons, rolls in the mud and covers himself with a 
hard coating, thereby obtaining, it seems, an ade- 
quate and impenetrable defence. But if he is at a 
loss for mud, he washes himself in water and plunges 
still wet into deep sand—a device which secures his 
protection in difficult circumstances—and. goes forth 
+o battle. But the tip of his nose, which is sensitive 
and somewhat exposed to the bite of the Asp, he pro-. 
tects by bending back his tail, thereby blocking the 
approach to it. If however the Asp can reach it, the 
snake kills its adversary; otherwise it plies its fangs 
against the mud in vain, while the Ichneumon on the 
other hand makes a sudden dash, seizes the Asp by 
the neck, and strangles it. And the victory goes to 
the one that gets in first. , 

93. When their parents have grown old, Storks tend The Stork 

them voluntarily and with studied care;. yet there is 
no law of man that bids them do so; the cause of 
their actions is Nature. And the same birds love their 
offspring too. Here is the proof: when the full- 

4 ἁπαλὸν ὃν καί del. H. 

5 οὐρὰν ὑποκάμψας μᾶλλον καί. 

6 αὐτὸ οὕτως γὰρ ποιεῖν εἴωθεν. 

7 φύσις ἀγαθή. 8 χούτου. 



τέλειος ἐνδεὴς 7 τροφῆς ἀπτῆσιν ἔτι καὶ ἁπαλοῖς 
τοῖς νεοττοῖς ἐν τῇ καλιᾷ παραθεῖναι, γενομένης 
αὐτῷ κατὰ τύχην ἀπορίας, ὁ δὲ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ 
χθιζὴν “ἀνεμέσας ἐκείνους τρέφει. καὶ τοὺς ἐρῳ- 
διοὺς ἀκούω ποιεῖν ταὐτόν, καὶ τοὺς πελεκᾶνας 
μέντοι. προσακούω δὲ τοὺς πελαργοὺς καὶ αὐτοὺς 1 
συμφεύγειν ταῖς γεράνοις καὶ συναποδιδράσκειν 
τὸν χειμῶνα" τῆς ὥρας δὲ τῆς κρυμώδους διελθού- 

@ ¢ ? 2 
ons, oTav ὑποστρέψωσιν * ἐς τὰ ἴδια καὶ ofSe καὶ. 

aide, τὴν ἑαυτῶν ἕκαστος καλιὰν ἀναγνωρίξζουσιν 
ὡς τὴν οἰκίαν ἄνθρωποι. ᾿Αλέξανδρος δὲ ὅ 
Μύνδιός φησιν," ὅταν ἐς γῆρας ἀφίκωνται, παρελ- 
θόντας αὐτοὺς ἐς ὃ τὰς ᾿Ωκεανίτιδας νήσους 
ἀμείβειν τὰ εἴδη ἐς ἀνθρώπου μορφήν, καὶ 
εὐσεβείας γε τῆς ἐς τοὺς γειναμένους ἄθλον τοῦτο 
ἰσχειν, ἄλλως τε, (εἴ τι) ἐγὼ νοῶ, καὶ ὑποθέσθαι 
τῶν θεῶν βουλομένων τοῦτο γοῦν τῶν ἀνθρώπων 
τῶν ἐκεῖθι τὸ γένος εὐσεβὲς καὶ ὅσιον, ἐπεὶ 
<oby>? οἷόν τε ἣν ἐν τῇ ἄλλῃ τῇ ὑφ᾽ ἡλίω 8 τὸ a 
ig € 7) ἢ ἀλλῃ τῇ ὑφ᾽ ἡλίῳ 8 τοιοῦτον 
διαβιοῦν. καὶ οὔ μοι δοκεῖ μῦθος εἶναι. ἢ τί καὶ 
βουλόμενος ὁ ᾿Αλέξανδρος τοῦτο ἂν ἐτερατεύσατο 
κερδαίνων μηδὲ ἕν; ἄλλως τε οὐδ᾽ ἂν ἔπρεπεν 
ἀνδρὶ συνετῷ πρὸ τῆς ἀληθείας ποιήσασθαι τὸ 
Seater ἐπὶ κέρδει τῷ μεγίστῳ, μή τι γοῦν 
ἊΝ ᾿ τῶν ἐμάν εν τὰς ὑπὲρ τῶν τοιούτων 

€ ‘ 

, 24. H χελιδὼν ὅτε ὃ εὐποροίη πηλοῦ, τοῖς 
ὄνυξι, φέρει καὶ 'συμπλάτέει τὴν καλιάν: εἰ δὲ 
ἀπορία εἴη, ὡς “ApiororéAns λέγει, ἑαυτὴν βρέχει, 

Ἰ ? nn 
αὐτοῖς, 8 ὑποστρέφωσιν. 



grown bird is in want of food to give to its still un 

fledged and tender chicks, some accident having 
occasioned a shortage, the Stork disgorges its food of 
yesterday and feeds its young. And I am told that 

‘Herons do the same, and Pelicans also. 

I learn further that Storks migrate along with its migre- 

Cranes and all together avoid the winter. But when ἌΘΩΝ 
the season of frost is over and both Storks and Cranes 
return to their own homes, each kind recognises its 

own nests, as men do their own houses. 7 | 

Alexander of Myndus asserts that when they reach transformed 

old age they pass to the islands of Ocean and are ee 
transformed into human shape, and that this is a re- me 
ward for their filial piety towards their parents, since, 

if I am not mistaken, the gods especially desire to 

hold up there if nowhere else a human model of piety 

and uprightness, for in no other country under the 

sun could such a race continue to exist. This is in 

my opinion no fairy-tale, otherwise what was Alexan- 

der’s design in relating such marvels when he had 

nothing to gain from it? Anyhow it would have ill 

become an intelligent man to sacrifice truth to false- 

hood, be the gain never so great, still less if he was 

going to fall into an opponent’s grasp, from which 

act nothing whatsoever was to be gained. 

94. Whenever there is plenty of mud the Swallow The Swallow 

brings it in her claws and builds her nest. ifhow ΤΣ 
ever mud is lacking, as Aristotle says [HA 612 b 23], 

ih wer 

3 φησιν, τῶν πελαργῶν τοὺς ἅμα βιώσαντας. 
δ SY 

4 περιελθόντας. ws. 
ὃ et re> add. H. Ἰ <ody> add. Ges. 
8 Jac: ὑφηλίῳ. . 9. Ges: ὅταν. 





καὶ és κόνιν ἐμπεσοῦσα 1 φύρει τὰ πτερά, καὶ τοῦ 
πηλοῦ: περιπαγέντος, ἐντεῦθεν ὑπαποψήχουσα τῷ 
ῥάμφει τὴν προκειμένην οἰκοδομίαν. χειρουργεῖ. 
ἁπαλά τε ὄντα τὰ νεόττια καὶ τῶν πτίλων γυμνὰ 
οἷδε καλῶς ἐπὶ ψιλῶν καρφῶν εἰ ἀναπαύουτο ὅτι 
κολασθήσεται ἀλγοῦντα. οὐκοῦν ἐπὶ τὰ νῶτα τῶν 
προβάτων ἱζάνει, καὶ ἀποσπᾷ τοῦ μαλλοῦ, καὶ 
ἐντεῦθεν τοῖς ἑαυτῆς βρέφεσι τὸ λέχος μαλακὸν 

25. Δικαίους ἡ μήτηρ ἡ χελιδὼν τοὺς ἑαυτῆς 
νεοττοὺς ἐργάζεται, τὸ ἰσότιμον αὐτοῖς διὰ τῆς 
τροφῆς τῆς ἴσης φυλάττουσα: μίαν δὲ ἄρα οὐ 

᾽ “Ὁ 3 A 4 3 Α % 
κομίζει πᾶσιν, ἐπεὶ μηδὲ δύναται: ἀλλὰ μικρὰ 

3 Ὁ “- 
μὲν καὶ ὀλίγα ἐστὶν ὅσα ἄγει, τὸν πρῶτον δὲ 

; , ~ 4 7 \ A 353. 3 
τεχθέντα πρῶτον τρέφει, δεύτερον δὲ τὸν ἐπ 
ἐκείνῳ, καὶ τρίτον σιτίζει τὸν τῆς τρίτης ὠδῖνος, 
“-ο ,ὔ . “~ 
καὶ μέχρι τοῦ πέμπτου πρόεισι TOV τρόπον τοῦτον" 
οὔτε γὰρ κύει χελιδὼν πλείονας οὔτε τίκτει. 
4 ~ ~ ~~ “~ 

αὐτὴ δὲ τοσοῦτον κατασπᾷ τῆς τροφῆς, ὅσον ἂν 
ἐν τῇ καλιᾷ κερδᾶναι δυνηθῇ παραρρεῦσαν αὐτῇ. 

SZ δὲ ἐκβλέ 19 7 , ς “a 
βραδέως δὲ ἐκβλέπει Ta” ταύτης βρέφη, ws Kat 
τὰ τῶν κυνῶν σκυλάκια: πόαν δὲ κομίζει καὶ 


προσάγει, τὰ δὲ ὑπαναβλέπει, εἶτα ἀτρεμήσαντα 

. 357 “ἘΞ A 2; ’ ἊΝ -Ν > 4 
ὀλίγον ἐκπετήσιμα ὄντα πρόεισι THs καλιᾶς ἐπὶ 
: A . 4 7 δι ; 
τὴν νομήν. ταύτης τῆς πόας ἄνθρωποι: γενέσθαι 

ἐγκρατεῖς διψῶσι, καὶ ᾿ οὐδέπω * 

- τῆς σπουδῆς 

26 Of ὃ e- 93 ΕΝ a) 7 ae 
. ὑ €7fO7TES. εἰσὶν ὀρνίθων ATYVEOCTATOL, Και 

~ ΔΝ , ~ “κ᾿ : 
μοι δοκοῦσι τῶν προτέρων τῶν ἀνθρωπικῶν ἐν 

1 ἐμπεσοῦσα after πτερά. 



she souses herself in water and plunging into dust 
pefouls her feathers. Then when the mud has stuck 
to her all over, she scrapes it off by degrees with her 
beak and constructs her proposed dwelling. And as 

‘her young are tender and unfledged, she knows -full 

well that if she lets them rest on bare twigs, they will 
suffer and be in pain. Accordingly she settles on the 
packs of sheep, plucks some wool, and with it makes 
their bed soft for her offspring. 

95. The mother Swallow trains her young ones to The Swallow 
be just by carefully distributing food in equal por~ young 

tions. So she does not bring one meal for all, be- 
cause she is not able to do so, but brings small objects 
anda few at a time; she feeds the first-born first, 
after it the second, thirdly her third offspring, pro- 
ceeding as far as the fifth in the same way; for the 
Swallow neither conceives nor hatches more than five.. 
She herself only consumes as much food as she can 
obtain in the nest, that is, anything that is dropped 
beside it.. Her young are slow to open their eyes, in 
the same way as puppies. But she collects and 
brings a herb,? and they by degrees gain their sight ; 
then after remaining quiet for a while, when able to 
fly, they leave the nest to seek for food. Men long 
to possess this herb but have not yet obtained their 


26. Among birds Hoopoes are the most savage; 
and in my opinion it is due to the recollection of their 
4 Pliny (HN 8. 27; 25. 8) calls it chelidonia, t.e. Greater 
celandine. | | 
“2 καὶ τάν © . 8. Ges: τῆς νομῆς... 4 οὐδέπω νῦν. 



, \ 7 Α ᾿ ~ 
μνήμῃ καὶ μέντοι καὶ μίσει τοῦ γένους τοῦ τῶν 
»“" 7 \ 
γυναικῶν ὑποπλέκειν τὰς καλιὰς ἐν ταῖς ἐρήμοις 

4 “a 7 “- “ ἢ 
καὶ τοῖς πάγοις τοῖς ὑψηλοῖς" καὶ ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ 

προσιέναι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους αὐτῶν τοῖς βρέφεσιν οἵ- 
δε ἀντὶ τοῦ πηλοῦ χρίουσι τὰς καλιάς, ἀποπάτημα 
ἀνθρώπου περιβαλόντες, τῇ δυσωδίᾳ τε καὶ κακο- 
σμίᾳ ἀνείργοντες καὶ ἀναστέλλοντες τὸ ζῷον τὸ 
ἑαυτοῖς πολέμιον. ἔτυχε δὲ καὶ ἐν τῷ τείχους 1 
ἐρημοτέρῳ. ὅδε ὁ ὄρνις παιδοποιησάμενος ἔν τινι 
ῥήγματι λίθου ὑπὸ τοῦ χρόνου διαστάντι. οὐκοῦν 
ὁ τοῦ τείχους μελεδωνὸς ἰδὼν ἔνδον τὰ βρέφη 
κατήλειψε τὸν χηραμὸν τῷ πηλῷ. καὶ ὑποστρέψας 
ὁ ἔποψ, ὡς εἶδεν αὑτὸν ἀποκλεισθέντα, πόαν 

3 7 4 ᾽ὔ 
ἐκόμισε Ὁ Ὁ ὁ δὲ 
poe, καὶ προσήνεγκε τῷ πηλῷ" ὁ δὲ κατερρύη, 

~ \ ‘ € m~ 2 A 
καὶ προσῆλθε πρὸς τὰ αὑτοῦ ἐκεῖνος τέκνα, εἶτα 

> ἡ Ἁ 2 \ oy > > 
ἐπὶ {τὴν " νομὴν ἧξεν. αὖθις οὖν ὃ αὐτὸς ἐπήλει- 

2 1 ¢ 2 “Ὁ ΄ι 
ψεν ἄνθρωπος, καὶ 6° ὄρνις τῇ αὐτῇ πόᾳ ἀνέῳξε 
t v , 

TOV χηραμόν' καὶ τὸ τρίτον ἐπράχθη τὰ αὐτά. ὃ 
τοίνυν Τοῦ τείχους φύλαξ ἰδὼν τὸ πραττόμενον, 
τὴν πόαν ἀνελόμενος ἐχρῆτο οὐκ ἐς τὰ αὐτά, 
ἀλλ᾽ ἀνέῳγεν ὃ μηδέν of προσήκοντας θησαυρούς. 

21. SH ἹἸΠελοπόννησος λεόντων ἄγονός ἐστι" καὶ 
οἷα 9 εἰκὸς “Ὅμηρος πεπαιδευμένῃ φρενὶ συνιδὼν 
τοῦτο τὴν Ἄρτεμιν ἐκεῖθι θηρῶσαν. ἄδων εἶπεν 
ὅτι ἄρα ἔπεισι τόν τε ᾿Γαὔγετον καὶ τὸν ’"EpvpavOov 

. 7 J 1 3... 
τερπομένη κἄπροισι καὶ ὠκείῃς ἐλάφοισιν. 

1 τείχους A, τοῦ τ. most MSS. 

2 τήν» add. Η. 

ὃ ἡ 

4 θ , ΄- ᾿ς 
συντεθείσης τῆς πόας. 

5 ἀνοίγων. δ ὅσα γε. 




former existence as human beings and more especially 
from their hatred of the female sex,* that they build 
their nests in desolate regions and on high rocks; 
and to prevent human beings from getting near their 
young they smear their nests not with mud but with 
human excrement, and by dint of its disgusting and 
evil smell they repel and keep away the creature that 
is their enemy. | 
It happened that this bird had raised a family in 
the deserted part of a fortress, in the cleft of a stone 
that had split with age. So the guardian of the for- 
tress, observing the young birds inside, smeared the 

hole over with mud. When the Hoopoe returned - 

and saw itself excluded, it fetched a herb and applied 
τὸ to the mud. The mud was dissolved; the bird 
reached its young, and then flew off to get food. 50 
once again the man smeared the spot over, and the 
bird by means of the same herb opened the hole. 
And the same thing happened a third time. There- 
fore the guardian of the fortress, seeing what was 
done, himself gathered the herb and used it not for 

the same purpose ; instead he laid open treasures that. 

were none of his. 

97. The Peloponnese does not breed Lions, and The Pelo- 

Homer (as you would expect) with his trained intelli- 


evaid of 

gence realising the fact, says in singing of Artemis Lions 

and her hunting there that she passes over Taygetus b 
and Erymanthus 

‘ delighting in boars and swift-footed stags ’ 
| | [Od. 6. 104]. 

@ See 2. 3 n. | ᾿ 
> Mountain range to the W and S of Sparta.—Erymanthus, 

mt on the borders of Achaia and Arcadia. 


? 4 \ 
ἐπεὶ de 1 ἔρημα λεόντων τάδε τὰ ὄρη, καὶ μάλα ye 
εἰκότως οὐκ ἐμνήσθη αὐτῶν. 

28. ee δὲ ἐν τῇ Ἐρυθρᾷ θαλάττῃ ἰχθύς, 
καὶ ὅσα γε εἰδέναι ἐμέ, ἔθεντο Περσέα (οἵ 
ἐπιχώριοι ὄνομα αὐτῷ. καὶ ot μὲν “Ἕλληνες 

αὐτὸν οὕτω, καλοῦσι δὲ καὶ "ApaBes ὁμοίως τοῖς. 

“Ἕλλησι: Διὸς γὰρ υἱὸν καὶ ἐκεῖνοι ᾷδουσι τὸν 
Περσέα, καὶ ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ wad TOV ἰχθὺν, ὑμνοῦσι 
λέγεσθαι. μέγεθος μὲν οὖν ἐστι κατὰ τὸν ἀνθίαν 
τὸν μέγιστον, ἰδεῖν δὲ ὁ ὅμοιος λάβρακι: γρυπός γε 
μὴν ἡσυχῆ οὕτω, K καὶ ζώναις πεποίκιλται χρυσῷ 
προσεικασμέναις" ἄρχονται δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς κεφαλῆς 

ἐπικάρσιοι at ζῶναι, καὶ ἐς τὴν γαστέρα κατα- 

λήγουσι. πέφρακται δὲ ὀδοῦσι μεγάλοις καὶ 
πυκνοῖς. λέγεται δὲ ἰχθύων περιεῖναι ῥώμῃ TE 
σώματος καὶ βίᾳ ἀλλὰ οὐδὲ τόλμης οἱ. ἐνδεῖ. 
θήραν δὲ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἄγραν εἶπον ἀλλαχόθι. 

29. Ἢ πίώνη θαλάττιον ζῷον, καὶ ἔστι τῶν 
ὀστρείων. κέχηνε δὲ τῇ διαστάσει. τῶν περικει- 
μένων ὀστράκων, καὶ προτείνει σαρκίον ἐξ ἑ ἑαυτῆς 
οἱονεὶ δέλεαρ τοῖς παρανηχομένοις τῶν ἰχθύων. 
καρκίνος δὲ αὐτῇ παραμένει σύντροφός τε καὶ 

σύννομος. οὐκοῦν ὅταν τίς τῶν ἰχθύων προσνέῃ, 

ὁ δὲ ὑπένυξεν ἡσυχῆ αὐτήν: καὶ ἡ πίννη μᾶλλον 
ἀ ἄ ξεῦ ἑαυτήν, καὶ ἐδέξατο ἔσω τοῦ ἐπιόντος 
ἰχθύος τὴν κεφαλὴν (καθίησι γὰρ ὡς ἐπὶ τροφῇ) 
καὶ ἐσθίει αὐτήν. 

1 ἐπειδή. 3 <ol> add, Schn. 

α Not in any surviving work. 


And since these mountains are destitute of Lions he 
was quite right not to mention them. 

28. There occurs in the Red Sea a fish, and, so far The 

as I know, the people there have given it the name οὔ: τς 
Perseus. And the Greeks callit so, and the Arabians 
in like manner with the Greeks. For they too call 
Perseus the son of Zeus, and it is after him that 

they declare the fish is named. 75 size is that of the 

largest anthias; in appearance it is like a basse; its | 
nose is somewhat hooked, and it is dappled with rings 
as it were of gold round its body, and these rings be- 
gin at the head at right angles to it and cease at the 
belly. It is armed with large teeth set close. It 
is said to surpass other fish in the strength and power 
of its body, neither is it wanting in courage. How to 
fish for it and how to catch it I have explained else- 

99. The Pinna is a marine creature and belongs τὰ vine and 

the class of bivalves. It opens by parting the shells: 
that enclose it, and extends a small piece of its flesh. 
like a bait to fish that swim by. The Crab however 
remains by its side, sharing its food and its feeding-" | 
ground. Sowhensome fish comes swimming up, the 
Crab gives the Pinna a gentle prick, whereat the 
Pinna opens its shell wider and admits the head of the. 
approaching fish—for it lowers its head to feed—and 
eats it. | 


UN TAD ECD ao Gs tay SEE 


30. Ἦν δὲ dpa οἰκεῖα τῷ πεπαιδευμένῳ καὶ 
ταῦτα εἰδέναι. σοφώτατος ὁ κόκκυξ καὶ πλέκειν 
εὐπόρους ἐξ ἀπόρων μηχανὰς δεινότατος. ἑαυτῷ 
μὲν γὰρ συνεπίσταται ἐπφῳάζειν οὐ δυναμένῳ καὶ 
ἐκλέπειν διὰ ψυχρότητα τῆς ἐν τῷ σώματι 
συγκράσεως, ὥς φασιν. οὐκοῦν ὅταν τίκτῃ, οὔτε 
αὐτὸς νεοττιὰν ὑποπλέκει οὔτε τιθηνεῖται τὰ βρέφη, 
φυλάττει δὲ ἄρα τοὺς τῶν νεοττιῶν δεσπότας 
ἀφεστῶτας καὶ πλανωμένους, καὶ παρελθὼν ἐς 
καταγωγὴν ὀθνείαν ἐντίκτει. οὐ πάντων δὲ ὀρνί- 
θων καλιαῖς ἐπιπηδᾷ οὗτός γε, ἀλλὰ κορύδου καὶ 
φάττης καὶ χλωρίδος καὶ πάππου" τούτοις γὰρ 

? iY 
συνεπίσταται ὅμοια αὐτῷ wo τίκτουσι. καὶ κενῶν 
μὲν αὐτῶν οὐσῶν, οὐκ ἂν παρέλθοι" φῶν δὲ ἔνδον 
ὄντων εἶτα. μέντοι τὰ ἑαυτοῦ παρενέμιξεν.. ἐὰν 
δὲ ἢ πολλὰ τὰ ἐκείνων, τὰ μὲν ἐκκυλίσας ἠφάνισε, 
τὰ δὲ ἑαυτοῦ κατέλιπε, διαγνωσθῆναί τε καὶ 
φωραθῆναι δι᾿ “ὁμοιότητα μὴ δυνάμενα. καὶ ot 
μὲν ὄρνι ες οἱ προειρημένοι τὰ μηδέν σφισι 
προσήκοντα ἐκγλύφουσιν, ὑποπηγνύμενα δὲ ἐ ἐκεῖνα 
ἑαυτοῖς συνεγνωκότα τὴν νοθείαν ἐκπέτεταί τε καὶ 

παρὰ τὸν γεινάμενον στέλλεται: τῶν γὰρ πτερῶν. 

αὐτοῖς περιχυθέντων γνωρίξ εται ἀλλότρια. ὄντα, 
καὶ αἰκίζεται πικρότατα. ὁρᾶται 1 δὲ μίαν ὥραν 
τοῦ ἔτους τὴν ἀρίστην ὁ κόκκυξ' ἦρος γὰρ 
ὑπαρχομένου καὶ αὐτὸς ἐμφανής ἐστιν ἐς ἀνατολὰς 
Σειρίου, εἶτα τῆς τῶν πολλῶν ὄψεως ἀνεχώρησεν. 

Tria ateitalihhilirinbe the daleseetehthdevetertebact: 

atrittencote toe deltes tanAbnocibubintiidinaaspararreiniecns bos 

PATA ARAN ARE Bore ee Rtn apc ptt abbblppeniee bmn ye νορλοσυ στννοντ νος σναλννουαινν νον ts ne 

ee aa rae tne tnn 7mm myn annem a here eat 


30. It seems after all fitting that an educated man The Cuckoo 

should be acquainted with these facts as well.. The 
Cuckoo is extremely clever and most adroit at devis- 
ing ingenious solutions to difficulties. For the bird is 
conscious that it cannot brood and hatch eggs because 
of the cold nature of its bodily constitution, so they. 
say. Therefore, when it lays its eggs, it neither builds 
itself a nest nor nurses its young, but watches until 

birds that have nestlings are flown and abroad, enters 

the strange lodging, and there lays its eggs. The 
rascal does not however assail the nests of all birds, 
only those of the lark, the ring-dove, the greenfinch, 
and the pappus,* knowing as it does that these birds 
lay. eggs resembling its own. And if the nests are 

empty, it will not go near them, but if they contain 

eggs, then it mixes its own with them. But if the 
egos of the other bird are numerous, it rolls them out 
and destroys them and leaves its own behind, their 
resemblance making it impossible to know them 
apart and detect them. And the aforesaid birds 
hatch the eggs which are none of theirs. But when 
the Cuckoo's young have grown strong and are con- 
scious of their bastardy, they fly away and resort to 

their parent. For directly they are fledged they are 


recognised as alien and are grievously ill-treated. 

The Cuckoo is seen only at one season, and that the 
best, of the year. For it is actually visible from the 
beginning of spring until the rising of the Dog-star ; ὃ 
after that it withdraws from the sight of man. 

31. ᾿Αλεκτρυόνα φοβεῖται λέων. καὶ βασιλίσκος 
δὲ τὸν αὐτὸν ὄρνιν, ὥς φασιν, ὀρρωδεῖ, καὶ κατιδὼν 
τρέμει, καὶ ἀκούων ἄδοντος σπᾶταί τε καὶ ἀποθνή- 

81. The Lion dreads a Cock, and the Basilisk tao: The Cock, 

they say, goes in fear of the same bird: at the sight feared by’ 
of one it shudders, and at the sound of its crowing it Basilisk 
@ Unknown bird. > About mid-J uly. 

τ tC εκ 
καὶ ὁρᾶται. 

a 193 


BORAT SLICES EBSLLERERLEUSTONS EMS PELL TAA OT EMNLRIE RATE BOREL MCE Mt  λβεέννοξ ϑϑϑαυ σονωυτωοανανατισυντσσπλλη, δ ονασταστιαπαυοο πα σσυμουνασκνανο nde neces 




-- 2 A e 4 7 e ~ 
σκει. ταῦτα dpa καὶ ot τὴν Λιβύην ὁδοιποροῦντες 
τὴν τῶν τοιούτων τροφὸν δέει τοῦ προειρημένου 


᾽ ᾿ ν 
βασιλίσκου εἶτα μέντοι συνέμπορον καὶ κοινωνὸν 

“«-ς ς “- 4 > fd 3 Ff Φ > \ 
τῆς ὁδοῦ Tov ἀλεκτρυόνα ἐπάγονται, ὁσπερ οὖν TO 

“- 29 f > - 
τηλικοῦτον κακὸν ἀπαλλάξει αὐτοῖς. 

32. Ἢ Κρήτη καὶ τοῖς λύκοις καὶ τοῖς ἑρπετοῖς 
θηρίοις ἐχθίστη ἐστίν. ἀκούω <dé>1 Θεοφράστου 
λέγοντος καὶ ἐν τῷ Μακεδονικῷ ᾿Ολύμπῳ τοῖς 
λύκοις ἄβατα εἶναι. αἶγες δὲ ἄρα αἱ Ἱζεφαλληνίδες 

οὐ πίνουσι μηνῶν ἕξ. οἷς δὲ Bovdwas? οὐκ ὄψει 

7 a é \ ͵ , 

λευκάς, ὥς φασι, μελαίνας δὲ πάσας. διαφορότης 
: “- , f , Ἅ 
δὲ ἄρα τῶν ζῴων καὶ ἰδιότης εἴη ἂν καὶ ταύτῃ" 
4 ~ ? 4 
τὰ μὲν yap αὐτῶν ἐστι δακετὰ καὶ evinow ἀπὸ 
~ ὃ ’, “ λ \ 3 ὃ \ @¢& f 
τοῦ ὀδόντος φάρμακον, βλητικὰ 8 δὲ ὅσα παίσαντα 
εἶτα μέντοι καὶ ἐκεῖνα τὸ Σ τοιοῦτον κακὸν 

33. Ἢ Λίβυσσα δ᾽ ἀσπίς, ἀκούω, τὸν πρὸς τὸ 

φύσημα αὐτῆς ἀντιβλέψαντα ὅ τυφλοῖ τὴν ὄψιν" 

ἡ δὲ ἄλλη οὐ τυφλοῖ μέν, ἀποκτείνει δὲ ῥᾷστα. 
Λέγονται δὲ βόες ᾿᾽Ηπειρωτικαὶ πλεῖστον ὅσον 
ἀμέλγεσθαι καὶ αἶγες αἱ Σκύριαι γάλα ἀφθονώτα- 
τον παρέχειν, ὅσον οὐκ ἄλλαι αἶγες. αἱ δὲ 
Αἰγύπτιαι ἔστιν at® πέντε ἀποτίκτουσι,7 Kat αἱ 
πλεῖσται δίδυμα. λέγεται δὲ αἴτιος ὁ Νεῖλος 
εἶναι, εὐτεκνότατον παρέχων ὕδωρ. ἔνθεν τοι καὶ 
τῶν νομέων τοὺς ἄγαν φιλοκάλους καὶ τῆς ποίμνης 


τῆς σφετέρας ἔχοντας πεφροντισμένως ὕδωρ ἐκ 

΄-.- / a ξ ΄- 3 ᾽ ¥ “~ 
τοῦ Νείλου ταῖς ἑαυτῶν ἀγέλαις ἄγειν μηχανῇ 

1 28> add. H. 2 ᾿Αβυδηνάς. 
8 Schn: βλητά. £7. ᾿ 


is seized with convulsions and dies. This is why 
travellers in Libya, which is the nurse of such. mon- 
sters, in fear of the aforesaid Basilisk take with them 
a Cock as companion and partner of their journey to 
protect themselves from so terrible an infliction. 

32. Crete is exceedingly hostile to wolves and rep- a pecu- ᾿ 
tiles; and I learn from Theophrastus ὅ that there are ae 
places on Macedonian Olympus where wolves do not 
go. Goats in Cephallenia go without drinking for six 
months. Among the Budini,® they say, you will not 
see a white sheep: they are all black. 

It seems that one peculiarity that distinguishes 
animals consists in this: some bite and inject poison 
from a fang, while others are given to striking, and 
having struck also inject a like deadly substance. 

33. The Libyan Asp, I am told, blinds the sight of The Asp in 
the man who faces its breath. But the other kind ”” 
does not indeed blind but kills at once. 

It is said that the Cows of Epirus give a most 
copious supply of milk, and the Goats of Scyros a far Goats in 
more generous yield than any other goats. And ve 
there are Goats in Egypt that produce quintuplets, in Egypt 
while most produce twins. The Nile is said to be the 
cause of this, as the water it provides is extremely 
progenitive. For that reason shepherds who like fine 
flocks and devote much care to them have a device 
for drawing as much water as is possible from the Nile 

α There is no such statement in his extant remains. 
_> The Budini were a tribe living N of the Sea of Azov. 

ὅ ἀντιβλέψαντα ὅταν πρησθῇ τὸν τράχηλον. 
6 ἑκάστη. Ἱ ἀποτίκτει. 




ὅσον δυνατόν ἐ €07Tt, Kat ταῖς γε στερίφαις 1 ἔτι καὶ 


84. Πτολεμαίῳ τῷ δευτέρῳ φασὶν ἐξ ᾿Ινδῶν 
κέρας ἐκομίσθη, καὶ τρεῖς ἀμφορέας ἐχώρησεν. 
οἷος 5 ἄρα ὁ βοῦς ἦν, ὡς ἐκπεφυκέναι οὗ τηλικοῦτον 

35. Περδίκων φθέγμα ἕν οὐδέποτ᾽ ἂν ἀκούσειας 3 

ἁπάντων, ἀλλὰ ἔστι διάφορα. καὶ ᾿Αθήνησί γε 

οἱ ἐπέκεινα τοῦ KopvdaMewy δήμου ἄλλο ὦ 
ἠχοῦσι, καὶ Ob ἐπίταδε ἄλλο. τίνα δέ ἐστι τοῖς 
φθέγμασι τὰ ὀνόματα, ἐρεῖ Θεόφραστος. ἐν δὲ 
τῇ Βοιωτίᾳ καὶ τῇ ἀντιπέρας Εὐβοίᾳ ὁμόφωνοί τέ 
εἰσι καὶ ὡς ἂν εἴποι τις ὁμόγλωττοι. ἄφωνα δέ 
ἐστι τὸ παράπαν ἐν Pan μὲν οἱ βάτραχοι, ἐν 

. Μακεδονίᾳ δὲ ὗς. καὶ τεττίγων τι γένος, ἄφωνοι 

καὶ οὗτοι . 

96. Dévos φαλαγγίου φασὶν εἶναι, καλοῦσι δὲ 
ῥᾶγα τὸ φαλάγγιον, εἴτε ὅτι μέλαν ἐστὶ καὶ τῷ 
ὄντι προσέοικε σταφυλῆς p ῥαγὶ καί πως ὁρᾶται καὶ 
περιφερές, εἴτε δι᾽ αἰτίαν ἑτέραν ὅ γίνεται δὲ ἐν 

τῇ Λιβύῃ, καὶ ἔχει πόδας μικρούς ὃ στόμα δὲ 

f ; 
εἴληχεν ἐν μέσῃ. τῇ γαστρί, καὶ ἔστιν ἀποκτεῖναι 

37. Ἔν Σιερίφῳ βάτραχοι, τὸ παράπαν οὐκ ἂν. 

αὐτῶν ἀκούσειας " φθεγγομένων: εἰ δὲ avrovs 
κομίσειας ἡ ἀλλαχόθι, διάτορόν τε ὃ καὶ τραχύτα- 
1 σταῖς στερίφαις | γε." 
3 οὐδέποτε ἀκούσαις. 


3. ὅσος conj. H, οὗτος AL. 


for their herds, especially for animals that are. 
barren. | 

. 34. They say hak. a horn was brought from the A wonderful 
Indies to Ptolemy II, and it held three amphorae. a 
Imagine an ox that could produce a horn of that size, 

35. You would never hear the same note from all The _ 
Partridges, but they vary. At Athens for instance *°*"°6° 
those on the far side of the deme Corydallus emit one 
note, those on this side another. What names these 
notes have Theophrastus will tell us [fr. 181]. But 
in Boeotia and on the opposite shore of Euboea they 
have the same note and, as it were, the same lan- 
guage. In Cyrene the Frogs are completely dumb ; 
in Macedonia, the Pigs; and there is also a kind. of 
Cicada that is dumb. 

36. There is a kind of Spider which they call the The Grepe- 
‘ Grape-spider,’ either because it is dark and does in *"°* 
fact resemble a grape in a bunch—it has a somewhat 

_ spherical appearance—or for some other reason. It 

occurs in Libya and has short legs; it has a mouth in 
the middle of its belly, and can kill in a twinkling. 

37. In Seriphus you will never hear the Frogs abe tees 
croaking at all. 1 however you transport them else- ρον 
where, they emit a piercing and most harsh sound.. 

® About 26 gallons. 

4 ἄλλο ye. 

5 ἑτέραν, καταγνῶναι τοῦτο ῥᾷον οὐκ ἐστι. 
6 Ges: μακρούς. 1 ἀκούσαις. 
8 κομίσαις. ᾿ 9. χι, 



tov ἠχοῦσιν. ἐν ἸΤΠιέρῳ δὲ τῆς Θετταλίας λίμνη 3 
ἐστίν, οὐκ ἀέναος, ἀλλὰ χειμῶνος ἐκ τῶν συρ- 
ρεόντων ἐς αὐτὴν ὑδάτων τίκτεται. οὐκοῦν ἐὰν 
> 7 ἡ ~ 
ἐμβάλῃ τις βατράχους ἐς αὐτήν, σιωπῶσιν, 
3 A ,ὔ ς " \ ~ 7, 
ἀλλαχοῦ φθεγγόμενοι. ὑπὲρ δὲ τῶν Lepipiwv 
βατράχων κομπάζουσι Σερίφιοι ἐλθεῖν ἐκ τοῦ 

‘ aA 7 + ‘ 7, : \ 
κατὰ τῆς Γοργόνος ἄθλου τὸν Περσέα πολλὴν 
περιελθόντα γῆν, καὶ οἷα εἰκὸς καμόντα ἀνα- 
παύσασθαι τῆς λίμνης πλησίον καὶ κατακλινῆναι 
ὕπνου δεόμενον. τοὺς δὲ βατράχους βοᾶν καὶ 
ἐρεσχελεῖν τὸν ἥρωα καὶ τὸν ὕπνον αὐτῷ διακόπ- 
τειν 2. τὸν Περσέα δὲ εὔξασθαι τῷ πατρὶ τοὺς 
βατράχους κατασιγάσαι. τὸν δὲ ὑπακοῦσαι καὶ 
χαριζόμενον τῷ υἱεῖ τῶν ἐκεῖθι βατράχων αἰώνιον 
συγὴν καταψηφίσασθαι. λέγει δὲ Θεόφραστος 
2 7 i “~ 3 / ro 3 / 
ἐκβάλλων τὸν μῦθον καὶ Σεριφίους τῆς ἀλαζονείας 
παραλύων τὴν τοῦ ὕδατος ψυχρότητα αἰτίαν εἶναι 
“Ο 3 τ -“» ΄ 
τῆς ἀφωνίας τῶν προειρημένων. 

38 Ἢ; Η a e “ τι Ψ»Ἰ / . 
. "Ev τοῖς ὑγροῖς χωρίοις καὶ ἔνθα νοτιώτα- 
€ FA 7 ε ᾿ 

τος ἢ ὁ ἀὴρ ὑπεράγαν, ot ἀλεκτρυόνες οὐκ ᾷδουσι, 
. Θ 7 : ξ δὲ 9 Φ » λί 9 7 

φησὶ Θεόφραστος. ἡ δὲ ἐν Φενεῷ λίμνη ἰχθύων 

» 7 > 

ayoves ἐστι. ψυχροὶ δὲ ἄρα ὄντες THY σύγκρασιν 
ς 7 ~ 

ot τέττιγες εἶτα μέντοι πυρούμενοι TH ἡλίῳ * 

ἄδουσιν, ἐκεῖνος λέγει. 

39. Τολμηρότατος ὃ {δὲ ἄρα ζῴων 6 αἰγιθήλας 
v> τῶν μὲν γὰρ ὀρνίθων ὑπερῴφρονεϊῖ τῶν μικρῶν, 
ἐπιτίθεται δὲ ταῖς αἰξὶ κατὰ τὸ καρτερόν, καὶ 

/ \\7 ~ Ha > “A ᾽ὔ 
μέντοι ζκαϊδ' τοῖς οὔθασιν αὐτῶν προσπετόμενος 


1 Ges: λίμνη 7. 
3. διακόπτειν καὶ λυπεῖν δηλονότι. 



On mount Pierus in Thessaly there is a lake; it is not 
perennial but is created in winter by the waters which 
flow together into it. Now if one throws Frogs into 
it they become silent, though vocal elsewhere. 
Touching the Seriphian Frogs the people of Seriphus 

boast that Perseus arrived from his contest with the and Perseus » 

Gorgon after covering an immense distance, and being 
naturally fatigued rested by the lake side and lay 
down wishing to sleep. The Frogs however worried 
the hero with their croaking and interrupted his 
slumbers. But Perseus prayed to his father to silence 
the Frogs. His father gave ear and to gratify his son 
condemned the Frogs there to everlasting silence. 
Theophrastus however upsets the story [ fr. 186] and 
relieves the Seriphians of their imposture by asserting 
that it is the coldness of the water that causes the 
aforesaid Frogs to be dumb. 

38. In moist places and where the air is excessively Local pecu- 

damp Cocks do not crow, according to Theophrastus ' 
(fr. 187]. And the lake at Pheneus produces no fish. 
It is because Cicadas are constitutionally cold that, 
when warmed by the sun, they sing, says the same 

39. It seems that the Goatsucker is the most The Goat- 

audacious of creatures, for it despises small birds but 
assails goats with the utmost violence, and more than 
that, it flies to their udders and sucks out the milk 

ὃ νοτιῶτε ρος. 

4 Jac: πυρουμένου τοῦ ἡλίου. 

5 τολμηρότατον Ges, τολμηρότερον. 
6 “δές add. Η. 

7. <xat> add. Η. 



εἶτα expvld τὸ γάλα, Kal τὴν τιμωρίαν τὴν ἐκ 
τοῦ αἰπόλου οὐ δέδοικε, καΐτοι πονηρότατον 
αὐταῖς μισθὸν ὑπὲρ τῆς πλησμονῆς ἀποδιδούς" 
τυφλοῖ γὰρ τὸν μαστόν,Σ καὶ ἀποσβέννυσι τὴν 
ἐκεῖθεν ἐπιρροήν. β 

40. Μητροδίδακτον μὲν τὸν τῆς ᾿Αρήτης 3 υἱὸν 

\ “᾿ π᾿ “a aA 
τὸν τῆς ἀδελφῆς τῆς ᾿Αριστίππου ὑμνοῦσιν ot 

πολλοί: λέγει δὲ ᾿Αριστοτέλης ἰδεῖν αὐτὸς τὰ 

νεόττια τῆς ἀηδόνος ὑπὸ τῆς μητρὸς διδασκόμενα 
ἄδειν. ἦν δὲ apa ὀρνίθων ἡ. ἀηδὼν ἐλευθερίας 
ἐράστρια ἰσχυρῶς, καὶ διὰ ταῦτα ἡ ἐντελὴς τὴν 
ἡλικίαν ὅταν θηραθῇ καὶ καθειργμένη ἢ,2 δῆς ὃ 
ἀπέχεται, καὶ ἀμύνεται τὸν ὀρνιθοθήραν ὑπὲρ τῆς 
δουλείας τῇ σιωπῆ. οὗπερ οὖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι 
πεπειραμένοι, τὰς μὲν ἤδη πρεσβυτέρας ὃ μεθιᾶσι, 
σπουδάζουσι δὲ θηρᾶν τὰ νεόττια.. 

Ὁ 7 “-“᾿ . 
41. Ἵππους μονόκερως γῆ ᾿Ινδικὴ τίκτει, φασί, 
: 1 » / ᾿ ; 
καὶ ὄνους μονόκερως ἡ αὐτὴ τρέφει, Kal γίνεταί 
> “- ; ~ 
ye ἐκ τῶν κεράτων τῶνδε ἐκπώματα. Kal εἴ τις 
> 29 \ 2 (λ 7 θ Ἢ ΟΝ, ΟΜ 
ἐς αὐτὰ ἐμβάλοι φάρμακον θανατηφόρον, ὁ πιών, 

ON ¢ 5 4 
οὐδὲν ἡ ἐπιβουλὴ λυπήσει αὐτόν: ἔοικε yap 
3 “- “- “- , 
ἀμυντήριον τοῦ κακοῦ τὸ κέρας καὶ τοῦ ἵππου καὶ 

a > 
TOU OVOU εἰναι. 

¢ / : | 
42. ‘OQ  πορφυρίων ὡραιότατός τε ἅμα Kal 
,ὔ 4 2 : 
φερωνυμώτατός ἐστι ζῴων, καὶ χαίρει κονιόμενος, 

1 3 ~ 7 
ἐκ τοῦ γάλακτος. 
2 ᾿ ¢ é La ba] 
μαστὸν ὅταν σπάσῃ MSS, ὃν ἂν σ΄ Jac. 
8 Cas: ᾿Αρίστης. 
> “a 
4. ἢ ἐν τῷ οἰκίσκῳ φυλάττεται. 


without any fear of vengeance from the goatherd, 
although it makes the basest return for being filled 
with milk, for it makes the dug ‘blind’ and staunches 
its flow. " 7 | 

40. Many people sing the praises of the son of The | 

Arete; the sister of Aristippus, as being taught by “#478 
his mother. Aristotle says [HA 536b17] that he 
has with his own eyes seen the young of the Night- 
ingale being instructed by their mother how to sing. 
It seems that the Nightingale passionately loves its 
freedom, and for that reason when a mature bird is 
caught and confined in a cage, it refrains from song 
and takes vengeance on the birdcatcher for its en- 
slavement by silence. Consequently men who have 
had this experience let them go when they are older 
and do their best to catch the young. 

41. India produces horses with one horn, they say, ‘The Horn 
and the same country fosters asses with a single horn. pe 
And from these horns they make drinking-vessels, 
and if anyone puts a deadly poison in them and a man 

drinks, the plot will do him no harm. For it seems 

_ that the horn poth of the horse and of the ass is an 

antidote to the poison. 

42. The Purple Coot is the most beautiful and the The Purple 
« 7 < ᾿ τῷ Coot 
most appropriately named of creatures, and it de- 

@ Arete was the daughter, not the sister, of Aristippus, and 
her son was called after his grandfather. 

δ 4 “ \ IRA 
καὶ τροφῶν Kat φδῆς. 
8 πρεσβυτέρας καὶ ἁλούσας. 



ἤδη δὲ καὶ λοῦται τὸ τῶν περιστερῶν λουτρόν" 
οὐ πρότερον δὲ ἑαυτὸν ἐπιδίδωσι ταῖς κονίστραις 
καὶ τοῖς λουτροῖς, πρὶν ἂν βαδίσῃ τινὰ ἀριθμὸν 
βαδίσεων 3 ἀρκοῦντά οἷ. συτούμενος δὲ ἐπὶ μαρτύ- 
ρων ἄχθεται, καὶ διὰ ταῦτα ἀναχωρεῖ, καὶ 

ὑπολανθάνων ἐσθίει. ζηλότυπος δέ ἐστιν ἰσχυρῶς, 

καὶ τὰς ὑπάνδρους. τῶν γυναικῶν παραφυλάττει, 
καὶ ἐὰν καταγνῷ μοιχεύεσθαι τῆς οἰκίας τὴν 
δέσποιναν, ἀπάγχει ἑαυτόν. οὐ πέτεται δὲ ὑψηλός. 
χαίρουσί γε μὴν ot ἄνθρωποι αὐτῷ, καὶ τρέφουσι 
πεφεισμένως καὶ προμηθῶς αὐτόν. καὶ ἔοικεν ἢ 
σοβαρᾶς οἰκίας καὶ μέγα πλουσίας ἄθυρμα εἶναι, 
ἢ ὑποδέχεται νεὼς αὐτόν, καὶ ἄφετος ἁλᾶται καὶ 
ἱερὸς περίεισιν ἔσω περιβόλου. τὸν ταῶν μὲν 
οὖν ὡραῖον ὄντα καὶ καταθύουσι καὶ σιτοῦνται οἱ 
ἄσωτοι: τοῦ γὰρ ὄρνιθος τὰ μὲν πτερὰ κόσμος 
ἐστί, τὸ δὲ σῶμα ἢ τι ἢ οὐδέν. πορφυρίωνα δὲ 
οὐκ οἷδα καταθύσαντα οὐδένα ἐπὶ δείπνῳ, οὐ 
Καλλίαν οὐ Κτήσιππον τοὺς ᾿Αθηναίους, οὐ 
Λεύκολλον οὐχ ὋὉρτήσιον τοὺς “Ρωμαίους: 
εἶπον δὲ ὀλίγους ἐκ πολλῶν ἀσώτους καὶ ἄκρατε- 
στάτους τῇ τε ἄλλῃ καὶ μέντοι καὶ περὶ γαστέρα. 

¢ ? εξ 7 
43. Ὃ κόραξ 6 ἤδη γέρων ὅταν μὴ δύνηται 
f ‘ “σι 
τρέφειν τοὺς νεοττούς, ἑαυτὸν αὐτοῖς προτείνει 
7 ε x 3 
τροφήν. ot δὲ ἐσθίουσι τὸν πατέρα. καὶ τὴν 
1 λούεται. 2 βαδίσεως. 
3. Jac: ἢν τι οὐδέν. 
4 λεύκουλλον most MSS, εὔκολον A. 

* Callias: end of 5th cent. B.c., a wealthy and frivolous 
Athenian. Both Xenophon and Plato lay the scene of their 



lights to dust itself, and it also bathes just as pigeons 
do. But it does not devote itself to the dusting- 
place or to the bath until it has walked a certain 
number of paces to satisfy itself. It cannot bear 

being seen feeding, and for that reason it retires and — 

eats in concealment. It is violent in its jealousy and 
keeps a close watch on the mated female birds, and 
if it discovers the mistress of its house to be adul- 
terous, it strangles itself. It does not fly high. Yet 
men take pleasure in it and tend it with care and 
consideration. And apparently it is either a pet 
in a sumptuous and opulent household, or else it is 
admitted into a temple and roams unconfined, moving 
about as a sacred creature within the precinct.. 

The Peacock on the contrary, which is a beautiful The 

bird, is killed and eaten by voluptuaries. The 
feathers of this bird are a decoration, though its body 
is of little or no account. But I never heard of any- 
one killing a Purple Coot for a meal, not Callias* 
nor Ctesippus the Athenians, not Lucullus nor 
Hortensius the Romans. I have named but a few 
out of many who were luxurious and insatiate in other 
ways but especially where their bellies were con- 



᾿ς 48, When the Raven on reaching old age can no The Raven 

longer feed its young, it offers itself as their food; 
and they eat their father. And this is alleged to be 

Symposia at his house.—Ctesippus, pleasure-loving Athenian, 
defended by Demosthenes in his speech against Leptines; 
became a butt for Comic poets.—Lucullus: Ist cent. Β.0.; 
conqueror of Mithridates; his name became proverbial for 
wealth.—Hortensius: Ist cent. 3.c., famous as an orator, the 
rival of Cicero, and possessor of immense wealth. 


old age 


. ἢ 3 af) 7 x 7 - A. 
παροιμίαν ἐντεῦθέν φασι τὴν γένεσιν λαβεῖν τὴν 
λέγουσαν ἱκακοῦ κόρακος κακὸν φόν. 

_ 44. Σωφρονέσταται ὀρνίθων ai φάτται ἄδονται. 
ὁ γοῦν ἄρρην καὶ ὁ θῆλυς συνδυασθέντες καὶ 
οἱονεὶ συμπνεύσαντες ἐς γάμον ἀλλήλων ἔχονται 
καὶ σωφρονοῦσι, καὶ οὐκ ἂν ὀθνείου λέχους 
οὐδέτερος ἅψαιτο τῶν ὀρνίθων τῶνδε. ἐὰν δὲ 
ἐποφθαλμιάσωσιν ἑτέροις, περιέρχονται αὐτοὺς οἱ 
λουποῖ, καὶ τὸν μὲν ἄρρενα οἱ ὁμογενεῖς διασπῶσιν, 
at θήλειαι δὲ τὸν θῆλυν. οὗτος ἄρα 6 τῆς σωφρο- 
σύνης νόμος καὶ ἐς τὰς τρυγόνας ἀφικνεῖται καὶ 
ἄτρεπτος μένει, ἢ πλὴν τοῦ «(μὴ)» θανατοῦσθαι 
ae 3 ‘ "7 3 

᾿᾿εκάτερον TOV ὄρνιν: ἐπεὶ τὸν μὲν ἄρρενα ἄναι- 
ροῦσι, τὸν δὲ θῆλυν ᾧκτειραν καὶ εἴασαν ἀπαθῆ, 

καὶ περίεισι χῆρος. 

45, ᾿Αριστοτέλης λέγει τῶν περιστερῶν τοὺς 3 
ἄρρενας ταῖς θηλείαις ταῖς τικτούσαις συνωδίνειν 
καὶ ἀλωμένας τῆς καλιᾶς ἔξω συνωθεῖν τε καὶ 
συνελαύνειν, καὶ ὅταν τέκωσιν, ἐπῳάζειν ἐκβιάξε- 
σθαι. θάλπειν δὲ ὁ καὶ τοὺς ἄρρενας τὰ νεόττια 
καὶ συνεκτρέφειν ὅ ταῖς θηλείαις 6 αὐτός φησι, 
καὶ ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ κακοσίτους εἶναι τοὺς νεοττοὺς 
πρώτην τροφὴν διδόναι δ τοῖς βρέφεσι τοὺς γει- 
ναμένους ἁλμυρίδα γῆν, ἧσπερ οὖν γευσάμενα εἶτα 
μέντοι καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν σιτεῖσθαι ἑτοίμως τὸ 
ἐντεῦθεν αὐτά. δοκεῖ δέ πως ταῖς περιστεραῖς 7 
πρὸς μὲν τοὺς ἄλλους ὄρνιθας τοὺς ἁρπακτικοὺς 
ἔνσπονδα εἶναι, τοὺς μέντοι ἁλιαέτους καὶ τοὺς 

1 7 +2 4 4 \ 7 
μένει καὶ ES TAS “περιστερᾶς τὰς λευκάς. 

2. «μήν add. Η. 



sae eve petennsncone oN μβμελοσω Ae nbd Lh. 

hasan eee email reer κι μμαμαπουτονσυνλοσατοσλνε a atynniet inked bien nDinenihié bebe 

sean cionrai abet panmanatannsnant tenn ως, 

ΟΝ» ιν 


the origin of the proverb which says ‘ A bad egg of a 

bad raven.’ 


44, Ringdoves are celebrated’ as the most con- eae 

tinent of birds. For instance, when once the male 
and the female have paired and are, so to say; of one 
mind to wed, they cling to one another and are : 
continent, and neither bird would touch a strange 
bed. If however they cast amorous glances at other 
birds, the rest gather round them and the ἀν 5 
torn to pieces by those of his own sex, the female by 
the females. This then is the law of continence 
which extends to doves and remains unchanged, | 
except that they do not put to death both ΠΗ : | 
when they kill the male they take compassion on the | 
female and leave her unharmed ; and she goes about, 

a widow. ; ᾿ ; | 

45. Aristotle says [HA 613 a1] that male Pigeons The Pigeon 
share the birth-pangs of the females, and if they 
wander from the nest the males will push and drive 
them in; and when they have laid their eggs the 
males will force them to brood them. But the male 
birds also keep the chicks warm and help the females 
to feed them, according to the same writer. And to 
prevent the chicks from being underfed the parents 
begin by giving them saline earth, so that when they 
have tasted it, they then readily eat the rest of their 
food. It would seem that there is a treaty of peace 
between Pigeons and such others as are birds of prey, 
but they are said to live in fear of sea-eagles and 

3 καὶ τού 4 χε. 
ὅ earn ΓΝ 8 ἐγδιδόναι. 
1 Jac: περιστεραῖς τὸ ἐντεῦθεν. re 


, ¢ / ΄ 
κίρκους ὡς πεφρίκασί φασι. πρὸς δὲ τοὺς ἱέρακας. 

οἷα παλαμῶνται ἀκοῦσαι ἄξιον. ὅταν μὲν αὐτὰς 
διώκῃ 6 μετάρσιός τε καὶ ἐς ὕψος πεφυκὼς πέ- 
τέσθαι, αἱ δὲ ὑπολισθάνουσι 1 καὶ κατωτέρω 
ἑαυτὰς καθέλκουσι καὶ τὸ πτερὸν 5: πειρῶνται 
πιέζειν. ὅταν δὲ 6 κατωτέρω λαχὼν ἐκ τῆς 
φύσεως τὴν πτῆσιν, αἱ δὲ αἴρονταί τε καὶ μετεωρο- 
ποροῦσι, καὶ ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ πετόμεναι θαρροῦσιν 
ἀνωτέρω ἄξαι μὴ δυναμένου. ᾿ 

> ? / 
: 46. Ἐλέφαντος πωλίῳ περιτυγχάνει λευκῷ πω- 
᾿ + 
εὐτὴς hides, καὶ παραλαβὼν ἔτρεφεν ἔτι νεαρόν, 
3 7 
καὶ κατὰ μικρὰ ἀπέφηνε χειροήθη, καὶ ἐπωχεῖῦτο 
αὐτῷ, καὶ ἦρα τοῦ κτή i ἁ iro, ἀνθ᾽ 
ἀμ: Ὥρα τοῦ κτήματος καὶ ἀντηρᾶτο, ἀνθ 
ὧν ἐ ρεψε τὴν ἀμοιβὴν κομιζόμενος ἐκεῖνος. 6 
τοίνυν βασιλεὺς τῶν ᾿Ινδῶν πυθόμενος ἤτει λαβεῖν 
τὸν ἐλέφαντα. 6 δὲ ὡς ἐρώ ζηλο 
: α. ὁ δὲ ὡς ἐρώμενος ζηλοτυπῶν καὶ 
~ >. 
μέντοι {καὶ ᾿ περιαλγῶν εἰ ἔμελλε δεσπόσειν 
- 3 
αὐτοῦ ἄλλος, οὐκ ἔφατο δώσειν, καὶ ᾧχετο ἀπιὼν 
Ἁ i 
ἐς τὴν ἔρημον, ἀναβὰς τὸν ἐλέφαντα. ἀγανακτεῖ 
ὃ βασιλεύς, καὶ πέμπει κατ᾽ αὐτοῦ τοὺς ἀφαιρησο- 
μένους καὶ ἅμα Kat τὸν ᾿Ϊνδὸν ἐπὶ τὴν δίκην ἄξον- 

3 \ \ Ὁ 3 “~ 
Tas. ἐπεὶ de ἧκον, ἐπειρῶντο βίαν * προσφέρειν. - 

οὐκοῦν καὶ ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἔβαλλεν αὐτοὺς ἄνωθεν 

καὶ τὸ θηρίον ὡς ἀδικούμενον συνημύνετο. καὶ ΠΣ 
μέν πρῶτα ἦν τοιαῦτα" ἐπεὶ δὲ βληθεὶς ὃ ᾿Ινδὸς 
κατώλισθε, περιβαίνει μὲν τὸν τροφέα 6 ἐλέφας 
κατὰ τοὺς ὑπερασπίζοντας ἐν τοῖς ὅπλοις, καὶ τῶν 
ἐπιόντων πολλοὺς ἀπέκτεινε, τοὺς δὲ ious: 

ἐτρέψατο". περιβαλὼν δὲ τῷ τροφεῖ τὴν προβοο- 


ξ / 4 ~ . 
ὑπολισθάνουσι τὴν πτῆσιν. 2 Reiske: πτερὸν δέ 



falcons. But their method of dealing with hawks is a ana Hawks - 

tale worth hearing. When the hawk, which is accus- 
tomed to soar high in the air, gives chase, the Pigeons 

lide and sink lower and attempt to reduce their 
flight. When attacked however by some bird which 
by nature flies at a lower level than they, the Pigeons 

‘mount up and travel through the sky, and flying 

overhead they have no fear, because the other cannot 

harry them from above. 

46. An Indian trainer finding a young white 
Elephant took and reared it during its early years; 
he gradually tamed it and used to ride upon it and 
grew fond of his chattel, which returned his affection 
and recompensed him for his fostering care. Now 
the king of the Indies hearing of this, asked to be 
given the animal. But the trainer in his affection 
was jealous and even overcome with grief at the 
thought of another man being its master, and declined 
to give it up; and so, mounting the Elephant, he 
went off into the desert. The king in his indigna- 
tion despatched men to take the Elephant away and. 
at the same time to bring the Indian to judgment. 
When they arrived they attempted to apply force. 
So the man struck at them from his mount, and the 
beast helped to defend its master as he was being 
injured. Such was the beginning of the affair. But 
when the Indian was wounded and fell, the Elephant 
bestrode its keeper after the manner of armed men 
covering a comrade with their shields, slew many 
of the attackers, and put the remainder to flight. 
Then, winding its trunk round its keeper, it raised. 

vO an nr 
3 <nai> add. H. 4 Ges: πεῖραν. 


A white 


, . ” ' 2 \ \ 
Kida, αἴρει te αὐτὸν καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ αὔλια κομίζει, - 

καὶ παρέμεινεν ὡς φίλῳ φίλος πιστός, καὶ τὴν 
εὔνοιαν ἐπεδείκνυτο. ὦ ἄνθρωποι πονηροὶ καὶ 
περὶ τράπεζαν μὲν καὶ ταγήνου ψόφον Τάεί, ἐπ᾽ 
ἄριστά τε χορεύοντες, 7 1 ἐν δὲ τοῖς κινδύνοις 
προδόται, καὶ μάτην καὶ ἐς οὐδὲν τὸ τῆς φιλίας 
ὄνομα χαίνοντες.3 

47, Δότε μοι τοὺ δοὺ ὃς τοῦ πατρῴ 
Pies μοι τοὺς Tpay@dovs πρὸς TOD πατρῴου 
wos καὶ πρὸ γε ἐκείνων τοὺς μυθοποιοὺς ἐρέσθαι 
7 3 ἢ ~ ᾿ 
τί βουλόμενοι τοσαύτην ἄγνοιαν τοῦ παιδὸς τοῦ 
Λαΐου καταχέουσι τοῦ συνελθόντος τῇ μητρὶ τὴν 
“ 7 \ lon i 
δυστυχῆ σύνοδον, καὶ τοῦ Τηλέφου ὃ τοῦ μὴ 
a e f τῷ 
πειραθέντος μὲν τῆς ὁμιλίας, συγκατακλινέντος δὲ 
TH γειναμένῃ Kat πράξαντος ἂν τὰ αὐτά, εἰ μὴ 4 
a “a ¢ / : 
co πομπῇ διεῖρξεν ὁ δράκων" εἴ γε ἡ φύσις τοῖς 
ἁ ὄγοις ζῴοις Τὴν τοιαύτην μίξιν καὶ ἐκ τοῦ 
χρωτὸς ° δίδωσι κατανοῆσαι, καὶ οὐ δεῖται 
9Q\ ~ > 
γνωρισμάτων οὐδὲ τοῦ ἐκθέντος ἐς τὸν Κιθαιρῶνα 8 
a ~ .: ἶ 
οὐκ ἂν γοῦν ποτε τῇ τεκούσῃ ὁμιλήσειε 7 κάμηλος 
ὃ δέ τοι νομεὺς τῆς ἀγέλ j Ἢ 
Naa opevs τῆς ἀγέλης κατακαλύψας τὸν 
ἥλυν ws οἱὸν Te ἦν καὶ ἀποκρύψας πάντα πλὴν 
~ 4 “~ 3 ~~ 
τῶν ἄρθρων, τὸν παῖδα ἐπάγει τῇ μητρί, καὶ 
- ¢ ‘ ¢ ~ “~ 
ἐκεῖνος λάθριος ὑπὸ ὁρμῆς τῆς πρὸς μίξιν ἔδρασε 
τὸ Epyov καὶ συνῆκε. καὶ τὸν μὲν αἴτιον τῆς 
~ ? 
ὁμιλίας ot τῆς ἐκθέσμου δάκνων καὶ πατῶν καὶ 
1 5.» 4 £ * 
: - - + + Xopevovres corrupt, ἐπὶ ῥᾳστώνης Grasberger. 
966 : χραΐνοντες. 
καὶ τοῦ Τηλέφου after καταχέουσι MSS, t 
Ο ransposed by H. 
: Jac : εἰ μὴ πολλάκις. ἊΝ 7 a 
> χρωτὸς προσαψαμένοις. | 
Κιθαιρῶνα ὡς 6 Οἰδίπους 6 τοῦ Σοφοκλέους: 
7 ὁμιλήσαι. 




him and brought him to its-stable and stayed by his 
side, as one trusty friend might do to another, thus 
showing its kindly nature. on ἃ | 

© wicked men, for ever busy (?) about the table 
and the clash of frying-pans and dancing to your 
lunch, but traitors in the hour of danger, in whose 
mouth the word ‘ Friendship ’ is vain and of no effect. 

47. In the name of Zeus our father, permit me to 
ask the tragic dramatists and their predecessors, the 
inventors of fables, what they mean by showering 
such a flood of ignorance upon the son of Laius 4 
who consummated that disastrous union with his 
mother; and upon Telephus® who, without indeed 
attempting union, lay with his mother and would 
have done the same as Oedipus, had not a serpent 
sent by the gods kept them apart, when Nature 
allows unreasoning animals to perceive by mere con- 
tact the nature of this union, with no need for tokens 
nor for the presence of the man who exposed Oedipus 
on Cithaeron. | 

The Camel, for instance, would never couple with 
its mother. Now the keeper of a herd of camels 
covered up a female as far as possible, hiding all but 
its parts, and then drove the son to its mother. The 
beast, all unwitting, in its eagerness to copulate, did 
the deed, then realised what it had done. It bit and 
trampled on the man who was the cause of its un- 

¢ Oedipus, after having unwittingly slain his father Laius, 
married his widow locasta. 

> Telephus, son of Heracles and Auge. According to one 
story Teuthras king of Mysia, unaware of their relationship, 
gave his daughter Auge in marriage to Telephus who was 
equally unaware. 3 ' 


of incest 


τοῖς γόνασι παΐων ἀπέκτεινεν ἀλγεινότατα, ἑαυτὸν 
δὲ κατεκρήμνισεν. ἀμαθὴς δὲ καὶ κατὰ τοῦτο 
Οἰδίπους, οὐκ ἀποκτείνας, ἀλλὰ πηρώσας τὴν 
ὄψιν, καὶ τὴν τῶν κακῶν λύσιν μὴ γνοὺς ἐξὸν 
ἀπηλλάχθαι καὶ μὴ τῷ οἴκῳ καὶ τῷ γένει κατα- 
ρώμενον εἶτα μέντοι κακῷ ἀνηκέστῳ ἰᾶσθαι κακὰ 

τὰ ἤδη παρελθόντα. 

1 ἀποκτείνας <éavrdv> Schn. 

- 210 


lawful union, and kneeling on him put him to an 
agonising death, and then threw itself over a 
ipice. 7 

ree here Oedipus was ill-advised in not killing 
himself but blinding his eyes; in not realising how 
to escape from his calamities when he might have 
made away with himself instead of cursing his house 
and his family ; and finally in seeking by an irremedi- 
able calamity to remedy calamities already past. 


er μὸν ἐκ Oe ee τὰν κα 
παπόκλτν ων 


7: "Ako / > ’ ¢ 
λαστότατοι ὀρνίθων of πέρδικές εἰσι. 

a 2 \ -~ ~ “Ὁ 
ταῦτά τοι καὶ τῶν θηλειῶν ἐρῶσι δριμύτατα, καὶ 

“a 7 ¢ / 
τῆς λαγνείας ἡττώμενοι συνεχέστατά εἰσιν οἵδε 
A > ᾿ 
οὐκοῦν οἱ τρέφοντες τοὺς ἀθλητὰς πέρδικας, ὅταν 
αὐτοὺς ἐς τὴν μάχην τὴν κατὰ ἀλλήλων ὑποθήγωσι 
τὴν θήλειαν παρεστά Dow ἑκά : 
, ρεστάναι ποιοῦσιν ἑκάστῳ τὴν σύν- 
“~ / 
νομον, σόφισμα τοῦτο δειλίας καὶ κάκης τῆς κατὰ 
τὴν ἀγωνίαν ἀντίπαλον αὐτοῖς εὑρόντες. οὐ γάρ 
Τ -Ἔ “~~ 
¢ ποὺ ἡττώμενος φανῆναι ἢ τῇ ἐρωμένῃ ἢ τῇ 
γαμετῇ ὃ πέρδιξ ὑπομένει: τεθνήξεται δὲ μᾶλλον 
πα U 
ih eee 7] ὁμόσε χωροῦντος ἀποστραφεὶς ἰδεῖν 
ρλμῆσει ταύτην ἀσχημόνως, παρ᾽ ἣ βούλεται 
εὐδοκιμεῖν. τοῦτό ἱ Ares 8 
yew. τοῦτό Tot Kal Kpfres ὑπὲρ τῶν 
ιν ἫΝ ,evevoouv. ἀκούω γὰρ Ἰζρῆτα ἐραστὴν 
3 \ 
ἀγαθὸν τὰ τε ἄλλα καὶ τὰ πολέμια ἔχειν μὲ 
παιδικὰ εὐγενὲ Ἵ D Se 
i yeves μειράκιον ὥρᾳ διαπρεπὲς καὶ τὴν 
ὑχὴν avopetov καὶ πρὸς τὰ κάλλιστα τῶν μαθημά- 
> A ~ 
a ,“πεφυκὸς εὖ καὶ καλῶς, καλούμενον δὲ δι 
ἡλικίαν ἐς ὅπλα μηδέπω (εἶπόν γε μὴν ἀλλαχόθι 
καὶ τοῦ ἐραστοῦ καὶ τοῦ καλοῦ τὸ ὄνομα). ἀρετὰς 
ὲ ~ \ : 
᾿ ν οὖν ἢ τῇ μάχῃ τὸν νεανίαν ἀποδείξασθαί 1 
φασιν οἱ Ἀρῆτες, ἀθρόας δὲ ἐς αὐτὸν ὠθουμέ 
τῆς τῶν ἐχθρῶν φάλ ῖ ἈΠΟ 
ΤΣ χῦρ ayyos προσπταῖσαι νεκρῷ 
εὐμένῳ, καὶ περιτραπῆναι λέγουσιν αὐτόν. τῶν 
ς f ᾿ 
οὖν τις πολεμίων, ὃ μάλιστα πλησίον, ἄνατει- 

1 Schn: ἀποδίδοσθαι. 


᾿ : Racecar baw, ἡ od, EES care ge 
7 (Aan πλμελαμοονοιμκακαικα ας τα ---νὔἌἔἜἔκέέεεσσ το ANAT: 



1. Partridges are the most incontinent: of birds; The | 

that is the reason for their passionate love of the 
female birds and for their constant enslavement to 
lust. So those that rear fighting Partridges, when 
they egg them on to battle with one another, make 
the female stand each by her mate, as they have 
found this to be a device for countering any cowardice 
or reluctance to fight. For the Partridge that is 
defeated cannot endure to show himself either to his 
loved one or to his spouse. He will sooner die under 
the blows than turn away from his adversary and dare 
in his disgrace to look upon her whose good opinion 
he courts. | 
The Cretans also have taken this view regarding 
lovers. For I have heard that a Cretan lover, who 
had beside other qualities that of a fine soldier, had 
as his favourite a boy of good birth, conspicuous for 
his beauty, of manly spirit, excellently fitted by 
nature to imbibe the noblest principles, though on 
account of his youth he was not yet called to arms. 
I have elsewhere ὅ given the name of the lover and 
of the beautiful boy.) Now the Cretans say that 
the young man did acts of valour in the fight, but 
when the enemy’s massed line pressed him hard, 
he stumbled over a dead body that lay there and 
was thrown down. Whereupon one of the enemy 

¢ Not in any surviving work of Aelian’s. 




νάμενος παίειν ἔμελλε κατὰ τῶν μεταφρένων 
τὸν ἄνδρα" ὁ δὲ ἐπιστραφεὶς ᾿ μηδαμῶς ᾽ εἶπεν 
αἰσχρὰν καὶ ἀναλκῆ + πληγὴν ἐπαγάγῃς, ἀλλὰ 
κατὰ τῶν στέρνων ἀντίαν παῖσον, ἵνα μή μου 
δειλίαν ὁ ἐρώμενος καταψηφίσηται, καὶ φυλάξηται 
περιστεῖλαΐ με νεκρόν, καὶ μάλα γε ἀσχημονοῦντι 
προσελθεῖν οὐ τολμῶν.᾽ αἰδεσθῆναι μὲν οὖν ἀνθρω- 

“ \ 
πον ὄντα φανῆναι κακὸν οὔπω θαυμαστόν- 

πέρδικι δὲ μετεῖναι αἰδοῦς ὑπέρσεμνον τοῦτο ἐκ 
τῆς φύσεως τὸ δῶρον. ᾿Αριστόδημος δὲ ὃ τρέσας 
καὶ Κλεώνυμος ὁ ῥίψας τὴν ἀσπίδα καὶ ὁ δειλὸς 
[Πείσανδρος οὔτε τὰς πατρίδας ἠδοῦντο οὔτε τὰς 
γαμετὰς οὔτε τὰ παιδία. 

2. Ἔν Ἔρυκι τῆς Σικελίας ἑορτή ἐστιν, ἣν 
καλοῦσιν ' Αναγώγια ᾿Ερυκῖνοί τε αὐτοὶ "ead 
μέντοι καὶ ὅσοι ev TH Σικελίᾳ πάσῃ. ἡ δὲ αἰτία 
τοῦ τῆς ἑορτῆς ὀνόματος, τὴν ᾿Αφροδίτην λέ- 

. > ~ 3 
γουσιν ἐντεῦθεν ἐς Λιβύην ἀπαίρειν ἐν ταῖσδε ταῖς 


4 ἤ Se \ » “ 
ἡμέραις. δοξάζουσι δὲ ἄρα ταῦτα ταύτῃ 3 τεκμαι- 

dae περιστερῶν πλῆθός ἐστιν ἐνταῦθα πάμ- 
~ € 4 ~ 
πλείστον. οὐκοῦν at μὲν οὐχ ὁρῶνται, λέγουσι δὲ 

᾿ Ἢ; “A 4 A 7 
ρυκῖνοι τὴν θεὸν δορυφορούσας ἀπελθεῖν: ἀθύρ- 

nee , 
ματα γὰρ «Ἀφροδίτης περιστερὰς εἶναι ἀδουσί τε 
ἐκείνοι καὶ πεπιστεύκασι πάντες ἄνθρωποι. διελ- 
θουσῶν δὲ ἡμερῶν ἐννέα μί : 
ἡμερῶν ἐννέα μίαν μὲν διαπρεπῇ τὴ 
ὥραν ἔκ γε τοῦ πελά 5 Τοῦτος fete 
γε τοῦ πελάγους τοῦ κομίζοντος ἐκ τῆς 

1 . tt 
Jac: ἀνάλκη, ἄναλκιν. 2 ταύτῃ ἐκεῖθεν 

et err, 

* A Spartan who owing to sickness 
was absent 
battle of Thermopylae. Later, at Plataea, he aia a 
ara See Hdt. 7.229-32; 9. 71, : 


who was nearest, in his eagerness was about to 
strike him in the back. But the man turned and 
exclaimed ‘ Do-not deal me a shameful and cowardly 
Ῥίον, but strike me in front, in the breast, in order 
that my loved one may not judge me guilty of 
cowardice and refrain from laying out my dead body : 
he could not bear to go near one who so disgraces 
himself.’ : 

There is nothing wonderful in a man being ashamed 
to appear a coward, but that a Partridge should have 
some feeling of shame, this is a truly impressive gift 
of Nature. But Aristodemus the timid,? and Cleo- 
nymus who threw away his shield,’ and Pisander the 
craven,¢ had no reverence for their country or for their 
wives or for their children. | 

2. At Eryx in Sicily there is a festival which The Pigeons 
not only the people of Eryx but everybody dite at Eryx 

throughout the whole of Sicily as well eall the 
‘Festival of the Embarkation.’ And the reason 
why the festival is so called is this: they say that 
during these days Aphrodite sets out thence for 
Libya. They adduce in support of their belief the 
following circumstance. There is there an immense 
multitude of Pigeons. Now these disappear, and the 
people of Eryx assert that they have gone as an 
escort to the goddess, for they speak of Pigeons as 
‘ pets of Aphrodite,’ and so everybody believes them 
to be. But after nine days one bird of conspicuous 
beauty is seen flying in from the sea which brings it 

> A frequent butt of Aristophanes. 

¢ Athenian demagogue, end of 5th cent., lampooned by 
Comic poets for his bulk, his rapacity, and his cowardice. 
Helped to establish the rule of the Four Hundred. 



Λιβύης ὁρᾶσθαι ἐ 3 

paola ἐσπετομένην, οὐχ οἵ, 1 τὰ 

ΠΝ ομένην, οὐχ οἵαν κατὰ τὰς 

aie uddas τὰς λοιπὰς εἶναι, πορφυρᾶν 


Oc; ὥσπερ οὖν τὴν ᾿Αφροδίτην ὁ Τήιος ἡμῖ 

Avaxpéwy dde, "ἡ env’ 1 re 
pea ἄδει, πορφυρέην᾽ + mov λέγων. καὶ 

χρυσῷ δὲ εἰκασμένη φανείη & L τοῦτό ᾿ 

ee ee ἢ av, καὶ τοῦτό ye κατὰ 

> - 
ἣν Opnpov θεὸν τὴν αὐτήν, ἣν ἐκεῖνος ἀναμέλπει 


e 3 . 
υσῆν".. A tens “~ ~ 
χρυσῆ ἔπεται δὲ αὐτῇ τῶν περιστερῶν τὰ νέφη. 

T ῷ ν ~ 4 ε x 
se λοιπῶν, καὶ ἑορτὴ πάλιν Ἔρυκίνοις καὶ 
nyupis τὰ Καταγώγια,Σ ἐκ τοῦ ἔ ὶ 
νήγυρις : ἔργου καὶ 
τοῦτο τὸ ὄνομα. 

4 4 
3. Λύκω συννόμω καὶ ἵππω, λέοντέ γε μὴ 
οὐκέτι- λέαινα ya L λέ > τῇ Ge ee 
DET LE yap Kat λέων od τὴν αὐτὴν i 
οὗτε ἐπὶ θήραν 3 οὔ ) diego 
age ραν " οὔτε πιόμενοι. τὸ δὲ αἴτιον, τῇ 
ov U 
Ne ΡΣ ῥώμῃ θαρροῦντε 4 ἄμφω εἶτα οὐ 
ἀτέρου ὁ ETEpos, ὡς φασιν οἱ πρεσβύτεροι. 

4. Οὐ ῥᾳδίως οἱ λύκοι τὴ | 

. ως οἱ 2 Qa > 

Fs pat ee ε τὴν ὠδῖνα ἀπολύουσιν, 

"ΠῚ μέραις δώδεκα καὶ νυξὶ τοσαύταις, ἐπεὶ 
cout χρόνῳ τὴν Λητὼ ἐς Δῆλον ἐξ Ὕπερβο- 

ρέων ἐλθεῖν Δήλιοί φασιν. 

ὅ. Ζῷα ὃ πολέ 
Ζῷα πολέμια χελώνη τε καὶ πέρδιξ, καὶ 
πελαργὸς καὶ κρὲξ πρὸς αἴ ὶ "καὶ 
Το τ ut κρὲξ πρὸς αἴθυιαν <kat>® ἅρπη καὶ 
ρῳδιὸς πρὸς λάρον: κορυδαλλὸς δὲ ἀκανθυλλίδι 
νοεῖ πολέμια, τρυγό δὲν 7 IS 1 
ολέμια, τρυγόνι de>? πρὸς πυραλλίδα 8 
διαφορά, ἰκτῖνός γε μὴ L KO 1 f | 
γε μὴν καὶ κόραξ ἐχθροί: σειρὴν 
ewke: τὰ καταγώ 4 
: rice γώγια πανήγυρις. 
θαρροῦ re most MSS, Bappod: 
5 ζῷα ἀλλήλοις. p RRs 
8 <xat> add. Η. 


fae ferns. 
Rr sso! 


from Libya: it isnot like the other Pigeons in a flock 
but is rose-coloured, just as Anacreon of Teos de- 
scribes Aphrodite, styling her somewhere [ fr. 2.3 Ὁ] 
‘yoseate.’ And the bird might also be compared to 
gold, for this too is like the same goddess of whom 
Homer sings as‘ golden’ [1]. 5. 427]. And after the 
bird follow the other Pigeons in clouds, and again 
there is a festal gathering for the people of Eryx, 
the ‘ Festival of the Return’; the name is derived 
from the event. | 

3. The Wolf.and the she-Wolf feed together, like- Lion and 

Lioness however do not, for the Lioness and the Lion 
do not follow the same track either hunting or when 
drinking. And the reason is that both derive con- 
fidence from their bodily strength, so that neither has 
need of the other, as older writers assert. 

_wise the Horse and: the Mare; the Lion and the ae 

4. Wolves are not easily delivered of their young, The Wolf 

only after twelve days and twelve nights, for the 
people of Delos maintain that this was the length of 
time that it took Leto to travel from the Hyper- 
boreans to Delos. . 

5. Animals hostile to one another: the Tortoise Animal 

and the Partridge; the Stork and the Corncrake to 
the Sea-gull; the Shearwater and the Heron to the 
Sea-mew. The Crested Lark feels enmity towards 
the Goldfinch; the Turtle-dove disagrees with the 
Pyrallis;* the Kite too and the Raven are enemies ; 

¢ Perhaps a kind of pigeon. 
7 <8é> add. H. 8 πῦρραν. 



4 / : ; fos. | 4 ~*~ 
δὲ 1 πρὸς κίρκην, κίρκη δὲ πρὸς κίρκον οὐ τῷ γένει 
7ὔ 3 4 4 ~ 7 - 7 
μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῇ φύσει διαφέροντε πεφώρασθον. 

Χάννη δὲ ἐχθὺς λαγνίστατος. λευκοὺς δὲ μῦρ- 

- “- “ 3 : : 
μηκας ev Deve? τῆς Λακωνικῆς ἀκούειν πάρε- 
στιν. | τ᾿ 

6. Τοὺς ἵππους ἕλεσί τε καὶ λειμῶσι καὶ τοῖς 
κατηνέμοις χωρίοις ἥδεσθαι μᾶλλον ἱπποτροφίας 
τε καὶ πωλοτροφικῆς ἄνθρωποι σοφισταὶ ὁμολο--. 

΄“- " \ 3 \ *~ 4 
γοῦσιν. ἔνθεν τοι καὶ “Ὅμηρος ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν δεινὸς 
ὧν καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα συνιδεῖν ἔφη που. 

. τῷ τρισχίλιαι ἵπποι ἕλος κάτα βουκολέοντο. 

ἐξηνεμῶσθαι δὲ ἵππους πολλάκις ἱπποφορβοὶ 

τεκμηριοῦσι καὶ κατὰ τὸν νότον ἢ τὸν βορρᾶν 
; > εν ἱ - 
φεύγειν. εἰδότα οὖν τὸν αὐτὸν ποιητὴν εἰπεῖν 

᾽ ᾿ , > , 
τάων καὶ Βορέης ἠράσσατο βοσκομενάων. 

ν 23. πὲς Ὁ ᾿ a ae, y 
καὶ ᾿Αριστοτέλης δέ, ὡς ἐμὲ νοεῖν, λαβὼν ἐντεῦθεν 

4 “A . ᾿ 
εὐθὺ τῶν προειρημένων ἀνέμων οἰστρηθείσας δι- 

δράσκειν 8 ἔφατο αὐτάς. | 

> 7 4 ~ 
1. ᾿Ακούω τὸν Σκυθῶν βασιλέα (τὸ δὲ ὄνομα 
20. 7A ,ὔ la 
εἰδὼς ἐῶ" τί γάρ μοι καὶ λυσιτελές ἐστιν ;) ἵππον 
/ lad 
σπουδαίαν ἔχειν πᾶσαν ἀρετήν, ὅσην ἵπποι καὶ 
> ~ ᾿ 
ἁπαιτοῦνται καὶ ἀποδείκνυνται, ἔχειν δὲ καὶ υἱὸν 
7A 3 ’ὔ “~ ~ : 
αὐτῆς ἐκείνης τῶν ἄλλων ἀρετῇ διαπρέποντα. 
ΟΣ σειρὴν μελίσσης ὄνομα. 
ἀποδιδράσκειν. | 
a ne eee ee ͵͵  ς ττἝτἝἕἝἕἝἕἣὯἣ'͵ῬῬΣῬἝὍῬὋἝὌῬΓῬ[ῤὖϑἷ:ὀὁ 
* Probably the Serin-finch. 
Ὁ The Circe has not been identified. 

2 Πέφνῳ Venmans. 



the Siren 5 and the Circe ὃς the Circe and the oe 
have been found to be at variance not only in the 

of sex but in their nature. 
ie Seaperch is the most lecherous of fishes. In eee 
Pheneus in Laconia® one may hear tell of white 


8. Men skilled in the breeding and care of pers The Horse 
agree that Horses are most fond of marshy Sogou 
meadows, and wind-swept spots. eee se : 
Homer, who in my opinion had a ae | "Ἢ Ἢ 
ledge of such matters, saying somewhere [J/. 20. 

_ © For him three thousand mares grazed along the 
water-meadow.’ | 

| : j Mares being: Mares im- 
Rad no πε ἘΠ πο (Pe 
Ξ ἀπ the south or the north wind. And the same 
poet knew this when he said [Z1. 20. 2.23 | | | 
"© Of them was Boreas enamoured as they pastured. 

‘Axis i him, said 
Aristotle too, borrowing (as I think) from > 
(HA 515 a 16] that they rush away in frenzy straight 
in the face of the aforesaid winds. 

that the King of the Scythians (his Example of 
eee ae suppress, foe I have nothing to ee ae 
by it) possessed a mare remarkable for every ee 
lence which is expected of horses and for bias es 
are displayed; and that he possessed also a 108) of 

i iting Paus. 3. 26. 

é us was in Arcadia. Venmans, cl 
2,3 ena peony μὰ ἀπονι a place in Laconia at wn Seni 
of the Messenian Gulf. It was also the name te ee y ah 
at the mouth of the Pamisus; see Frazer on aus. loc, cit. 
The ‘ white ants.’ are fabulous. eee 

νων τῆς ἀρίστης ἐρασθῆ wv ὗ ἥ 
. THS ἐρασύηναι τὸν ὑπποκόμον, ὠσπερ᾽ 


οὔκουν εὑρίσκοντα οὔτε ἐκείνην ἄλλῳ παραβα- 
λεῖν ἀξίῳ, οὔτε ἐκεῖνον ἄλλῃ ἐπαγαγεῖν τὸ ἐξ 
αὐτοῦ λαβεῖν σπέρμα ἀγαθῇ, διὰ ταῦτα ἄμφω 
συναγαγεῖν ἐς τὸ ἔργον: τοὺς δὲ τὰ μὲν ἕτερα 
ἀσπάζεσθαι σφᾶς καὶ φιλοφρονεῖσθαι, οὐ μὴν 
ἐγχρίμπτεσθαι ἀλλήλοις. οὐκοῦν ἐπεὶ τῆς ἐπι- 
ουλῆς τοῦ Σκύθου σοφώτερα ἦν τὰ ζῷα, ἐπηλύ- 
γασεν ipariots καὶ τὸν καὶ τήν, καὶ ἐξειργάσαντο 
τὸ ἐκνομόν τε καὶ ἔκδικον ἐκεῖνο ἔργον. ὡς δὲ 
ἄμφω συνεῖδον τὸ πραχθέν, εἶτα μέντοι τὸ ἀσέβημα 
διελύσαντο θανάτῳ, πηδήσαντε κατὰ K 5. 
, ρημνοῦ.. 

, 2} : 
8. Λέγει Ἐὔδημος ἵππου νέας καὶ τῶν νεμομέ- 

οὖν καλῆς μείρακος καὶ τῶν ἐν τῷ χωρίῳ ὡρικωτέ- 
pas πασῶν: καὶ τὰ μὲν πρῶτα ἐγκαρτερεῖν, 
τελευτῶντα δὲ ἐπιτολμῆσαι τῷ λέχει τῷ ἕένῳ καὶ 
ὁμιλεῖν αὐτῇ . τῇ δὲ εἶναι πῶλον καὶ τοῦτον 
καλόν, θεασάμενόν γε μὴν τὸ πραττόμενον ἀλγῆσαι 
ὥσπερ οὖν τυραννουμένης τῆς μητρὸς ὑπὸ τοῦ 
δεσπότου, καὶ ἐμπηδῆσαι καὶ ἀποκτεῖναι τὸν 
ἄνδρα, εἶτα μέντοι καὶ φυλάξαι ἔνθα ἐτάφη, καὶ 
ὀυιτῶντα ἀνορύττειν αὐτόν, καὶ ἐνυβρίζειν τῷ 
νεκρῷ καὶ λυμαίνεσθαι λύμην ποικίλην." 

_ 9. Τῶν ἰχθύων διὰ τοῦ ἦρος οἱ πλεῖστοι és? 
ἀφροδίτην ° πρόθυμοΐ εἰσι, καὶ ἀποκρίνουσί γε 
αὑτοὺς ἐς τὸν IIdvrov. μᾶλλον: ἔχει γάρ πως 
θαλάμας τε καὶ κοίτας, φύσεως ταῦτα ἰχθύσι ἃ τὰ 
δῶρα: ἀλλὰ καὶ θηρίων ἐλεύθερός ἐστιν ὅσα 

1 , 3 3 ᾿ 
ποικίλην οὐκ αἰσθανομένῳ ἀλγοῦντα αὐτόν. 



_ this same mare which surpassed all others in its ex- 

cellence. Being unable to find either another worthy 
mate for the mare or another mare fit to be impreg- 

nated by the foal, he therefore put the two together 

for that purpose. They caressed each other in various 
ways and were friendly disposed, but refused to 

couple. So as the animals were too clever for the 

Scythian’s scheme, he blindfolded both mare and foal 

with cloths, and they accomplished the act so contrary ᾿ 

tolaw and morality. But when the pair realised what 
they had done, they atoned for their impious deed by 
death and threw themselves over a precipice. 

8. Eudemus records how a groom fell in love with Groom in 
love with 

a young mare, the finest of the herd, as it might have Mare 

been a beautiful girl, the loveliest of all thereabouts. 
And at first he restrained himself, but finally dared 
to consummate a strange union. Now the mare had 
a foal, and a fine one, and when it saw what was hap- 
pening it was pained, just as though its mother were 
being tyrannically treated by her master, and it 
leaped upon the man and killed him. And it even 
went so far as to watch where he was buried, went 
to the place, dug up the corpse, and outraged it by 
inflicting every kind of injury. , 

9. The majority of Fishes are eager for sexual 
intercourse throughout the springtime, and withdraw 
for choice to the Black Sea, for it contains caverns 

Fish in the 


and resting-places which are Nature’s gift to Fishes. - 

Besides, its waters are free from the savage creatures 

a RA -ς-:.-.---- 

2 ἐς (eis) om. AL. 8 χὴν ἀφροδίτην. 
4 Jac: ἰχθύσιν ὁ Ἰϊόντος. 



βόσκει θάλαττα. SeAdives δὲ ἀἁλῶνται μόνοι, 
λεπτοί τε καὶ aobevixoi: καὶ μὴν Kat πολύπου 

m + >. »" 
χῆρός ἐότι καὶ παγούρου ἄγονος, καὶ ἀστακὸν οὐ 

τρέφει" μικρῶν δὲ ἰχθύων οἵδε ᾿ὄλεθρός εἰσιν.3 

10. Πυνθάνομαι σελήνης ὑποφαινομένης νέας 
τοὺς ἐλέφαντας κατά τινα φυσικὴν καὶ ἀπόρρητον 
ἔννοιαν ἐκ τῆς ὕλης ἐν ἡ νέμονται νεοδρεπεῖς 
ἀφελόντας κλάδους εἶτα μέντοι μετεώρους ἀνατεί- 
νειν, καὶ πρὸς τὴν θεὸν ἀναβλέπειν, καὶ ἡσυχῇ 
τοὺς κλάδους ὑποκινεῖν, οἷον ἱκετηρίαν τινὰ ταύτην 
τῇ θεῷ προτείνοντας ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἵλεων τε καὶ εὐμενῆ 
τὴν θεόν γε εἶναι αὐτοῖς. 7 * 

11, Movas ἀκούω τῶν ζῴων τὰς ἵππους Kat 
κυούσας ὑπομένειν τὴν τῶν ἀρρένων μίξιν: εἶναι 
γὰρ λαγνιστάτας. διὰ ταῦτά τοι καὶ τῶν γυναικῶν 
τὰς ἀκολάστους ὑπὸ τῶν -σσεμνοτέρως αὐτὰς 
εὐθυνόντων καλεῖσθαι ἵππους. A 

12. Οἱ πέρδικες ἐν τοῖς wots οἰκοῦντες ἔτι καὶ 
κατειλημμένοι τοῖς περιπεφυκόσι σφίσιν ὀστρά- 
κοις οὐκ ἀναμένουσι τὴν ἐκ τῶν γειναμένων 
ἐκγλυφήν, ἀλλ᾽ αὐτοὶ δι’ ἑαυτῶν ὥσπερ θυροκο- 
ποῦντες διακρούουσι 5 τὰ Oa, καὶ ἐκκύψαντες εἶτα 
σφᾶς αὐτοὺς 8 ἀνωθοῦσι, καὶ τὸ τοῦ dot λέμμα 
περιρρήξαντες ἤδη θέουσι, καὶ τὸ πρὸς τῷ οὐραίῳ 
ἡμίτομον, εἰ προσέχοιτο, διασεισάμενοι ἐκβάλ- 
λουσιν αὐτό, καὶ τροφὴν μαστεύουσι, καὶ πηδῶσιν 
ὠκίστα; fe ead! CAE ae ae 

1 . 3 Ane τὰ : 
Gron: ἐστιν. 2 Mein’: éxxpovovo. Mss, Η. 



which the sea breeds. Only dolphins roam there, 
and they are smalland feeble. Moreover it is devoid 
of octopuses ; it produces no crabs and does not breed. 
lobsters: these are the bane of small fishes. 

10. Iam informed that when the new moon begins Lace 
to appear, Elephants by some natural and un- Moon 
explained act of intelligence pluck fresh branches 
from: the forest where they feed and then raise them 
aloft and look upwards at the goddess, waving the 
branches gently to and fro, as though they were 
offering her in a sense a suppliant’s olive-branch in 
the hope that she will prove kindly and benevolent to 


11. I have heard that Mares are the only animals The Mare 
which when pregnant allow the male to have inter- 
course with them. For Mares are exceedingly lust- 
ful, and that is why strict censors call lecherous 
women ‘ mares.’ 

12. Partridges while still in the egg and confined 7 κεμᾶρο 
by the shell that has formed around them do not wait its young’ . 
for their parents to hatch them out, but alone and 
unaided, like house-breakers, peck through the eggs, . 
peep out, and then lever themselves up, and then 
after cracking the egg-shell begin at once to run. 

And if half the shell is clinging to their tail they 
shake it off and cast it from them; and they hunt 

for food and dart about at great speed. 

ate ee a Bee gr τον τς πος eet 
8 ἑαυτούς. 
VOL.I. | I 



13. Τῶν περδίκων of τοροί τε καὶ φδικοὶ TH 
[͵ ε 

σφετέρᾳ θαρροῦσιν εὐγλωττίᾳ: καὶ οἱ μαχητικοὶ 
δὲ καὶ ἀγωνιστικοὶ καὶ ἐκεῖνοι πεπιστεύκασιν ὅτι 
μή εἰσιν ἄξιοι παρανάλωμα γενέσθαι τεθηραμένοι: 
καὶ διὰ ταῦτα ἁλισκόμενοι ἧττον πρὸς τοὺς 
θηρῶντας διαμάχονται ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ ἁλῶναι. ot 
δὲ ἄλλοι, καὶ ἔτι μᾶλλον οἱ Kippator, συνεγνωκότες 
ἑαυτοῖς οὔτε. ἀλκὴν ἀγαθοῖς οὔτε ddew, καλῶς δὲ 
διεγνωκότες ὅτι ἄρα ἁλόντες ἔσονται δεῖπνον Tots 
ἠἡρηκόσι, παλαμῶνταΐ τινι σοφίᾳ φυσικῇ ἑαυτοὺς 
aBpwrovs παρασκευάσαι: καὶ τῆς μὲν ἄλλης 
τροφῆς, ἥτις αὐτοὺς εὐφραΐνει τε καὶ πιαΐνει, 
ἀπέχονται, σκόροδα δὲ σιτοῦνται προθυμότατα. 
οἱ τοίΐυν ταῦτα προμαθόντες ἐσπείσαντο πρὸς 
αὐτοὺς ἑκόντες ἀθηρίαν: ὅστις δὲ τῇ τούτων ἄγρᾳ 
οὐ προενέτυχε, συλλαβὼν καὶ καθεψήσας ἀπώλεσε 
καὶ τὸν χρόνον καὶ τὴν ἐπ᾽ αὐτοῖς σπουδήν, πονη- 
ροῦ κρέως πειραθείς. 

14. Κακὸν θηρίον ἡ γαλῆ, κακὸν δὲ καὶ ὁ ὄφις. 
οὐκοῦν ὅταν μέλλῃ yadh ὄφει μάχεσθαι, πήγανον 
διατραγοῦσα πρότερον εἶτα μέντοι ἐπὶ τὴν μάχην 
θαρροῦσα 5 ὥσπερ οὖν πεφραγμένη τε καὶ ὦπλισ- 
μένη παραγίνεται. τὸ δὲ αἴτιον, τὸ πήγανον πρὸς 
ὄφιν ἔχθιστόν ἐστιν. 

ξ : - ‘ ~ 
15. Ὃ λύκος ἐμπλησθεὶς ἐς κόρον οὐδ᾽ ἂν τοῦ 

- ? 4 4 3 . 
βραχίστου τὸ λοιπὸν ἀπογεύσαιτο' παρατείνεται ὃ 

μὲν γὰρ ἡ γαστὴρ τῷδε, οἰδαίνει δὲ ἡ γλῶττα, 

> , a 
καὶ TO στόμα ἐμφράγνυται, πραότατος δὲ ἐντυχεῖν 

1 in -» =a a ὃ θ 7 Ρ. ὅν, «ἣν td es | ~ 
1 ἁλῶναι ὅτι yap σπουδασθήσονται καὶ οἵδε πιστεύοῦσι καὶ τῇ 
μάχῃ καὶ τῇ φδῇ. 

ON ANIMALS, IV. 13-15 

13. Partridges that utter clear, musical tones are The 

confident in their vocal skill. So too the fighting 
birds which compete feel certain that when captured 
they will not be regarded as merely fit for sacrifice. 
And that is why when caught they struggle less 
against their pursuers in order to avoid capture. 
But the rest, and especially the Partridges of Cirrha, 
conscious that they possess neither strength nor 
ability to sing, and knowing full well that if caught 
they will furnish a meal for their captors, do their 
utmost, prompted by some natural intelligence, to 
render themselves unfit for eating. And they ab- 
stain from other food which delights and fattens them 

and feed most eagerly upon garlic. Hence those 

who are already aware of these facts have willingly. 
agreed that they should be immune from pursuit. 
Whereas a man who has not previously chanced to 
hunt them, if he catches and cooks them, has wasted 
his time and his pains over them, when he finds their 
flesh disgusting. 

14. The Marten is an evil creature, and an evil opty and 

creature is the Snake. And so when a Marten means 
to fight with a Snake, it chews some rue beforehand 
and then goes out boldly to battle, as though fortified 
and armed. The reason is that to a Snake rue is 
utterly abhorrent. | 

15. The Wolf when gorged to satiety will not there- ae ole 
after taste the least morsel. For his belly is dis- full fed 

tended, his tongue swells, his mouth is blocked, and 

_he is gentle as a lamb to meet, and would have no 

; θαρροῦσα V, del. H, διαθαρροῦσα ἐπὶ τὴν μ. most MSS. 
πέρι-. 4 οἰδάνει ἢ. 



? > a Q? > ¢ 
ἐστιν ἀμνοῦ δίκην, καὶ οὐκ ἂν ἐπιβουλεύσειεν 1 

ἀνθρώπῳ ἢ θρέμματι, οὐδὲ εἰ τῆς ἀγέλης βαδίζοι 

μέσος. μειοῦται δὲ ἡσυχῆ καὶ κατ᾽ ὀλίγον ἡ 

γλῶττα αὐτῷ, εἶτα ἐς τὸ ἀρχαῖον σχῆμα ἐπάνεισι, 

ON ANIMALS, IV. 15-16 

designs on man or beast, even were he to walk through 
the middle of a flock. Gradually however and little 
by little his tongue shrinks and resumes its former 
shape, and he becomes once more ἃ wolf. 

Kat λύκος γίνεται αὖθις. 
“ 16. Cockerels all tread a newcomer to the flock, The 

and tame Partridges do the same to the latest ra 

16. ᾿Αλεκτρυόνες ἐν ἀγέλῃ τὸν νέηλυν ὃ ava- 
βαίνουσι πάντες. καὶ οὗ τιθασοὶ δὲ πέρδικες τὸν 
ἥκοντα πρῶτον καὶ οὔπω πεπραῦσμένον τὰ αὐτὰ 
δρῶσιν. ἀμειβόμενοι δὲ ot “πέρδικες τοὺς τρέφον- 
τας καὶ αὐτοὶ παλεύουσι τοὺς ἀφέτους καὶ ἀγρίους, 
κατὰ τὰς περιστερὰς δρῶντες καὶ οὗτοι τοῦτο. 
προσάγεται δὲ ἄρα ὁ πέρδιξ καὶ σειρῆνας ἐς. τὸ 
ἐφολκὸν προτείνει τὸ τῶν ἄλλων τὸν τρόπον 
τοῦτον. ἕστηκεν ἄδων 8 καὶ ἔστιν οἱ τὸ μέλος 
προκλητικόν, ἐς μάχην ὑποθῆγον τὸν ὄγριον, 
ἕστηκε δὲ ἐλλοχῶν πρὸς τῇ πάγῃ: ὁ δὲ 4 τῶν 
ἀγρίων κορυφαῖος ἀντάσας πρὸ τῆς ἀγέλης μαχού- 
μενος ἔρχεται. ὁ τοίνυν τιθασὸς ἐπὶ πόδα ἁ ἀναχω- 
ρεῖ δεδιέναι σκηπτόμενος" ὁ δὲ ἔπεισι γαῦρος, 
ofa 5 δήπου κρατῶν ἤδη, καὶ ἑάλωκεν ἐνσχεθεὶς 
τῇ πάγῃ. ἐὰν μὲν οὖν q ἄρρην. ὁ τοῖς ,θηράτροις 
περιπεσών, πειρῶνται ἐπικουρεῖν οἱ σύννομοι τῷ 
ἑαλωκότι: ἐὰν δὲ ἢ i) θῆλυς, παίουσι τὸν ἐνσχεθέντα 
ἄλλος ἀλλαχόθεν, ὡς διὰ τὴν λαγνείαν ἐς δουλείαν 
ἐμπεσόντα. καὶ ἐκεῖνο δὲ οὐ παρήσω, ἐπεὶ καὶ 
ἄξιον ἀκοῦσαι αὐτό. ἐὰν 7 θῆλυς ὁ παλεύων, ἵνα 
μὴ ἐμπέσῃ ὁ ἄρρην, αἱ ἔξω θήλειαι μέλος ἀντῳδὸν 
ἠχοῦσι, καὶ ῥύονται τὸν ἐμπεσούμενον ἐς τὴν πά- 
γὴν ταῖς συννόμοις καὶ πλείοσιν ἀσμένως συμπα- 

1 ἐπιβουλεύσαι. 
2 νέηλυν οὔσης θηλειῶν ἀπορίας. 

arrival as yet untamed. And Partridges even requite 
their own parents by decoying those that are free and 
wild, acting in this respect just like pigeons. Now. 
this is the way in which the Partridge draws them to 
him and displays the arts of a Siren to allure others. 
He stands uttering his cry, and his tune conveys a 
challenge, provoking the wild bird to fight; and he 
stands in ambush by the springe. Then the cock of 

- the wild birds answers back and advances to do battle 

on behalf of his covey. So the tame bird withdraws, 
pretending to be afraid, while the other advances 
vaunting as though he were already victorious, is 
caught in the snare, and is captured. Now if it is a 
cock bird that falls into the trap, his companions 
attempt to bring help to the captive; but if it is a 

hen, one here and another there beats the captive for 

allowing her lust to bring her into slavery. 

And here is a point that I will not omit, for it 
deserves attention. If the decoy-bird is a hen, the 
wild hens, in order to prevent the cock from falling 
into the trap, counter the challenge with their cries 
and rescue the cock that is about to be trapped, for 
he is glad to stay with those who are his mates and 

3 ἄδων 6 πρᾶος. 4 δή.. 
5 Reiske: ws οἷα. 6 Retske: παραμένων. 



; , Les “vo” ; ἐν θέ ‘. 4 75 
βάμενοντα, Ws ἂν wyyet TLE ε x EVTQA Vat μα Δί 


17. Ἕν τῶν βασκάνων ζῴων᾽ μέντοι καὶ ἐχῖνος 

- / ~ 
ὁ χερσαῖος εἶναι πεπίστευται. ὅταν γοῦν ἁλίσκη- 
Tal, παραχρῆμα ἐνεούρησε 5. τῷ δέρματι, καὶ 
3 nm > s. tae 4 ὃ A ὃ \ > ‘ 
ἀχρεῖον ἀπέφηνεν αὐτό: δοκεῖ δὲ ἐς πολλὰ 
ἐπιτήδειον. καὶ ἡ λύγξ δὲ ἀποκρύπτει τὸ οὖρον" 
Ψ “Ὁ “ 
ὅταν γὰρ παγῇ, λίθος γίνεται, καὶ γλυφαῖς ἐπιτή- 
: a ,ὔ : 
detds ἐστι, καὶ τοῖς γυναικείοις κόσμοις συμμάχε- 
ται, pacity? 

18. Λεοντοφόνου φαγὼν 6 λέων ἀποτέθνηκε. 

4 \ 4 / > > / 3 ,ὔ 
τὰ δὲ ἔντομα φθείρεται, εἰ ἐλαΐῳ τις ἐγχρίσειεν 
αὐτά. γυπῶν γε μὴν τὸ μύρον ὄλεθρός ἐστι. 
7 A > “a. 3 > ὔ ~ ef 
κάνθαρον δὲ ἀπολεῖς, εἰ ἐπιβάλοις τῶν ῥόδων 

19. Kdves ᾿Ινδικοί, θηρία καὶ οἵδε εἰσὶ καὶ 
ἀλκὴν ἄλκιμα καὶ ψυχὴν θυμοειδέστατα καὶ τῶν 
πανταχόθεν κυνῶν μέγιστοι. καὶ τῶν μὲν ἄλλων 
ζῴων ὑπερῴφρονοῦσι, λέοντι δὲ ὁμόσε χωρεῖ κύων 
᾿Ινδικός, καὶ ἐγκείμενον ὑπομένει, καὶ βρυχωμένῳ 
ἀνθυλακτεῖ, καὶ ἀντιδάκνει δάκνοντα: καὶ πολλὰ 
αὐτὸν λυπήσας καὶ κατατρώσας, τελευτῶν ἡττᾶται 
6 κύων. εἴη δ᾽ ἂν καὶ λέων ἡττηθεὶς ὑπὸ κυνὸς 
᾿Ινδοῦ, καὶ μέντοι καὶ δακὼν 6 κύων ἔχεται καὶ 
μάλα ἐγκρατῶς. κἂν προσελθὼν μαχαίρᾳ τὸ 
σκέλος ἀποκόπτῃς τοῦ κυνός, ὃ δὲ οὐκ ἄγει 
σχολὴν ἀλγήσας ἀνεῖναι τὸ δῆγμα, ἀλλὰ ἀπεκόπη 

1 Retske: συνδραμόντα. 2 ἐνούρησε. 
8 φασίν διὰ τῆς γλυφῆς. aa 
230 | 

ON ANIMALS, IV. 16-19 

more numerous, seeming to be drawn by some spell 
that is in truth love. 

17. The Hedgehog too is believed to be one of the et 
animals that show spite. Thus, when it is caught it 
immediately makes water on its skin, so rendering it 
unfit for use, though it is thought to serve many 
purposes. The Lynx too hides its urine, for when it The Lynx 
hardens it turns to stone @ and is suitable for engrav- 
ing, and is one of the aids to female adornment, so 

they say. 

18. If a Lion eats a Lion’s-bane,? it dies. And in- oie 
sects are destroyed if one drops oil on them. And to certain 
perfumes are the death of Vultures. Beetles you will #™™*s 

extirpate if you scatter roses on them. 

19. The Hounds of India are. reckoned as wild fhe Tndian 
animals; they are exceedingly strong and. fierce- 
tempered, and are the largest dogs in the world. All 
other animals they despise; but an Indian Hound 
will engage with a lion and resist its onslaught, bark- 
ing against its roar and giving bite for bite. Only 
after much worrying and wounding of the lion is the 
Hound finally overcome; and even a lion might be 
overcome by an Indian Hound, for once it has bitten, 
the Hound holds fast with might and main. And 
even if you take a sword and cut off a Hounds leg, 
it has no thought, in spite of its pain, of relaxing its 

4 ‘The stone known as λυγγούριον was perhaps amber. The 
word was derived from λύγξ and οὖρον. 

> In [Arist.] Mir. 845 a 28 it appears as a Syrian animal 
that was supposed to poison lions; to hunters who killed, 
cooked, and ate it it was equally fatal; cp. Plin. ΝΗ ἃ. 38. 
But L-S* regard it as an insect. 



5 | f : A ? » 
μὲν πρότερον τὸ σκέλος, νεκρὸς δὲ ἀνῆκε τὸ στόμα, 
- 4 3 “Ὁ “ 
καὶ κεῖται βιασθεὶς ἀποστῆναι τῷ θανάτῳ. ἃ δὲ 
7 “A ᾿ 
προσήκουσα,Ϊ ἐρῶ ἀλλαχόθι. 

20. ᾿Ανθρώπου μόνου καὶ κυνὸς κορεσθέντων 
ἀναπλεῖ ἡ τροφή. καὶ τοῦ μὲν ἀνθρώπου ἡ 
καρδία τῷ μαζῷ τῷ λαιῷ προσήρτηται, τοῖς γέ 
μὴν ἄλλοις ζῴοις ἐν μέσῳ τῷ στήθει προσπέπλα- 
σται. γαμμμώνυχον δὲ dpa οὐδὲ ἕν οὔτε πίνει 
οὔτε οὐρεῖ οὔτε μὴν συναγελάζεται ἑτέροις. 

, 3 ιν ᾿ 
21. Θηρίον Ἰνδικὸν. βίαιον τὴν ἀλκήν, μέγεθος 
κατὰ τὸν λέοντα τὸν μέγιστον, τὴν δὲ χρόαν 
; ~ φ 7 

ἐρυθρόν, ὡς κινναβάρινον ὃ εἶναι δοκεῖν, δασὺ δὲ 

ε 7 ~ a 3 ~ 
ws κύνες, φωνῇ TH ᾿ἱνδῶν μαρτιχόρας ὠνόμασται. 

\ ᾽ \ 7 “ 
τὸ πρόσωπον δὲ κέκτηται τοιοῦτον, ὡς δοκεῖν οὐ 

θηρίου τοῦτό γε, ἀλλὰ ἀνθρώπου ἔχειν. ὀδόντες 
δὲ τρίστοιχοὶ ἐμπεπήγασιν οἱ ἄνω αὐτῷ, τρί- 
στοιχοι δὲ οὗ κάτω, τὴν ἀκμὴν ὀξύτατοι, τῶν 
κυνείων ἐκεῖνοι μείζους" τὰ δὲ ὦτα ἔοικεν ἀν- 
θρώπῳ καὶ ταῦτα," μείξω δὲ καὶ δασέα: τοὺς δὲ 
ὀφθαλμοὺς γλαῦκός ἐστι, καὶ ἐοίκασιν ἀνθρωπίνοις 
καὶ οὗτοι. πόδας δέ μοι νόει καὶ ὄνυχας οἵους εἶναι 
λέοντος. τῇ δὲ οὐρᾷ ἄκρᾳ προσήρτηται σκορπίου 
κέντρον, καὶ εἴη ἂν ὑπὲρ. πῆχυν τοῦτο, καὶ παρ’ 
ἑκάτερα αὐτῷ ἡ οὐρὰ κέντροις διείληπται: τὸ δὲ 
οὐραῖον τὸ ἄκρον ἐς θάνατον ἐκέντησε τὸν περιτυ- 

1 προσήκουσα ἑτέρως. 

2 χὴν ἀκοὴν καὶ ἀλκήν L. 

3 κιννάβαριν. 

4 θηρίον . . . ἄνθρωπον ὁρᾶν. 

5 μέν. 5. ταῦτα τήν ye ἑαυτῶν πλάσιν. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 19-21 

pite, but though its leg has been cut off, only when 

dead does it let go and lie still, forced by death to 

What more I have learned I will recount else- 


90. Men and Dogs are the only creatures that Peculiarities 

f various 

belch after they have eaten their fill. A man’s heart creatures 

is attached to his left breast, but in other creatures 
it is fixed in the centre of the thorax. Among 
birds of prey there is not one that drinks or makes 
water, or even gathers in flocks with others of its 


21. There is in India a wild beast, powerful, daring, 
as big as the largest lion, of a red colour like cinnabar, 
shaggy like a dog, and in the language of India it is 
called Martichoras.® Its face however is not that of 
a wild beast but of a man, and it has three rows of 
teeth set in its upper jaw and three in the lower; 
these are exceedingly sharp and larger than the 
fangs of a hound. Its ears also resemble a man’s, 
except that they are larger and shaggy; its eyes are 
blue-grey and they too are like a man’s, but its feet 
and claws, you must know, are those of a lion. To 
the end of its tail is attached the sting of a scorpion, 
and this might be over a cubit in length; and the tail 
has stings at intervals on either side. But the tip of 
the tail gives a fatal sting to anyone who encounters 

α See 8. I. 
> The English form is mantichore. The word is derived from 

the Persian mardkhora = ‘ man-slayer’; perhaps a man-eating 
tiger. i 




/ A ὃ 7 θ lal ὟΝ Ω ? 4 1 
χόντα, καὶ διέφθειρε παραχρῆμα. ἐὰν δέ τις αὐτὸν 

διώκῃ, ὁ δὲ ἀφίησι τὰ κέντρα πλάγια ὡς βέλη, καὶ 

” \ Ἂ ¢ ῇ 1 2 ” ‘ 
ἔστι TO ζῷον ἑκηβόλον. Kat ἐς τοὔμπροσθεν μὲν 

Cf 9 7 x ? 3 > X ? 7 2A ‘ 
ὅταν ἀπολύῃ τὰ κέντρα, ἀνακλᾷ τὴν οὐράν: ἐὰν δὲ. 

3 > i 4 4 4 ΄“ 4 3 7 3 x 
ἐς τοὐπίσω κατὰ τοὺς Σάκας, ᾷ δὲ ἀποτάδην αὐτὴν 
ἐξαρτᾷ. ὅτου δ᾽ ἂν τὸ βληθὲν τύχῃ, ἀποκτεζνει: 
3 2 \ ? 3 val 4 ‘ ν᾿ 2 , 
ἐλέφαντα δὲ οὐκ ἀναιρεῖ μόνον. τὰ δὲ ἀκοντιζό- 
μενα κέντρα ποδιαῖα τὸ μῆκός ἐστι, σχοΐνου δὲ τὸ 
? 7 \ a / / ¢ 

πάχος. λέγει δὲ apa Κτησίας καί φησιν ὅμολο- 
γεῖν αὐτῷ τοὺς ᾿Ινδούς, ἐν ταῖς χώραις τῶν 
3 , + , } ¢ 4 2 

ἀπολυομένων ἐκείνων κέντρων ὑπαναφύεσθαι ἄλλα, 
ὡς εἶναι τοῦ κακοῦ τοῦδε ἐπυγονήν. φιληδεῖ δέ, 
¢ ¢ 3 A / 7 3 ᾽; 3 ’ὔ, 

ὡς ὁ αὐτὸς λέγει, μάλιστα ἀνθρώπους ἐσθίων, 

καὶ ἀναιρεῖ γε 5 ἀνθρώπους πολλούς, καὶ οὐ καθ᾽ 

ἕνα ἐλλοχᾷ, δύο 3 δ᾽ ἂν ἐπίθουιτο καὶ τρισί, καὶ 
κρατεῖ τῶν τοσούτων μόνος. καταγωνίζεται δὲ 
\ ~ 7 X 7 7} XY > a 7 
καὶ τῶν ζῴων τὰ λοιπά, λέοντα δὲ οὐκ ἂν καθέλοι 
ποτέ. ὅτι δὲ κρεῶν ἀνθρωπείων ἐμπιπλάμενον 
τόδε τὸ ζῷον ὑπερήδεται, κατηγορεῖ καὶ τὸ 
" ᾿ “ἃ ᾿ - ‘hy ΄-ς. a5 3 
ὄνομα" νοεῖ ἃ γὰρ τῇ ἡνὼν φωνῇ ὃ ἀνθρω- 
ποφάγον αὐτὸ εἶναι. ἐκ δὲ τοῦ ἔργου καὶ κέκλη- 
ται. πέφυκε δὲ κατὰ τὴν ἔλαφον ὥκιστος. τὰ 
? δὲ o~ ὃ “ς᾽ ᾽ if | ὃ \ θ ee) > / 
βρέφη δὲ τῶνδε τῶν ζῴων “lvdot Onpdow ἀκέν-- 
Pata N , ᾿ λίθ 8 ᾿ a“ 
τρους τὰς οὐρὰς ἔχοντα, καὶ λίθῳ ye® διαθλῶσιν 
αὐτάς, ἵνα ἀδυνατῶσι τὰ κέντρα ἀναφύειν. φωνὴν 
@ 3 4 ote 

δὲ σάλπιγγος ws ὅτι ἐγγυτάτω προΐεται. λέγει 
δὲ καὶ ἑορακέναι ἢ τόδε τὸ ζῷον ἐν Πέρσαις 

/ > ? “ \ fa “~ ~ 
Κτησίας ἐξ ᾿Ινδῶν κομισθὲν δῶρον τῷ Περσῶν 

- ξ “~ ΄΄- 
βασιλεῖ, εἰ δή τῳ ἱκανὸς τεκμηριῶσαι ὑπὲρ τῶν 

Lladro.  ? δέ. 8 καὶ δύο. 

4 Reiske: νοεῖται. 5 φωνῇ ἡ ᾿Ινδῶν. 

6 ye ἔτι. 7 ἑωρακέναι. 



it, and death is immediate. If one pursues the beast 
it lets fly its stings, like arrows, sideways, and it can 
shoot a great distance; and when it discharges its 
stings straight ahead it bends its tail back; if how- 
ever it shoots in a backward direction, as the Sacae® 
do, then it stretches its tail to its full extent. Any 
creature that the missile hits it kills; the elephant 
alone it does not kill. These stings which it shoots 
are a foot long and the thickness of a bulrush. Now 
Ctesias asserts (and he says that the Indians confirm 
his words) that in the places where those stings have 
been let fly others spring up, so that this evil produces 
a crop. And according to the same writer the 
Mantichore for choice devours human beings ; indeed 
it will slaughter a great number; and it lies in wait 
not for a single man but would set upon two or even 
three men, and alone overcomes even that number. 
All other animals it defeats: the lion alone it can 
never bring down. That this creature takes special 
delight in gorging human flesh its very name testi- 
fies, for in the Greek language it means man-eater, 
and its name is derived from its activities. Like the 

‘stag it is extremely swift. 

Now the Indians hunt the young of these animals 
while they are still without stings in their tails, which 
they then crush with a stone to prevent them from 
growing stings. The sound of their voice is as near 
as possible that of a trumpet. 7 

Ctesias declares that he has actually seen this 
animal in Persia (it had been brought from India as 
a present to the Persian King)—if Ctesias is to be 

α Tranian nomads inhabiting the country SE of the Sea of 
Aral between the rivers Jaxartes and Oxus. They contri- 
buted a contingent to the Persian army. 



4 ᾽ 3 
bee Sled Κτησίας. ἀκούσας ye μὴν τὰ ἴδιά τις 
τοῦδε τοῦ ζῴου εἶτ D t τῷ 
τορος Ce α μέντοι τῷ συγγραφεῖ τῷ 
νιδίῳ προσεχέτω. 

᾿ , 
22. Σκολόπενδρα θαλαττία διαρρήγνυται, ὥς 
φασιν, ἀνθρώπου διαπτύσαντος αὐτῆς .1 

28. Kaprov δὲ iréas εἴ τις θλιβέντα δοίη πιεῖν 
τοῖς ἀλόγοις, λυπεῖται ἐκεῖνα οὐδὲ ἕν, μᾶλλον δὲ 
καὶ τρέφεται: πιὼν δὲ ἄνθρωπος τὴν σπορὰν τὴν 
παιδοποιόν τε καὶ ἔγκαρπον ἀπώλεσε. καί μοι 
δοκεῖ , Ὅμηρος καὶ τὰ τῆς φύσεως ἀπόρρητα 
avixvevoas εἶτα μέντοι " καὶ ἰτέαι ὠλεσίκαρποι᾽ ἐν 
τοῖς ἑαυτοῦ μέτροις εἰπεῖν τοῦτο αἰνιττόμενος. 
κωνείου δὲ ἄνθρωπος πιὼν κατὰ τὴν τοῦ αἵματος 
πῆξιν τε καὶ ψῦξιν ἀποθνήσκει, ὗς δὲ κωνείου 
ἐμπίπλαται καὶ ὑγιαίνει. 

: 24. Οἱ Ινδοὶ τέλειον μὲν ἐλέφαντα συλλαβεῖν 
ῥᾳδίως ἀδυνατοῦσιν," ἐς δὲ τὰ ἕλη φοιτῶντες τὰ 
γειτνιῶντα τῷ ποταμῷ εἶτα μέντοι λαμβάνουσιν 
αὐτῶν τὰ βρέφη. ἀσπάζεται γὰρ 6 ἐλέφας τὰ 
ἔνδροσα χωρία καὶ μαλακά, καὶ φιλεῖ τὸ ὕδωρ 
καὶ ἐν τοῖσδε τοῖς ἤθεσι διαιτᾶσθαι ἐθέλει, καὶ ὡς 
ἂν εἴποις ἕλειός ἐστι. λαβόντες οὖν ἁπαλὰ καὶ 
εὐπειθῆ τρέφουσι κολακείᾳ τε τῇ κατὰ γαστέρα 
καὶ θεραπείᾳ τῇ περὶ τὸ σῶμα καὶ φωνῇ θωπευ- 
τικῇ (συνιᾶσι γὰρ ἐλέφαντες καὶ γλώττης ἀνθρω- 
πίνης τῆς ἐπιχωρίου), καὶ συνελόντι εἰπεῖν ὡς 
παῖδας αὐτοὺς ἐκτρέφουσι, καὶ κομιδὴν προσά- 

1 προσπτύσαντος αὐτῇ H. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 21-24 

regarded as a sufficient authority on such matters. 
At any rate after hearing of the peculiarities of this 

- animal, one must pay heed to the historian of Cnidos. 

22. The Sea-scolopendra bursts, they say, when a The power 
of human 

man spits in its face. spittle 

93. If one crushes the fruit of a Willow-tree and The Willow 
ives it to animals to drink, they suffer no injury at 
all, rather they thrive on it. But if ἃ man drinks it, 
his semen loses its procreative strength. And I fancy 
that Homer had explored the secrets of nature when 
he wrote in his verses [Od. 10. 510] ‘ and willows that 
lose their fruit,’ and that he was making a cryptic 
allusion to this. Andifaman drink Hemlock, he dies ‘ 
from the congealing and chilling of his blood, whereas” 
a hog can gorge itself with Hemlock and remain in 

good health.. 

The taming 
of Elephants 

94. The Indians have difficulty in capturing a full- 
grown Elephant. So they resort to the swamps by a 
river and then capture the young ones. For the 
Elephant delights in moist places where the ground is 

soft, and loves the water, and prefers to pass his time 

in these haunts: he is, so to say, a creature of the 
swamps. So having caught them while tender and 
docile, they look after them, pandering to their 
appetites, grooming their bodies, and using soothing 
words—for the Elephants understand the speech of 
the natives—and, in a word, they foster them like 
children and bestow care upon them, instructing 
τι τ ----- 

2 ἀδυνατοῦσιν, οὔτε γὰρ τοσαῦτα δράσουσιν οὔτε τοσοΐδε 



them in various ways. And the baby Elephants 
learn to obey. 

5 ~ 4 7 Σ 7 € Ἁ 
γουσιν αὐτοῖς καὶ παιδεύματα ποικίλα. οἱ δὲ 

threshing season when the oxen move ee ἊΝ a8 
coca es ee tear 8 and the space is filled We dig corn 
sheaves, in order to prevent the oxen from eating 
ears, the men smear their nostrils with oa eee 
vice which they have hit upon and which oes a 
well. For this animal is so disgusted at a ae 
smearing that it would not touch ane ood, eV 
though it were assailed with the fiercest hunger. 

25. Ὅταν ἀλοητὸς ἧ, Kal στρέφωνται περὶ τὸν 
δῖνον οἱ βόες, καὶ πεπληρωμένη τῶν δραγμάτων ἡ, 
ἅλως ἢ, ὑπὲρ τοῦ τοὺς βοῦς μὴ ἀπογεύσασθαι 
τῶν σταχύων βολίτῳ τὰς ῥῖνας ἐπιχρίουσιν αὐτῶν, 
σόφισμα ἐπινοήσαντες τοῦτο καὶ μάλα γε ἐπιτή- 
δειον. τοῦτο γὰρ τὸ ζῷον μυσαττόμενον τὴν 
προειρημένην χρῖσιν οὐκ ἄν τινος ἀπογεύσαιτο, 
οὐδ᾽ εἰ τῷ βαρυτάτῳ λιμῷ πιέζοιτο. ᾿ 

96. This is the way in which the Indians hunt Hares farony in 

26. Τοὺς λαγὼς καὶ τὰς ἀλώπεκας θηρῶσιν ot “ and Foxes: they have no need of ae a 
Ἰνδοὶ τὸν τρόπον τοῦτον. κυνῶν ἐς τὴν ἄγραν chase, but they catch the he Ἢ h chem how-to 
od δέονται, ἀλλὰ νεοττοὺς συλλαβόντες ἀετῶν Kat | and Kites also, rear ee τ becca bias ae ᾿ 
κοράκων καὶ ἰκτίνων προσέτι τρέφουσι καὶ hunt. This is nents ᾿ τ, sachin piece oF ᾿ 
ee : τ 2 Op Ἧι. ὍΝ ἰῷ panic, ae 4 a oe tie yun; and having sent the 
πράῳ λαγῷ καὶ ἀλώπεκι τιθασῷ κρέας mpocap- meat, at 3 

birds in pursuit, they allow them to pick off the meat. 

~ \ -» - Α 4 3) ΕῚ A ἢ : “ tch 
sia ον ας ue ay, a en ἢ Mus “ae | The birds give chase at full speed, and if they ca : 
κατὰ πόδας ἐπιπέμψαντες τὸ κρέας ἀφελέσθαι the Hare or the Fox, they have the meat as ἃ rewar 
συγχωροῦσιν. of δὲ ἀνὰ κράτος διώκουσι, Kat for the capture: it is for them ἃ highly attractive 
ἑλόντες ἢ τὸν ἢ THY ἔχουσιν ὑπὲρ τοῦ καταλαβεῖν bait. When therefore they have perfected the birds 

ἄθλον τὸ κρέας. καὶ τοῦτο μὲν. αὐτοῖς δέλεάρ skill at hunting, the Indians let them loose after 

cenogerpcgsprindinay φόβο ser ads boosh sete ioe 


petra ae aca 

seanotnpenanrnta cee t nechezpersioecionionttnns nternees ἀντ ϑ cece 
, νος το τορος, eT ενῶὰς ἀὐρτίπρεται 

᾿ \ , > , > mA 3 ᾽ 7 : 1" in 
ἐστι καὶ μάλα ἐφολκόν. οὐκοῦν ὅταν ἀκριβώσωσι } mountain Hares and wild Foxes. And the birds, 
; (αν τὴν θ ἦν͵ ἐπὶ τοὺς ὀρείους λαγὰ | “πὶ οἔ their accustomed feed, whenever one 
τὴν σοφίαν τὴν θηρατικήν, ἐπὶ τοὺς ὀρείους λαγὼς | expectation of their a Ae cee i degen 
»". - a) 4 Ἁ.ϑ 9. ἃ A) 3 7 XS 3 ? ᾿ . 
μεθιᾶσιν αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰς ἀλώπεκας τὰς ἀγρίας. of these animals appears, ΗΚ ἃ ’ Gene 
i δὲ ἐλπίδι τοῦ det ῦ ἦ 5 ἊΣ ἱ ἃ bring it back to their masters, as Vte 
οἱ δὲ ἐλπίδι τοῦ δείπνου τοῦ συνήθους, ὅταν τι | trice, and bring 

-ce we learn also 
tells us. And from the same source W 
| that in place of the meat w ch has hitherto been: 
| ‘Is of the animals they have caught 

fond ‘4 ¢ “~ 
τούτων φανῇ, μεταθέουσι, καὶ αἱροῦσιν ὦκιστα, 
A a 3 . 
καὶ τοῖς δεσπόταις ἀποφέρουσιν, ws λέγει Κτησίας. 

καὶ ὅτι ὑπὲρ τοῦ τέως προσηρτημένου KpewS ΟῚ attached, the entra 

3 a Ἁ λ , - ¢€ / ὃ A aa | ᾿ provide ameal. 

αὐτοῖς τὰ σπλάγχνα τῶν ἡἠρημένων δεῖπνόν De Ee τς οι τὰ oa aes πο ϑῆα 

> " »" ~~ 7 nn 
ἐστιν, ἐκεῖθεν καὶ τοῦτο ἴσμεν. 1 χὸ δεῖπνον. 

238 ᾿ 39 

ΒΕ ensnrerrr remnenre remeron τα er 


3 “- 3 7 A ~ \ ? . 
27. Τὸν γρῦπα ἀκούω τὸ ζῷον τὸ ᾿Ἰνδικὸν 
7 Α ᾽ 
τετράπουν εἶναι κατὰ τοὺς λέοντας, καὶ ἔχειν 
ἰδ 7 \ 
ὄνυχας KapTepods ws ὅτι μάλιστα, Kal τούτους 

97. I have heard that the Indian animal the ane ee 

i ion ; j d the gold 
Gryphon is a quadruped like a lion; that it has claws and the go 

μέντοι τοῖς τῶν λεόντων παραπλησίους: κατάπτε- 
ρον δὲ εἶναι, καὶ τῶν μὲν νωτιαίων 1 πτερῶν τὴν 
7 7 v 4 δὲ / A > θ ? 
χρόαν μέλαιναν ᾷἄδουσι, τὰ δὲ πρόσθια ἐρυθρά 
φασι, τάς γε μὴν πτέρυγας αὐτὰς οὐκέτι τοιαύτας, 
3 \ f \ 4 \ > ~ “A 7ὔ 
ἀλλὰ λευκάς. τὴν δέρην δὲ αὐτῶν κυανοῖς διηνθί- 
σθαι τοῖς πτεροῖς Κτησίας ἱστορεῖ, στόμα δὲ ἔχειν 
ἀετῶδες καὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν ὁποίαν of χειρουργοῦντες 
γράφουσί τε καὶ πλάττουσι. φλογώδεις δὲ τοὺς 
ὀφθαλμούς φησιν αὐτοῦ. νεοττιὰς δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν 
ὁρῶν ποιεῖται, Kat. τέλειον μὲν λαβεῖν ἀδύνατόν 
ἐστι, νεοττοὺς δὲ αἱροῦσι. καὶ Βάκτριοι μὲν 
“Ῥ > “a 7 > Ἁ 7 ᾿ > 
γειτνιῶντες ᾿Ινδοῖς λέγουσιν αὐτοὺς φύλακας εἶναι 
τοῦ χρυσοῦ {τοῦ " αὐτόθι, καὶ ὀρύττειν τε αὐτόν 
> , , 
ασιν αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐκ τούτου τὰς καλιὰς ὑποπλέ- 
\ de 3 ‘4 Ἴ ὃ ἮΝ λ f Ἴ ὃ i 
Kev, TO δὲ ἀπορρέον ᾿Ινδοὺς λαμβάνειν. ᾿Ἰνδοὶ 
δὲ οὔ φασιν αὐτοὺς φρουροὺς εἶναι τοῦ προειρημέ- 
A / ~ . ~ 
vou: μηδὲ yap δεῖσθαι χρυσίου γρῦπας (καὶ ταῦτα 
> f \ wv “~ 4 3 \ 
εἰ λέγουσι, πιστὰ ἔμοιγε δοκοῦσι λέγειν): ἀλλὰ 
αὐτοὺς μὲν ἐπὶ τὴν τοῦ χρυσίου ἄθροισιν ἀφικνεῖ- 
σθαι, τοὺς δὲ ὑπέρ τε τῶν σφετέρων βρεφῶν 
a ~ f 
δεδιέναι καὶ τοῖς ἐπιοῦσι μάχεσθαι. καὶ διαγωνί- 
ζεσθαι μὲν πρὸς τὰ ἄλλα ζῷα καὶ κρατεῖν ῥᾷστα, 
᾽ δὲ 4 > Ai θ δὲ λέ . ,ὔ 
λέοντι δὲ μὴ ἀνθίστασθαι μηδὲ ἐλέφαντι. δεδιότες 
δὲ ἄρα τὴν τῶνδε τῶν θηρίων ἀλκὴν οἱ ἐπιχώ- 
ptot, μεθ᾽ ἡμέραν ἐπὶ τὸν χρυσὸν od στέλλονται, 
νύκτωρ δὲ ἔρχονται: ἐοίκασι γὰρ τηνικάδε τοῦ 
καιροῦ λανθάνειν μᾶλλον. 6 δὲ χῶρος οὗτος, ἔνθα 
1 εἶναι. . . νωτιαίων] τὰ νῶτα εἶναι καὶ τούτων τῶν. 
% τοῦ» add. Reiske. 

se nat 

ae eM eek trey μη ηξ τόνον εν δ᾽" ᾿ Αι aay sc μ 
iain yace “SR Bees esi eee ae EET lore ὧν 

ἐπε ραλήν φασι θαι 

mses δυο λον atts ARICA AAAS AN SAE RIEL 

νεες δσλσννναννσντλυντοόνττο σινσννυν οαδθίλλννσα τ τον 

PE ot ne 

of enormous strength and that they resemble those 
of a lion. Men commonly report that it is winged 

and that the feathers along its back are black, and 

those on its front are red, while the actual wings are 
neither but are white. And Ctesias records that its 
neck is variegated with feathers of a dark blue ; that 
it has a beak like an eagle’s, and a head too, Just as 
artists portray it in pictures and sculpture. Its eyes, 
he says, are like fire. It builds its lair among 
the mountains, and although it is not possible to cap- 
ture the full-grown animal, they do take the young 
ones. And the people of Bactria, who are neigh- 
bours of the Indians, say that the Gryphons guard the 
gold in those parts; that they dig it up and build their 
nests with it, and that the Indians carry off any that 
falls from them. The Indians however deny that 
they guard the aforesaid gold, for the Gryphons have 
no need of it (and if that is what they say, then I at 
any rate think that they speak the truth), but that 
they themselves come to collect the gold, while the 
Gryphons fearing for their young ones fight with the 
invaders. They engage too with other beasts and 
overcome them without difficulty, but they will not 
face the lion or the elephant. Accordingly the 
natives, dreading the strength of these animals, do 
not set out in quest of the gold by day, but arrive by 
night, for at that season they are less likely to be 
detected. Now the region where the Gryphons live 



οἵ τε γρῦπες διαιτῶνται καὶ τὰ χρυσεῖά 1 ἐστιν 
ἔρημος πέφυκε δεινῶς. ἀφικνοῦνται δὲ οἱ os 
ὕλης τῆς προειρημένης θηραταὶ κατὰ χιλίους τε 
καὶ δὶς τοσούτους ὡπλισμένοι, Kal ἄμας κομίζουσι 
σάκκους τε, καὶ ὀρύττουσιν ἀσέληνον ἐπιτηροῦντες 
νύκτα. ἐὰν μὲν οὖν λάθωσι τοὺς γρῦπας, ὥνηνται 
διπλῆν τὴν ὄνησιν' καὶ γὰρ σώζονται καὶ μέντοι 
καὶ οἴκαδε τὸν φόρτον κομίζουσι, καὶ ἐκκαθήραν- 
τες “ οἱ μαθόντες χρυσοχοεῖν ὃ σοφίᾳ τινὶ σφετέρᾳ 
πάμπολυν πλοῦτον ὑπὲρ τῶν κινδύνων ἔχουσι τῶν 
προειρημένων" ἐὰν δὲ κατάφωροι γένωνται, ἀπο- 

ὦώλασιν. ἐπανέρχονται. δὲ ἐς τὰ οἰκεῖα ὡς 
πυνθάνομαι δι᾿ ἔτους τρίτου καὶ τετάρτου. 

28. Χελώνης θαλαττίας ἀποτμηθεῖσα ἡ κεφαλὴ 4 
a καὶ καταμύει τὴν χεῖρα προσάγοντος" ἤδη 

ἂν καὶ δάκοι, εἰ περαιτέρω προσαγάγοις τὴν 
χεῖρα. καὶ ἐπὶ μακρὸν ἐκλάμποντας ἔχει τοὺς 
ὀφθαλμούς" ai γάρ τοι κόραι λευκόταταί τε καὶ 
περιφανέσταταί εἰσι, καὶ ἐξαιρεθεῖσαι χρυσίῳ καὶ 
ὅρμοις ἐντίθενται. ἔνθεν τοι καὶ δοκοῦσι ταῖς 
γυναιξὶ θαυμασταί. γίνονται δὲ ὡς πυνθάνομαι αἱ 
χελῶναι aide ἐν τῇ θαλάττῃ, ἣν ἄδουσιν Ἔρυθράν. 

ΝΣ EM tan tan been 

ON ANIMALS, IV. 27-29 

‘and where the gold is mined is a dreary wilderness. 

And the seekers after the aforesaid substance arrive, 
a thousand or two strong, armed and bringing spades 
and sacks; and watching for a moonless night they 

begin to dig. Now if they contrive to elude the 
_Gryphons they reap a double advantage, for they not. 
only escape with their lives but they also take home » 

their freight, and when those who have acquired a 
special skill in the smelting of gold have refined it, 
they possess immense wealth to requite them for the 
dangers described above. If however they are 
caught in the act, they are lost. And they return 
home, I am told, after an interval of three or four 


98. The head of a Turtle, after it has been cut off, The Turtle 
and its eyes 

sees and closes its eyes if one brings one’s hand near; 
and it would still bite if you brought your hand too 
near. It has eyes that flash a long way off, for the 
pupils are the purest white and very conspicuous, and 
when removed are set in gold and necklaces.* For 
that reason they are greatly admired by women. 
These Turtles, I learn, are natives of what is com- 
monly called the ‘ Red Sea.’ 

99. The Cock, they say, at moonrise becomes pos- The Cock 
sessed and jumps about. Never would a sunrise pass ΠΩΣ 

29. Ὁ ἀλεκτρυὼν τῆς σελήνης ἀνισχούσης | 
unnoticed by him, but at that hour he excels himself 

3 “ΕΒ A ; “ 
ἐνθουσιᾷ φασι καὶ σκιρτᾷ. ἥλιος δὲ ἀνίσχων οὐκ 
ἂν ποτε αὐτὸν διαλάθ ὑδικώ Ξ € 

vy διαλάθοι, φδικώτατος δὲ ἑαυτοῦ ὃ 

ἐστι τηνικάδε. πυνθάνομαι δὲ ὅτι ὅρα: καὶ τῇ in crowing. And I learn that the Cock is the 

᾿ ‘ ὃς ον ‘ ; @ f 5 - μὲ i é » lin . 
᾿ Reiske : Τὰ χωρία τὰ χρυσεῖα. - ἶ 37 ene Peers cae unknown gem. Cp - a 
2 ἐκκαθάραντες. ἊΝ | ne | 
: Ges . χρυσωρυχεῖν. -ο ει πε ΝΕ Ν 
κε Ἢ 4 AAG 
φαλὴ οὔποτε θνήσκει ἀλλά. δ φδικώτερος δὲ ἑαυτοῦ μᾶλλον. 



Anrot φίλον ἐστὶν 6 ἀλεκτρυὼν 1 τὸ ὄρνεον. τὸ 
δὲ αἴτιον, παρέστη φασὶν αὐτῇ τὴν διπλῆν τε καὶ 
μακαρίαν ὠδῖνα ὠδινούσῃ. ταῦτά τοι καὶ νῦν 
ταῖς τικτούσαις ἀλεκτρυὼν πάρεστι, καὶ δοκεῖ 
πως εὐώδινας ἀποφαίνειν. τῆς δὲ ὄρνιθος ἀπο- 
λωλυίας, ἐπῳάζει αὐτός, καὶ ἐκλέπει τὰ ἐξ ἑαυτοῦ 
νεόττια σιωπῶν" οὐ yap adder τότε θαυμαστῇ τινι 
καὶ ἀπορρήτῳ αἰτίᾳ, vat μὰ τόν: δοκεῖ γάρ μοι 
Ὁ ait ἑαυτῷ θηλείας ἔργα καὶ οὐκ ἄρρενος 
ρῶντι τηνικάδε. μάχῃ 5 «δὲ» 8 ἀλεκτρυὼν καὶ 
τῇ πρὸς ἄλλον ἡττηθεὶς ἀγωνίᾳ οὐκ ἂν doce 4" τὸ 
γάρ τοι φρόνημα αὐτῷ κατέσταλται,ὃ καὶ καταδύε- 
ταὶ γε ὑπὸ τῆς αἰδοῦς. κρατήσας δὲ γαῦρός ἐστι 
καὶ ὑψαυχενεῖ, καὶ κυδρουμένῳ ἔοικε. θαυμάσαι 
δὲ τοῦ ζῴου ὑπεράξιον καὶ ἐκεῖνο δήπου: θύραν 
teens ore oh 2 χω, 
αζον τοῦτο: φειδοῖ γὰρ 
τοῦ λόφου πράττειν ἔοικε τὸ εἰρημένον. 

ξ ' A ~ 
30. Ot Kodowoi δεινῶς φιλοῦσι τὸ ὁμόφυλον 
τοῦτό τοι καὶ διαφθεί τοὺ Ἵ , 
aes φθείρει αὐτοὺς πολλάκις, καὶ τό 
he ρώμενον τοιοῦτόν ἐστιν. ὅτῳ μέλει θηρᾶσαι 
Lond “~ i 
κολοιούς, τοιαῦτα παλαμᾶται. ἔνθα οἶδεν αὐτῶν 
4 4 > 
τς καὶ τροφὰς καὶ ἀθροιζομένους ὁρᾷ κατ᾽ 

ἀγέλας, ἐνταῦθα λεκανίδας ἐλαίου μεστὰς διατί- 

θησιν. οὐκοῦν διειδὲς μὲν τὸ ἔ f 
lla διειδὲς μὲν τὸ ἔλαιον, περίεργον δὲ 
τὸ ὀρνίθιον, καὶ ἀφικνεῖται καὶ ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖλος τοῦ 

; \ 4 
σκεύους κάθηται, καὶ κύπτει κάτω καὶ ὁρᾷ τὴν 
” , 
ἑαυτοῦ σκιάν, Kat οἴεται κολοιὸν βλέπειν ἄλλον 
- 4 ᾿ 
καὶ κατελθεῖν πρὸς αὐτὸν σπεύδει. κάτεισί τε 
1 ὁ ἄλεκτρυων del. Cobet. 2 ἐν μάχῃ 

ON ANIMALS, IV. 29-30 

favourite bird of Leto. The reason is, they say, that 
he was at her side when she was so happily brought to 
bed of twins. That is why to this very day a Cock 

is at hand when women are in travail, and is believed ᾿ 

somehow to promote an easy delivery. 

If the Hen dies the Cock himself sits on the eggs 
and hatches his own eggs in silence, for then for some 
strange and inexplicable reason, I must say, he does 
not crow. I fancy that he is conscious that he is then 
doing the work of a female and ποῦ οἵ ἃ male. 

A Cock that has been defeated in battle and in a 
struggle with another will not crow, for his spirit is 
depressed and he hides himself in shame. On the 
other hand if he is victorious, he is proud and holds his 
head high and appears exultant. Here too is a most 
astonishing trait, I think. As he passes beneath a 
doorway, no matter how high, the Cock lowers his 
head—a most pretentious action, done apparently 
to protect his comb. 

30. Jackdaws are devoted to their own species ; The 
d Jackdaw 

and this it is that often causes their destruction. An 
it happens in this way. The man who intends to 

hunt Jackdaws adopts the following plan. In the how caught 

place where he knows that they feed and where he 
sees them gathering in flocks he arranges basins full 
of oil. Now the oil is transparent and the bird is in- 

quisitive, and it comes and perches on the rim of the 

vessel, bends down, and sees its own reflexion, and 

supposing it to be another Jackdaw, makes haste to 

go down to it. So it descends, flaps its wings, and 

᾿ς - --- - --ς----- 
8. 8¢) add. Reiske. 4 goa. 

5 ῃ A ἢ ; 
κατέσταλται καὶ μεμείωται." 


itd tnaen wwe penta bennnene ne ooSA LLC ASCR Ne σα κα NARS OEEELLNR SURLY Mana hoo Mea 


- : : i uite unable to 
all over itself. Being q 
οὖν καὶ πτερύσσεται 1 καὶ περιβάλλει τὸ ἔλαιον τοὺς, geatters the yi bird remains, so to speak, fettered, 
-~ . BRS n . 
αὑτῷ,Σ καὶ ἀναπτερυγίσαι ὃ ἥκιστός ἐστι, καὶ fly up agai trap nor snare is there. 
4 , \ 7 ι ἐ ΄ A κι : : : though neither net nor p ot 
χωρὶς δικτύων καὶ πάγης καὶ ἁρπεδόνων τὸ ζῷον - | 
# e “Δ 39 ‘4 . : a 
EVEL WS ἂν εἴποις πεπεδημένον. ; : truding The 
μ ς s Ula 41. The Elephant has what pias a ae δὰ ᾿ς ἼΝ ἽΝ 
Ὁ ἐλέ δι δον δας τς , , ᾿ tusks, what others call horns. One Resvoh, thew aa mani 
31. ὋὉ ἐλέφας, of μὲν αὐτοῦ προκύπτειν χαυλιό- oes; their growth is just visible althoug Υ 
δοντάς φασιν, of δὲ κέρατα. ἔχει δὲ καὶ κα five Hee arate; and that is why he is ill-adapted for 7 
. 3 ς sc ω- 
ἕκαστον πόδα δακτύλους πέντε, ὑποφαίνοντας μὲν Os oe His hind legs are. shorter than his oe 
~ “~ ᾿ wimm bd : Φ “ΣΝ » a 
Tas ἐκφύσεις, οὐ μὴν διεστῶτας. ταῦτά τοι καὶ Ἢ eos; his paps are close to his armpits: he has 
7 4 “~ 
νηκτικὸς ἐστιν ἥκιστα. σκέλη δὲ τὰ κατόπιν TOV | ate 

ich i iceable than a hand, 
cis which is far more servicea! han ἐ 
ere tongue is short; his gall-bladder is said ali 
not near the liver but close to the intestines. 

προσθίων * βραχύτερά ἐστι: μαξοὶ δὲ αὐτῷ πρὸς 
ταῖς μασχάλαις εἰσί: μυκτῆρα δὲ κέκτηται χειρὸς 

παγχρηστότερον καὶ γλῶτταν βραχεῖαν" χολὴν δὲ ᾿ ‘informed that the duration of oe πο ύλρς iz ᾿ 
αὐτὸν ἔχειν οὐ κατὰ τὸ ἧπαρ ἀλλὰ πρὸς τῷ ἐντέρῳΦ —.— nancy is two years, es ot aaa s. It bears a 
φασί. κύειν δὲ πυνθάνομαι δύο ἐτῶν τὸν ἐλέφαντα. ᾿ 4s not so long, but only eig waenrs anit: which pulls 
ot δὲ οὐ τοσοῦτον ypdvov, ἀλλὰ ὀκτωκαίδεκα oung one as big as a When 39 possessed with 
μηνῶν ὁμολογοῦσιν. ἀποτίκτει δὲ ἰσήλικα τὸ | at the dug with a es d is burning with passion, it 
μέγεθος μόσχῳ ἐνιαυσίῳ, σπᾷ δὲ τῆς θηλῆς τῷ | αὐ νὰ τον φενὰ and overturn it, will bend palm- 
στόματι. ἐνθουσιῶν δὲ ἐς μίξιν οἴστρῳ τε φλεγό- A will dash is ee ae forehead against them, as rams 
μενος ἐμπίπτει τοίχῳ καὶ ἀνατρέπει, καὶ φοίνικας te fe ls oe soy ater not when clear and pure but 
κλίνει, τὸ μέτωπον προσαράττων κατὰ τοὺς ὩΣ : he dirtied and stirred it upalittle. But it 
κριούς. πίνει δὲ ὕδωρ οὐ διειδὲς οὐδὲ καθαρόν, aaa 

ine upright, for it-finds the act of lying 
ἀλλ᾽ ὅταν ὑποθολώσῃ τε καὶ ὑποταράξῃ. καθεύδει ' aie ne pee ae troublesome. The ἐν ἀν ον 
γε μὴν ὀρθοστάδην-" κατακλινῆναι γὰρ καὶ ἐξανα- reaches its prime at the age of sixty, ona aaa 
στῆναι ἐργῶδες αὐτῷ. ἀκμὴ δὲ ἐλέφαντι ἑξή- extends to two hundred years. But it cannot e 
κοντα- ἔτη, διατείνει δὲ τὸν βίον καὶ ἐς διπλῆν cold. 
ἑκατοντάδα. κρυμῷ δὲ ὁμιλεῖν ἥκιστός ἐστι a 

1 Jac: περιπτύσσεται. 
2 Ges: αὐτό. 


5. Camper: στέρνῳ. | 2 
£ be 
Σ ἰ 8. ἐλέφαντος ἑξήκοντα ETN γεέγονενα “a: tween 
καὶ ἀναπτερυγίσαι] ὃν γλισχρὸν καὶ συνδεῖται: τὸ δὲ αἴτιον Ὶ ἐλέφαντος ἐξή ῶ.. .. ἐστι appears in the MSS be 
3 ἢ ἕ ? The sentence κρυμᾳ 
aAVvaTTE, βρυγισαι . 

Ges: τὰ πρόσθια τῶν κατόπιν : q ἔτη and διατείνει: transposed by H (Hermes ) | 


ee ee ee My: ee ne ee ee ee ee ee 


3 ; ~ ~ 
32. Προβατεῖαι δὲ Ἰνδῶν ὅποϊαι μαθεῖν ἀξιον 

4 ~ 
VT o~ vw > Ἂ > 
μὴν τῶν τριῶν οὔτ᾽ al& ᾿Ινδικὴ οὔτ᾽ ἂν of 
TEKOL. καὶ τοῖς μὲν προβάτοις αἱ οὐραὶ ae 
lL πρὸς τὸν. 

πόδα τέτανται, αἱ δὲ at 
» a δὲ f 

ὥστ᾽ ἐπιψαύειν γῆς Evin ee oe 
ο ov. τῶν by οἰῶ 
τῶν τίκτειν ἀγαθῶν ee RE ae 
νομεῖς, ἵνα ἀναβαίνωνται, ex ὃ Pree ares 
τούτων. καὶ ἔλαιον ἀποθλί δ ee 

͵ ον ἀποθλίβουσι: τῶν δὲ ἀρρένων 
διατέμνουσι τὰς οὐράς, καὶ ἐξαιροῦ i a 
καὶ ἐπιρράπτουσι, καὶ S106 ὁ Vea Re εν: 
pets ovat, Kat ενοῦται πάλιν ἡ τομή, καὶ 

ται τὰ ἴχνη αὐτῆς. ᾿ 

33. ᾿Αλέξανδρος ὁ Μύνδιος τὸν χαμαιλέοντα 

λυπεῖν τοὺς ὁ L a 
Tous ὄφεις καὶ ἀσιτίᾳ περιβάλλειν τὸν 

τρόπον τοῦτό ΐ 
Τρόπον τοῦτόν φησι. κάρφος πλατὺ καὶ ) 
ἐνδακὼν ἑαυτὸν é 3 ap is ed 
"δακὼν ἐπιστρέφει, καὶ ἀντιπρό 
Daag χωρεῖ τῷ πολεμίῳ. ὃ δὲ αὐ νυ Be. 
β D πο. ; αὐτοῦ - 
σθαι Ὁ κά ' ae 
te ἀδυνατεῖ, τοῦ κάρφους τὸ πλάτος οὐκ ἔ τὰ 

ριχανεῖν, οὐκοῦν ἄδειπνος τό Ἐν κυ 
μένει ὃ ὄῴφις- δάκν ΐ ΤΑ ee 
cvet ὁ ὄφις ὧν γὰρ τοι τὰ λοιπὰ τῶ 1 
αὐτοῦ οὐδὲν avireu: Ww ya ted ia 
α ὐδ ὕτει" στερεὰν γὰρ rip j 
EXEL, καὶ ἐπαΐει τῶν ἐκείνου ὁδόν anil ee 
xe in ὄντων ὃ χαμαιλέων 

34 ‘O > 4 ¢ 

: αὔχην ὃ τοῦ A€ov ἐξ Gore 

ἌΣ ae οντὸς ἐξ ὀστέου 2 συνέ- 

ἀν μὰ ἢ μὴν ex σφονδύλων πολλῶν. εἰ δέ τι 

τ τὰ τοῦ λέοντος διακόπτοι, πῦρ αὐτῶν ἐξάλ. 

ται. μυελοὺς δὲ οὐκ ἔχει: οὐδὲ γάρ ἃ ῖ 

αὐλῶν δίκην. μίξεως δὲ αὐτὸ ἊΝ ae κι 

S$ 0€ αὐτὸν οὐδεμία ἔτους 
1 ¢ 7 
248 ὁμόσε del, H (1876), 

Τ A ‘ - 
as αἶγας καὶ τὰς οἷς ὄνων τῶν μεγίστων μείζονας, 

ON ANIMALS, IV. 32-34 

their Goats and their Sheep are larger than the. 
largest asses, and that each one gives birth to 

uadruplets; anyhow no Goat or Sheep in India 
would ever give birth to less than three at a time. 
The Sheep have tails reaching down to their feet, 
while the Goats have tails of such length as all but 
touch the ground. The shepherds cut off the tails 
of the ewes which are good for breeding so that the 
yams may mount them, and they press oil out of the 
fat contained in them. In the rams’ tails also they 
make an incision and extract the fat and sew them 
up again. And the cut joins up once more and all 

traces of it disappear. 

33. Alexander of Myndus declares that the The 
Chameleon annoys snakes and makes them go hungry ners 

inthisway. Taking inits teeth a piece of wood, broad 
and solid, it turns about and goes to face its enemy. 
But the Snake is unable to seize it as its Jaws cannot 
compass the width of the wood; and so the Snake 
goes without a meal as far as the Chameleon is con- 
cerned, for although it may bite the rest of its body 
it gains nothing, since the Chameleon has a solid hide 
and cares not at all for the fangs of the Snake. 

34, The neck of a Lion consists of a single bone ‘The Lion 

and not of a number of vertebrae. And if a man cuts 
through the bones of a Lion fire leaps forth. But 
they are devoid of marrow, nor are they hollow like 
tubes. There is no season of the year in which it 

2 Jac: ὀστέων. 


39, It is worth while learning the nature of the tee 
flocks that belong to the Indians. I have heard that a Tndia 



3 “ @ ᾿ 
ἀναστέλλει ὥρα. κύει δὲ ἄρα μηνῶν ᾿ δύο 

, 13 ΄ ι a 
TUKTEL δὲ TEVTAKLS, Και ΤΊ) μὲν ὠ δῖνι τῇ πρώτῃ 
[᾿ : 

πέντε, τῇ δὲ δευτέρᾳ τέτταρα, τρία τε {τῇδ ἐπὶ 
ταύτῃ, καὶ δύο <ri>3 ἐπ᾽ ἐκείνῃ, καὶ ὃν ἐπὶ 
πάσαις. οἱ δὲ σκύμνοι ἀρτιγενεῖς μικροί τέ εἰσι 
καὶ τυφλοὶ κατὰ τὰ σκυλάκια: βαδίσεως δὲ 
ὑπάρχονται, ὅταν δύο μῆνας ἀπὸ γενεᾶς διαβιῶ- 
ow. ὁ λόγος δέ, ὅστις λέγει διαξαίνειν. αὐτοὺς 
τὰς μήτρας, μῦθός ἐστι. λιμώττων μὲν οὖν λέων 
ἐντυχεῖν χαλεπός ἐστι, κορεσθεὶς δὲ πραότατος" 
φασὶ δὲ καὶ φιλοπαίστην εἶναι τηνικάδε αὐτόν 
φύγοι δὲ οὐκ ἄν ποτε τὰ νῶτα τρέψας λέων, 
ἡσυχῆ δὲ ἐπὶ πόδα ἀναχωρεῖ βλέπων. ἀντίος 8 
τοῦ γήρως δὲ ὑπαρχομένου ἐπὶ τὰ αὔλια Loyerat 
καὶ ἐπὶ τὰς καλύβας καὶ ἐπὶ τὰς οἰκήσεις τὰς τῶν 
νομέων τὰς ὑπάντρους, καὶ εἰκότως: ταῖς ya 

ὀρείοις ἔτι θήραις ἐπιθαρρεῖν ἀδύνατός ἐστι πῦρ 
δὲ ὀρρωδεῖ. ὅστις μὲν οὖν ἐστιν αὐτῶν γυρότε ᾿ 
καὶ συνεστραμμένος καὶ τὴν χαίτην λασιώτε : 

ἀθυμότερός τε Kal ἀτολμό ἴ μᾶλλον. 
ae pos τε Kat ἀτολμότερος δοκεῖ μᾶλλον: 6 
e μήκους “ εὖ ἥκων καὶ εὐθυτενὴς τὴν τρίχα 
ἀνδρειότερος πεπίστευται καὶ θυμοειδέστερος 
ἀδηφάγος δὲ ὧν καὶ ὅλα φασὶ μέλη Enna ἐν 
καταπίοι. τούτων οὖν πεπληρωμένος καὶ τριῶν 
ἡμερῶν οὐκ ἐσθίει πολλάκις, ἔστ᾽ ἂν ὑπαναλωθῇ 
τὰ πρῶτά οἱ καὶ πεφθῇ. πίνει δὲ ὀλίγα. ι 

Ν᾿: ~ ¢ “- “ 
; 35. 0 βοῦς ὃ πρᾶος τοῦ πλήττοντος καὶ κολά- 
οντος οὐκ ἄν ποτε λήθην λάβοι, ἀλλ᾽ ἀπομνησθεὶς 8 
1 Jac: ἀνά. 2 δὲ καί. a 

3 «τῇ . . . {τῇς add. Η. 

* διαβιώσῃ τὰ τοῦ λέοντος βρέφη. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 34-35 

abstains from coupling, and the Lioness is pregnant 
for two months. Five times does she give birth, at 
the first birth to five cubs, at the second to four, after 
that to three, after that to two, and finally to one. 
The cubs when new-born are small and, like puppies, 
blind, and they begin to walk when they have com- 
jeted two months from birth. But the account which 
says that they scratch through the womb is a fable. 
To encounter a Lion when famished is dangerous, 
but when he has eaten his fill he is extremely gentle ; 
they even say that at that time heis playful. A Lion 
will never turn his back-and flee, but withdraws, 
looking you straight in the face, and by degrees. 
But when he begins to age he visits folds and huts 
and spots where shepherds lodge in caves ; which, is 
to be expected, because he no longer has the spirit 
for hunting on the mountains. He hasa horror of fire. 
Any Lion that inclines to roundness and a compact 
figure, and that has too shaggy a mane, appears to be 
lacking in spirit and daring ; whereas the beast that 
attains a good length and has a straight mane is re- 
arded as bolder and fiercer. Possessing a ravenous 
appetite he will, they say, devour and swallow whole 
limbs. So when he has taken his fill of them he will 
often not eat for the space of three days until his 
former meal has been gradually absorbed and 
‘digested. He drinks but little. 

35. A domesticated Ox will never forget the man 
who strikes and chastises him, but he remembers and 

: @ See 5. 89. Ξ 
5 καὶ φύγοι. 6 ἀντίος καὶ ἐπιβραχύ. 

? «εἰς μῆκος. 8 ὑπομνησθείς. 

The Ox and 
its memory ἡ 


aA . \ / 
τιμωρεῖται καὶ διαστήματος ἐγγενομένου. ὧν μὲ 
γὰρ ὑπὸ ζεύγλην καὶ τρό ; ι ὌΝ 
γλη L τρόπον τινὰ καθειργμένος, 

7 4 
ἔοικε δεσμώτῃ καὶ ἡσυχάζει: ὅταν δὲ ἀφεθῇ, 

πολλάκις ζμὲνν)} τῷ λ f 3 3 

ree ps τῷ σκέλει παίσας συνέτριψε 

O , 

μέλος " τι τ βουκόλου, πολλάκις δὲ καὶ θυμωθεὶς 
πὰ κι 

5. Κέρας εἶτα ἐμπεσὼν ἀπέκτεινεν αὐτόν. ἐντεῦθεν 
προς τὸ | ids ἐ ἱ | 
ee us ἄλλ ous πρᾶος ἐστι, καὶ πάρεισιν ἐς τὸ 

ν : wy 

ὑλιον ἡσυχῆ: οὐ yap ἐστιν ἀνήμερος πρὸς ods 

οὐκ ἐχει τοῦ θυμοῦ τὴν ὑπόθεσιν. | 

. : | 
36. °H τῶν ᾿νδῶν γῆ, φασὶν αὐτὴν of συγ- 
γραφεῖς πολυφάρμακόν τε καὶ τῶν βλαστημάτων 
τῶνδε δεινῶς πολύγονον εἶναι. καὶ τὰ μὲν σώζειν 
αὐτῶν καὶ ἐκ τῶν κινδύνων ῥύεσθαι τοὺς ὑπὸ τῶν 
δακετῶν ὁμοῦ τῷ θανάτῳ ὄντας (πολλὰ δὲ ἐκεῖθι 
τοιαῦτα ) τὰ δὲ ἀπολλύναι καὶ διαφθείρειν ὀξύτατα 
ὧνπερ οὖν ὃ καὶ τὸ ἐκ τοῦ ὄφεως {τοῦ πορφυροῦ 4 
γινόμενον εἴη ἂν. ἔστι δὲ ἄρα οὗτος 6 ὄφις κατὰ 
σπιθαμὴν τὸ μῆκος ὅσα ἰδεῖν: χρόαν δὲ ἔοικε 
πορφύρᾳ τῇ βαθυτάτῃ. λευκὴν δὲ κεφαλὴν καὶ 
οὐκέτι πορφυρᾶν περιηγοῦνται αὐτοῦ, λευκὴν δὲ 
οὐχ ὡς εἰπεῖν ἔπος, ἀλλὰ καὶ χιόνος ἐπέκεινα καὶ 
γάλακτος. ὀδόντων δὲ ἄγονός ἐστιν ὃ ὄφις 
οὗτος" εὑρίσκεται δ᾽ ἐν τοῖς πυρωδεστάτοις τῆς 
Ἰνδικῆς χωρίοις. καὶ δάκνειν μὲν ἥκιστός ἐστι 
καὶ κατά γε τοῦτο φαίης ἂν τιθασὸν αὐτὸν εἶραι 
καὶ πρᾶον: οὗ δ᾽ ἂν κατεμέσῃ, ὡς ἀκούω, ἢ 
ἀνθρώπου τινὸς ἢ θηρίου, τοῦδε τὸ μέλος ὝΕΣ; 
πῆναι ἀνάγκη πᾶν. οὐκοῦν θηραθέντα αὐτὸν ἐκ 
τοῦ οὐραίου μέρους ἐξαρτῶσι, καὶ οἷα εἰκὸς κάτω 
1 μέν» add, H. 2 Wyit: pépos. . 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 35-36 

takes his revenge even after a long interval. For 
being under the yoke and in a certain degree con- 
fined, he is like a prisoner and keeps still; but when 
he is let out he has often kicked and broken some 
limb of his herdsman; often too he has put passion 
into his horns and has fallen upon a man and killed 
him. After that he is gentle to others and goes 
quietly to the fold, for he is not savage towards those 
against whom he has no ground for anger, 

36. Historians say that India is rich in drugs and The Purple 
nake O 

remarkably prolific of medicinal plants, of which some jnaia 

save life and rescue from danger men who have been 
brought to death’s door through the bites of noxious 
creatures (and there are many such in India); while 
other drugs are swift to kill and destroy ; and to this 
class might be assigned the drug which comes from 
the Purple Snake. Now this snake appears to be a 
span long; its colour is like the deepest purple, but 
its head they describe as white and not purple, and 
not just white, but whiter even than snow or milk. 
But this snake has no fangs and is found in the hottest 
regions of India, and though it is quite incapable of 
biting—for which reason you might pronounce it to 
be tame and gentle—yet if it vomits upon anyone (so 
I am told), be it man or animal, the entire limb 
inevitably putrefies. Therefore when caught men 
hang it up by the tail, and naturally it has its head 
hanging down, looking at the ground. And below 
the creature’s mouth they place a bronze vessel, into 

en at 

3° ὧν οὖν (or &v)rep. 
4 rod πορφυροῦν add. Jac. 
5 γάλακτος πλέον λευκήν. 






ν᾿ 4 y \ 3 ~ - 
τὴν ἐν oki ἔχει, καὶ ἐς γῆν ὁρᾷ’ ὑπ᾽ αὐτὸ δὲ τὸ. 
“~ 3 oa? : 
oTopa? τοῦ θηρὸς ἀγγεῖόν τι τιθέασι πεποιημένον 

χαλκοῦ ᾿ καὶ 2 διὰ τοῦ στόματος σταγόνες ἐκείνῳ > 
λείβονται ἐς τοῦτο, καὶ τὸ καταρρεῦσαν συνίσταταί 
τε καὶ πήγνυται, καὶ ἐρεῖς ἰδὼν ἀμυγδαλῆς δάκρυον 
εἶναι. καὶ ὁ μὲν ἀποθνήσκει 6 ὄφις, ὑφαιροῦσι 
δὲ “τὸ σκεῦος, καὶ προστιθέασιν * ἄλλο, χαλκοῦν 
καὶ ἐκεῖνο: νεκροῦ δὲ ἐκρεῖ πάλιν ὑγρὸς ἰχώρ, 
καὶ ἔοικεν ὕδατι. τριῶν δὲ ἡμερῶν ἐῶσι, καὶ 
συνίσταται μέντοι καὶ οὗτος. εἴη δ᾽ 6 ἂν ἀμ- 
φοῖν ! διαφορὰ κατὰ τὴν χρόαν: ἡ μὲν γὰρ δεινῶς 
ἐστι μέλαινα, ἡ δὲ ἠλέκτρῳ εἴκασται. οὐκοῦν 
τούτου μὲν εἰ δοίης τινὶ ὅσον σησάμου μέγεθος 
ἐμβαλὼν ὃ ἐς οἶνον ἢ ἐς σιτίον, πρῶτον μὲν αὐτὸν 
σπασμὸς περιλήψεται καὶ μάλα ἰσχυρός, εἶτα 
διαστρέφονταί οἱ τὼ ὀφθαλμώ, ὃ δὲ ἐγκέφαλος 
διὰ τῶν ῥινῶν κατολισθάνει 9 λειβόμενος,1 καὶ 
ἀποθνήσκει καὶ μάλα οἴκτιστα"11 ἐὰν δὲ ἔλαττον 
λάβῃ τοῦ φαρμάκου, ἄφυκτα μὲν αὐτῷ τὸ 13 
ἐντεῦθέν ἐστι, χρόνῳ δὲ ἀπόλλυται. ἐὰν δὲ τοῦ 
μέλανος ὀρέξῃς, ὅπερ οὖν κατέρρευσε τεθνεῶτος, 
ὅσον σησάμου καὶ τοῦτο μέγεθος, ὑπόπυος 
γίνεται, καὶ φθόη καταλαμβάνει τὸν λαβόντα, καὶ 
ἐνιαυτοῦ ἀναλίσκεται τηκεδόνι: πολλοὶ δὲ καὶ ἐς 
ἔτη δύο προῆλθον, κατὰ μικρὰ ἀποθνήσκοντες. 

37. Ἢ στρουθὸς ἡ μεγάλη φὰ μὲν ἀποτίκτει 

3 ? 3 7 ‘ 
πολλά, οὐ πάντα δὲ ἐκγλύφει,14 ἀλλὰ ἀποκρίνει τὰ 

3 “ \ > , 
ἄγονα, Tots δὲ ἐγκάρποις ἐπῳάζει. Kal ἐκ μὲν 

1 +, “« Ἀ ~ 7 4 
: αὐτῷ δὲ τῷ στόματι. : καὶ αἵ. 
ἐκεῖναι. ἃ γιθέασιν. 

5 ἐχὼρ οὗτος. 6. Jac: ἡ δ᾽. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 36-37 

which there ooze drops from its mouth; and the 
liquid sets and congeals, and if you saw it you would 
say that it was gum from an almond-tree. So when 
the snake is dead they remove the vessel and sub- 

: stitute another, also of bronze; and again from the 

dead body there flows a liquid serum which looks like 
water. ‘This they leave for three days, arid it too 
sets; but there will be a difference in colour between 
the two, for the latter is a deep black and the former 
the colour of amber. Now if you give a man a piece’ 
of this no bigger than a sesame seed, dropping it into 
his wine or his food, first he will be seized with con- 
vulsions of the utmost violence; next, his eyes squint. 
and his brain dissolves and drips through his nostrils, 
and he dies a most pitiable death. Andif he takes a 
smaller dose of the poison, there is no escape for him 
hereafter, for in time he dies. If however you 
administer some of the black matter which has flowed 
from the snake when dead, again a piece the size of ἃ. 
sesame seed, the man’s body begins to suppurate, a 
wasting sickness overtakes him, and within a year he. 
is carried off by consumption. But there are many. 
whose lives have been prolonged for as much as two 
years, while little by little they died. 

37. Although the Ostrich lays a number of eggs it The Ostrich 

does not hatch all of them but sets aside the sterile 
ones and sits upon those that are fertile; and from 
Bre ne ee te a ee tee 

Ἰ ἐπ᾿ ἀμφοῖν. 
8 Schn: ἀφελῶν καὶ ἐμβαλών. 
9. κατολισθαΐνει. 
10 Reiske: θλιβόμενος. 
il 4 δ 4 > x ” 
καὶ οἴκτιστα μὲν ἀλλὰ ὠκιστα. 
12 καί. 18 ὡς εἶναι. 14 γρέφει. 



. a Α ‘ 3 - 
τούτων τοὺς νεοττοὺς ἐξέλεψεν, ἐκεῖνα δὲ τὰ 

2 , 7 

ἐκφαυλισθέντα τούτοις τροφὴν παρατίθησιν. εἰ 
eee ee, | , € 9 a my 

δὲ αὐτὴν διώκοι τις, ἡ δὲ οὐκ ἐπιτολμᾷ TH πτήσει, 

“a Ἀ A ἢ 

θεῖ δὲ τὰς πτέρυγας ἁπλώσασα" εἰ δὲ ἁλίσκεσθαι 
,ὔ ‘ ᾿ 

μέλλοι, τοὺς παραπίπτοντας λίθους ἐς τοὐπίσω 

σφενδονᾷ τοῖς ποσίν. 

ξ ᾿ 
38. Οἱ στρουθοὶ of σμικροὶ συνειδότες ἑαυτοῖς 

> ? 4 7 “" 
ἀσθένειαν διὰ σμικρότητα τοῦ σώματος, ἐπὶ Tots 

ἀκρεμόσι τῶν κλάδων τοῖς φέρειν αὐτοὺς δυναμέ- 
νοις τὰς νεοττιὰς συμπλάσαντες εἶτα μέντοι τὴν ἐκ 
τῶν θηρατῶν ἐπιβουλὴν ὡς τὰ πολλὰ διαφεύγουσιν 
ἐπιβῆναι τῷ 1 κλαδὶ μὴ δυναμένων: οὐ γὰρ 
αὐτοὺς φέρει διὰ λεπτότητα. 

89. At δὲ ἀλώπεκες ἐς ὑπερβολὴν προήκουσαι 
πανουργίας καὶ τρόπου δολεροῦ ὅταν θεάσωνται 
σφηκιὰν εὐθενουμένην," αὐταὶ ὃ μὲν ἀποστρέφονται 
τὸν χηραμὸν ἐκνεύουσαι καὶ τὰς ἐκ τῶν κέντρων 
τρώσεις φυλαττόμεναι. καθιᾶσι δὲ τὴν οὐρὰν 
δασυτάτην τε οὖσαν καὶ μηκίστην τὴν αὐτὴν καὶ 
διασείουσι τοὺς σφῆκας- οἱ δὲ προσέχονται τῷ 
τῶν τριχῶν δάσει. ὅταν δὲ ἐμπαλαχθῶσιν * αὐτῷ, 
προσαράττουσι τὴν οὐρὰν ἢ δένδρῳ ἢἣ τειχίῳ ὃ 
ἢ αἱμασιᾷ" παιόμενοι δὲ οὗ σφῆκες ἀποθνήσκουσιν. 
εἶτα ἦλθον ἐπὶ τὸν αὐτὸν τόπον, καὶ τοὺς λοιποὺς 
προσαναλέξασαι καὶ ἀποκτείνασαι κατὰ τοὺς 
πρώτους, ὅτον ἐννοήσωσι λοιπὸν εἰρήνην εἶναι καὶ 
ἀπὸ τῶν κέντρων ἐλευθερίαν, καθῆκαν τὸ στόμα 
καὶ τὰ σφηκία ἐσθίουσι, μήτε θορυβούμεναι μήτε 
μὴν τὰ κέντρα ὑφορώμεναι. 




AA sas amnwwvinmhihennnnnrnnc cities earn σήν 

ON ANIMALS, IV. 37-39 

these it hatches its young, giving them the other, 
rejected eggs to eat. And if one chases the Ostrich 
++ does not venture to fly but spreads its wings and 
runs. And if itis in danger of being captured it slings 
the stones that come in its way. backwards with its 


38. Sparrows, conscious that their weakness is The Sparrow 

due to the small size of their bodies, build their nests 
upon those twigs of branches which are strong 
enough to support them, and so generally escape the 
machinations of bird-catchers who cannot climb the 
branch: it is too slender to bear them. 

39. Foxes pass ait pounds in their mischievousness The Fox 
>» and Wasps 

and trickery. When they observe a thriving Wasps 
nest they turn their back upon it and avoid the hole 
so as to protect themselves from being stung. But 
their tail, which is very bushy and long, they let 
down into the hole and shake up the Wasps. And 
these fasten on the thick hairs. But when they are 
entangled in them the Foxes beat their tail against a 
tree or fence or stone wall, and the Wasps are killed 
by the blows. Then the Foxes return to the same . 
spot, collect the remaining Wasps, and kill them as 
they did the first lot.. When they know that they 
will have peace and be free from stings they put down 
their heads and eat up the combs, with nothing to 
disturb them and no need to look out for stings. 

--.. -.-.-... 

1 Schn: τῇ. 

2 εὐθην- MSS always. 

8 Reiske: αὗται. 

4 ἀναπλασθῶσιν MSS, ἐμπλασ- Jac. 
5. χειχίῳ H (1815). τοίχῳ. 


VOL. I. K 


40. Κυνὸς κρανίον ῥαφὴν οὐκ ἔχει. δραμὼν δὲ 

ἐπὶ πλέον λάγνης γίνεται, φασί. κυνὸς δὲ ynpdv- Ὁ 
τος ἀμβλεῖς. οἵ ὀδόντες καὶ μελαΐνονται. εὔρινος 

δέ , ἔστιν οὕτως ὡς μήποτ᾽ ἂν ὀπτοῦ κυνείου 
κρέως μηδ᾽ 5 ἂν καρυκείᾳ τῇ ποικιλωτάτῃ καὶ 

δολερωτάτῃ καταγοητευθέντος γεύσασθαι. τρεῖς 
δὲ ἄρα νόσοι κυνὶ ἀποκεκλήρωνται καὶ οὐ πλείους, 
κυνάγχη λύττα ποδάγρα: ἀνθρώποις γε μὴν 
μυρίαι. πᾶν δὲ 6 τι ἂν ὑπὸ κυνὸς λυττῶντος 
δηχθῇ, τοῦτο ἀποθνήσκει. κύων δὲ ποδαγρήσας, 

3 7 
σπανίως ἀναρρωσθέντα ὄψει αὐτόν. κυνὶ δὲ βίος. 

¢ , : 

ὁ μήκιστος τεσσαρεσκαίδεκα ἔτη. “Apyos δὲ ὁ 
, \ ¢ ἃ 

Οδυσσέως καὶ ἡ περὶ αὐτὸν ἱστορία ἔοικε παιδιὰ 

ὋὍὉμήρου εἶναι. 

ON ANIMALS, IV. 40-41 

40. A Dog’s skull has no suture. Running, they The Dog 

say, makes a Dog more lustful. In old age a Dog’s 
teeth are blunt and turn black. He is so keen- 
scented that he will never touch the roasted flesh of a 
dog, be it bewitched by the subtlest and craftiest of 
rich sauces. Now there are three diseases which fall 
to the lot of a Dog and no more, viz. dog-quinsy, 
rabies, and gout, while mankind has an infinite 
number. Everything that is bitten by a mad Dog 
dies. Ifa Dog once gets gout you will hardly see him 
recover his strength. The life of a Dog at its longest 
is fourteen years; so Argus, the dog of Odysseus, and 
the story about him [Od. 7. 291] look like a playful 
tale of Homer's. | | 

41. The following species of bird belongs to the The 
very smallest of those in India. They build their aaa 

41. Tévos ὀρνίθων ᾿Ινδικῶν βραχυτάτων καὶ 
: | nests on high mountains and among. what are called beetle) 

“κ᾿ ig ¥ “a tA - “a 
τοῦτο εἴη av. ἐν τοῖς πάγοις τοῖς ὑψηλοῖς νεοτ- 

τεύει καὶ ταῖς πέτραις ταῖς καλουμέναις λεπραῖς,3 
καὶ ἔστι τὸ μέγεθος τὰ ὀρνύφια ὅσόνπερ Gov 
πέρδικος" σανδαρακίνην δέ μοι νόει τὴν χρόαν 
αὐτῶν. καὶ Ινδοὶ μὲν αὐτὸ φωνῇ τῇ σφετέρᾳ 
δίκαιρον φιλοῦσιν ὀνομάζειν, Ἕλληνες δὲ ws 
ἀκούω δίκαιον. τούτου τὸ ἀποπάτημα εἴ τις 
λάβοι ὅσον κέγχρου μέγεθος λυθὲν ἐν τῷ 

πώματι, ὃ δὲ 8 ἐ θ Ξ Σ ὁ 
ματι, ὁ ς ἑσπέραν ἀπέθανεν. ἔοικε δὲ ὃ 
i ? “a 
θάνατος ὕπνῳ καὶ μάλα ye ἡδεῖ Kal ἀνωδύνῳ καὶ 

e ε “᾿ ~ 
οἷον οἱ ποιηταὶ λυσιμελῆ φιλοῦσιν ὀνομάζειν ἢ 

Ψ ἢ 32; 9 eo 
ἀβληχρόν" εἴη γὰρ ἂν καὶ οὗτος ἐλεύθερος ὀδύνης 
καὶ τοῖς δεομένοις διὰ ταῦτα ἥδιστος. σπουδὴν 
1 φασὶ μᾶλλον. “3 μήτ᾽. 
8 λιτταῖς MSS, λισσ-- Schn. ͵ 
4 ἕωθεν conj. Jac; ep. Ctes. ap. Phot. Bibl. 475, 30. 


‘rugged’ rocks. These tiny birds are the size of a 
partridge’s egg, and you must know that they are 
orange-coloured. The Indians are accustomed to 
call the bird in their language dikairon,? but the 

’ Greeks, so I am informed, dikaton. If a man take of 

its droppings a quantity the size of a millet-seed dis- 
solved in his drink, he is dead by the evening. But 
his death is like a very pleasant and painless sleep, 
and such as poets are fond of describing as * limb- 
relaxing ’ and ‘ gentle.’ For death too may be free 
from pain, and for that reason most welcome to those 

α ‘The “ bird’ was the Dung-beetle, Scarabaeus sacer .. . 

the “dung” was probably . . . a resinous preparation of 
Indian hemp’ (Thompson, Gk.. birds, 8.v.). 

5 εἶτα. 

. 259 


4 A . 3 
δὲ dpa τὴν ἀνωτάτω τίθενται ᾿Ϊνδοὶ és τὴν 

a 3 -“ ~ ‘ ~ ; 
κτῆσιν αὐτοῦ: κακῶν yap αὐτὸ ἐπίληθον ἡγοῦνται 

τῷ ὄντι: καὶ οὖν καὶ ἐν τοῖς δώροις τοῖς μέγα 
τιμίοις τῷ Περσῶν βασιλεῖ 6 ᾿Ινδῶν πέμπει καὶ 
τοῦτο. ὁ δὲ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἁπάντων προτιμᾷ 
λαβὼν καὶ ἀποθησαυρίζει κακῶν ἀνιάτων ἀντί- 
παλόν τε καὶ ἀμυντήριον, εἰ ἀνάγκη καταλάβοι. 
οὔκουν οὐδὲ ἔχει τις ἐν Πέρσαις αὐτὸ ἄλλος, ὅτι 
μὴ βασιλεύς τε αὐτὸς καὶ μήτηρ ἡ βασιλέως. καὶ 
διὰ ταῦτα ἀντικρίνοντες βασανίσωμεν τῶν φαρμά- 
κων τοῦ τε ᾿᾽Ϊνδικοῦ καὶ τοῦ Αἰγυπτίου ὁπότερον 
ἣν προτιμότερον’ ἐπεὶ τὸ μὲν ἐφ᾽ ἡμέραν 1 
ἀνεῖργέ 5. τε καὶ ἀνέστελλε τὰ δάκρυα τὸ Αἰγύ- 
πτιον, τὸ δὲ λήθην κακῶν παρεῖχεν αἰώνιον τὸ 
Ivducov' καὶ τὸ μὲν γυναικὸς δῶρον ἦν, τὸ δὲ 
ὄρνιθος ἢ ἀπορρήτου φύσεως δεσμῶν τῶν ὄντως 
βαρυτάτων ἀπολυούσης δι᾿ ὑπηρέτου τοῦ προει- 
ρημένου. καὶ ᾿Ινδοὺς κτήσασθαι αὐτὸ εὐτυχήσαν- 
τας οἷ ὡς τῆς ἐνταυθοῖ φρουρᾶς ἀπολυθῆναι ὅταν 
ἐθέλωσιν. | 

42, °O ὄρνις ὁ ἀτταγᾶς (μέμνηται δὲ καὶ 

3 7 ᾽ “- > “ 
Ἀριστοφάνης αὐτοῦ ἐν Ορνισι τῷ δράματι), 
χὰ \ 9 δ =e Soa 
οὗτός τοι TO ἴδιον ὄνομα ἧ σθένει φωνῇ φθέγγεται 
ῖ 5 ,ὔ , 
καὶ ἀναμέλπει αὐτό. λέγουσι δὲ καὶ τὰς καλουμέ- 
i \ ~ “~ 
vas μελεαγρίδας τὸ αὐτὸ δήπου δρᾶν τοῦτο, Kat 
ω / “ > ? 
ort Μελεάγρῳ τῷ Οἰνέως προσήκουσι κατὰ γένος 
“- " ᾿ 
μαρτυρεῖσθαι καὶ μάλα εὐστόμως. λέγει δὲ ὁ 
- Ὁ > 3 “ ΄' : 
μῦθος, ὅσαι ἦσαν οἰκεῖαι τῷ Οἰνείδῃ νεανίᾳ, 
ταύτας ἐς δάκρυά τε ἄσχετα καὶ πένθος ἄτλητον 
+3 ᾿ χρῷ τῷ τὰς ees are Sef 
ἡμέραν αὐτήν. ἀνεῖχε. 
5. 15 7, ? ᾿ 
εὐτυχήσαντάς <pacw> Warmington. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 41-42 

who desire it. The Indians accordingly do their ut- 
most to obtain possession of it, for they regard it as 
in fact ‘ causing them to forget their troubles *[Hom. 
Od. 4. 221]. And so the Indian King includes this 
also among the costly presents which he sends to the 
Persian King, who receives it and values it above all 
the rest and stores it away, to counteract and to 
remedy ills past curing, should necessity arise. But 
there is not another soul in Persia save the King and 
the King’s mother who possesses it. So let us com- 
pare the Indian and Egyptian drug and see which 
of the two was to be preferred. On the one hand 
the Egyptian drug repelled and suppressed sorrow 
for a day, whereas the Indian drug caused a man to 
forget his troubles for ever. The former was the gift 
of a woman, the latter of a bird or else of Nature, 
which mysteriously releases men from a truly 
intolerable bondage through the aforesaid agency. 
And the Indians are fortunate in possessing it so that 
they can free themselves from this world’s prison 
whenever they wish. | 

49. The bird called ‘ Francolin’ (Aristophanes 
mentions it in his comedy of the Birds (249, etc.]}) pro- ἡ 
claims and sings its own name as loudly as it can. 

And they say that Guinea-fowls, as they are called, The Guinea 

do the same and testify to their kinship with 
Meleager the son of Oeneus in the clearest tones. 
The legend goes that all the women who were related 
to the son of Oeneus dissolved into unassuageable 
tears and sorrow past bearing, and mourned for him 

4 In Hom. Od: 4. 219-32 Helen mixes a drug, thought to 
have been opium in some form, in the wine of Telemachus to 
make him forget his sorrow for his father. ~ 4 

261 | 


3 -ν ‘ a ΄- 
ἐκπεσεῖν καὶ θρηνεῖν, οὐδέν. τι τῆς λύπης ἄκος 
, ᾿ “" ~ “ 
προσιεμένας, οἴκτῳ δὲ ἄρα τῶν θεῶν ἐς ταῦτα τὰ 
΄-“ 9 a “A .: 
ζῷα ἀμεῖψαι τὸ εἶδος. ταῖς δὲ ᾿νδαλμά τὲ καὶ 

? ΄-“ f _ ἢ > ~ “- 
σπέρμα τοῦ τότε πένθους ἐντακῆναι, καὶ ἐς νῦν 

3) , 7 ~ 9 4 ~ 
ἔτι Μελέαγρόν τέ ἀναμέλπειν, καὶ ὡς αὐτῷ προσή- 
+ t “~ : : 

κουσιν ἄδειν καὶ τοῦτο μέντοι. ὅσοι δὲ ἄρα 
> »- -¥ a ~ “ 

αἰδοῦνται τὸ θεῖον, οὐκ ἂν ποτε τῶνδε τῶν 

3 ‘9 24 a 3 ΄ + Ψ ς 

ὀρνίθων ἐπὶ τροφῇ * προσάψαιντο. καὶ ἥτις ἡ 

‘4 3 7 e ‘ “« “- 

αἰτία ἴσασί τε οἱ τὴν νῆσον οἰκοῦντες τὴν Λέρον 
\ Ψ» ~ 

καὶ ἔνεστι μαθεῖν ἀλλαχόθεν. 

48. Πέπυσμαι δὲ ὑπὲρ τῶν μυρμήκων καὶ 
ταῦτα. οὕτως ἄρα αὐτοῖς τὸ ἐθελουργὸν καὶ τὸ 
ἐθελόπονον πάρεστιν ἀπροφασίστως καὶ ἄνευ τινὸς 
ὑποτιμήσεως ἐθελοκακούσης καὶ σκήψεως, ἐς ἣν 
ὑποικουρεῖ τὸ ῥάθυμον, ὡς κἀν 8 ταῖς πανσελήνοις 
μηδὲ νύκτωρ βλακεύειν μηδὲ ἐλινύειν, ἀλλ᾽ ἔχεσθαι 
τῆς σπουδῆς. ὦ ἄνθρωποι, μυρίας προφάσεις τε 

\ 7 3 \ ~ 
καὶ σκήψεις ἐς TO ῥᾳστωνεύειν ἐπινοοῦντες. καὶ 

τί δεῖ καταλέγειν τε καὶ ἐπαντλεῖν τὸν τοσοῦτον 4 
ὄχλον; κεκήρυκται γὰρ Διονύσια καὶ Λήναια καὶ 
Χύτροι καὶ Γεφυρισμοί, καὶ μετελθόντων ἐς τὴν 
Σπάρτην ἄλλα καὶ ἐς Θήβας ἄλλα. καὶ κατὰ 
πόλιν μυρία ἑκάστην τὰ μὲν βάρβαρον τὰ δὲ 


1 θεῖον καὶ εἰ μᾶλλον τὴν "Αρτεμιν. 
= Schn: τροφήν. 

8 Jac: Kat or Kav. 4 χοιοῦτον. 

* Leros, off the coast of Caria, contained a shrine of Artemis 
Parthenos, and there according to the legend the women were 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 42-43 

and found no cure for their sorrow. So the gods in 
pity allowed them to change their shape into these 
birds; and the semblance and seed of their ancient 
grief have sunk into them so that to this day they 

raise a strain to Meleager and even sing of how they ~ 

are his kin. 

So then all who reverence the gods would never lay 
hands on one of these birds for the sake of food.. And 
the reason of this is known to the inhabitants of the 
island of Leros® and can be learned from other 


43. Here are more facts that I have learned touch- The Ant 

ing Ants. So indefatigable, so ready to work are 
they, without making excuses, without any base plea 
for release, without alleging reasons that are a cloak 
for indolence, that not even at night when the moon 
is full do they idle and take holiday, but stick to their 
occupation. | ! 
Look at you men—devising endless pretexts and 
excuses for idling! What need is there to detail and 
our out the full number of these occasions? Pro- 
claimed as holidays are the Dionysia,’ the Lenaea, the 
Festival of Pots, Causeway Day: go to Sparta, and 
there are others: others again at Thebes: and an 
endless number in every city, some in a foreign, 
others in a Greek city. 

ὃ Greater or City Dionysia held about March 28—April 2; 
Lesser or Country Dionysia, about December 19-22; Lenaea, 
at the end of January; Χύτροι, feast in honour of the departed, 
about March 4; all these at Athens. Tedupiopds: those who 
took part in the Eleusinia, in March, indulged in abusive 
repartee as they passed along the Sacred Way between Athens 
and Eleusis. 


A RRA Rr πο ον ονοοοσιβοσσαααανεσατε nlc ANH HLSCAINALMMA 



44. In Egypt the Cats, the Ichneumons, the Croco- ane ae 
diles, and moreover the Hawks afford evidence that kind actions 
animal nature is not altogether intractable, but that 

when well-treated they are good at remembering 

44, Μαρτύριον δὲ τῆς τῶν ζῴων φύσεως, bru 
7 ? a : 5 3 ᾿ 
ov πάνυ tet δυσμεταχείριστά 2 ἐστιν, ἀλλὰ εὖ q 
παθόντα ἀπομνησθῆναι τῆς εὐεργεσίας ἐστὶν Ῥ 
ἃ θ 73 5 nA Ai 7 ὥ 7λ \ ς 
γαθά," ἐν τῇ Αἰγύπτῳ οἵ τε αἴλουροι καὶ οἱ 

ἰχνεύμονες καὶ οἱ κροκόδιλοι καὶ τὸ τῶν ἱεράκων 
ἔτι φῦλον. ἁλίσκεται δὲ κολακείᾳ τῇ κατὰ γαστέ- 
ρα, καὶ ἐντεῦθεν ἡμερωθέντα λοιπὸν πραότατα 
μένει: καὶ οὐκ ἄν ποτε ἐπίθοιτο τοῖς εὐεργέταις 
τοῖς ἑαυτῶν, τοῦ θυμοῦ τοῦ συμφυοῦς τε καὶ 
συγγενοῦς ἅπαξ παραλυθέντα. ἄνθρωπος δὲ καὶ 
λόγου μετειληχὸς ζῷον καὶ φρονήσεως ἀξιωθὲν 
καὶ αἰδεῖσθαι λαχὸν καὶ ἐρύθημα, πιστευθὲν φίλου 
γίνεται βαρὺς πολέμιος, καὶ ὅσα ἀπόρρητα ἐπι- 
στεύθη, ταῦτα δι᾿ αἰτίαν βραχυτάτην καὶ τὴν 
παρατυχοῦσαν ἐς ἐπιβουλὴν ἐξέπτυσε τὴν τοῦ 


kindness. They are caught by pandering to their 
appetites, and when this has rendered them tame 
they remain thereafter perfectly gentle: they would 
never set upon their benefactors once they have been 
freed from their congenital and natural temper. 
Man however, a creature endowed with reason, 
credited with understanding, gifted with a sense of 
honour, supposed capable of blushing, can become 
the bitter enemy of a friend and for some trifling and 
casual reason blurt out confidences to betray the very 
man who trusted him. oe 

45. Eudemus has a story to fill one with amaze- erie 

ment, and this is the story he tells. A young hunter 4 Bear, and 
who was able to spend his life among the wildest of δ D8 


45. Θαυμάσαι λόγον ἄξιόν φησιν Εὔδημος, καὶ 

τῷ γε ἀνδρὶ τῷδε ὃ λόγος οὗτός ἐστι. νεανίας 
θηρατικός, συμβιοῦν τοῖς τῶν ζῴων ἀγριωτάτοις 
olds τε, ἐκ νέων μέντοι καὶ βρεφῶν. πεπωλευμέ- 
νοις, εἶχε συντρόφους τε καὶ συσσίτους ἑαυτοῖς 
γεγενημένους κύνα καὶ ἄρκτον καὶ λέοντα. καὶ 
ταῦτα μὲν χρόνου πρὸς ἄλληλα εἰρήνην ἄγειν καὶ 
φίλα νοεῖν σφίσι λέγει ὁ EvSnuos: μιᾶς δὲ τυχεῖν 
ἡμέρας τὸν κύνα προσπαίξζοντα τὴν ἄρκτον καὶ 
ὑπαικάλλοντα καὶ ἐρεσχελοῦντα, τὴν δὲ οὐκ 
εἰωθότως ἐκθηριωθῆναι καὶ ἐμπεσεῖν τῷ κυνί, καὶ 
λαφύξαι τοῖς ὄνυξι τοῦ δειλαίου τὴν γαστέρα καὶ 

4 } 4 ΄“ ΄- 
διασπάσασθαι αὐτόν: ἀγανακτῆσαι δὲ τῷ συμ- 

, ξ > 2 4 4 \ e A ΄- 
βάντι ὃ αὐτός φησι τὸν λέοντα καὶ οἱονεὶ μισῆσαι 
4 ᾿ 3ἢ a : 
TO ἄσπονδον τῆς ἄρκτου καὶ ἄφιλον, καὶ τὸν 


animals, after they had been trained from the day 
when they were young cubs, had living with him and 
sharing each other’s food a Dog, a Bear, and a Lion.. 
And for a time, Eudemus says, they lived in peace 
and mutualamity. But it happened one day that the 
Dog was playing with the Bear, fawning upon it and 
teasing it, when the Bear became unwontedly savage, 
fell upon the Dog, and with its claws ripped the poor 
creature’s belly open and tore him to pieces. The 
Lion, says the writer, was indignant at what had 
occurred and seemed to detest the Bear’s implaca- 


1 od πάντῃ. 2 δυσμεταχείριστος. 
8. ἀγαθὰ ἀγριώτατα ζῴων. 
4 Jac: πεπωλευμένους. 



7 e εξ - ~ ἷ 
κύνα οἷα ἑταῖρον ποθῆσαι καὶ ἐς δικαίαν προελθεῖν 

> 4 + 3 - “- id 
ὀργήν, καὶ ἐπιθεῖναι τῇ ἄρκτῳ τὴν δίκην, καὶ τὰ 
2. ἊΝ a 2 7 oe > 
αὐτὰ δρᾶσαι αὐτήν, ἅπερ οὖν εἰργάσατο τὸν κύνα 
7 Sd A * 
ἐκείνη. “Ὅμηρος μὲν οὖν φησιν 
¢ 3 \ : ‘4 “ 
ws ἀγαθὸν kat παῖδα καταφθιμένοιο λιπέσθαι: 

ἔοικε δὲ ἡ φύσις δεικνύναι ὅτι καὶ φίλον ἑαυτῷ τι- 
μωρὸν καταλιπεῖν, ὦ φίλε “Ὅμηρε, κέρδος ἐστί. 
οἷόν τι καὶ περὶ Ζήνωνος καὶ KAedvbous νοοῦμεν 
εἴ τι ἀκούομεν. 

46. Ἔν ᾿Ινδοῖς γίνεται θηρία τὸ μέγεθος ὅσον 
γένοιντο ἂν οἱ κάνθαροι, καὶ ἔστιν ἐρυθρά: κιν- 
ναβάρει δὲ εἰκάσειας 1 ἄν, εἰ πρῶτον θεάσαιο 
αὐτά. πόδας <de>® ἔχει ταῦτα μηκίστους, καὶ 
προσάψασθαι μαλακά ἐστι. φύεται δὲ ἄρα ἐπὶ 
τῶν δένδρων τῶν φερόντων τὸ ἤλεκτρον, καὶ 
σιτεῖται τὸν τῶν φυτῶν καρπὸν τῶνδε. θηρῶσι 
δὲ αὐτὰ οἱ ᾿Ινδοὶ καὶ ἀποθλίβουσι, καὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν 
βάπτουσι τάς τε φοινικίδας καὶ τοὺς ὑπ᾽ αὐταῖς 
χιτῶνας καὶ πᾶν ὅ τι ἂν ἐθέλωσιν ἄλλο ἐς τήνδε 
τὴν ᾿ χρόαν ἐκτρέψαι τε καὶ χρῶσαι. κομίζεται 
δὲ ἄρα ἡ τοιάδε ἐσθὴς καὶ τῷ τῶν Περσῶν βα- 
σιλεῖ. καὶ τό γε εὐειδὲς τῆς ἐσθῆτος δοκεῖ τοῖς 
Πέρσαις θαυμαστόν, ἀντικρινομένη 8 δὲ ταῖς 4 
Ilepody ἐπιχωρίοις κρατεῖ κατὰ πολὺ καὶ ἐκπλήτ- 


2 {δέΣ add. Η. 

+ 3 
Kal ἀντικρινομένη. 4 τοῖς. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 45-46 

ΠΥ and want of affection: it was smitten with 

rief for the Dog as for a companion, and being filled 
with righteous anger, punished the Bear by treating 
it exactly as the Bear had treated the Dog. Now 
Homer says [Od. 3. 196] 

‘So good a thing it is that when a man dies a son 
should be left.’ 

And Nature seems to show that there is an advantage, 
my dear Homer, in leaving a friend behind to 
avenge one. Something of the same kind, we be- 
lieve, occurred with Zeno and Cleanthes, if there is 
some truth in what we hear. 

46 (i). In India are born insects ὃ about the size of The Lae 

beetles, and they are red. On seeing them for the 
first time you might compare them to vermilion. 
They have very long legs and are soft to the touch. 
They flourish on those trees which produce amber, 
and feed upon the fruit of the same. And the 
Indians hunt them and crush them and with their 
bodies dye their crimson cloaks and their tunics 
beneath and everything else that they wish to con- 
vert and stain to that colour. Garments of this 
description are even brought to the Persian king, and 
their beauty excites the admiration of the Persians, 
and indeed when set against their native garments 
far surpasses them and amazes people, according to 

α Cleanthes succeeded his master Zeno as head of the Stoic 
school at Athens, 263 B.c. 

> This is the Tachardia lacca of India and S Asia, an insect 
allied to the cochineal and kermes insects. It exudes a 
resinous secretion (on to the twigs of certain trees, esp. those of 
the species Ficus) which is lac. The crimson dye is the red 
fluid in the ovary of the female. 



TEL ὥς φ σι Κ f ‘ 2 \ ‘ A 3 ᾿ 
» 7” τησίας: ἐπεὶ Kal THY ἀδομένων. 

“ > 2 7 ? 
Σαρδιανικῶν 1 ὀξυτέρα τέ ἐστι καὶ τηλαυγεστέρα. 

7 \ > ~ oa. 
Τίψονται δὲ ἐνταῦθα τῆς ᾿Ινδικῆς, ἔνθα οἱ κάν- 

θαροι, καὶ οἱ καλούμενοι κυνοκέφαλοι, οἷς τὸ 
ὄνομα ἔδωκεν ἡ τοῦ σώματος ὄψις τε καὶ φύσις: 
τὰ δὲ ἄλλα ἀνθρώπων ἔχουσι, καὶ ἠμφιεσμένοι 
βαδίζουσι δορὰς θηρίων. καί εἰσι δίκαιοι, καὶ 
ἀνθρώπων λυποῦσιν οὐδένα, καὶ φθέγγονται μὲν 
οὐδὲ ἕν, ὠρύονται δέ, τῆς γε μὴν ᾿Ινδῶν φωνῆς 
ἐπαΐουσι. τροφὴ δὲ αὐτοῖς τῶν ζῴων τὰ ἀγρια' 
αἱροῦσι δὲ αὐτὰ ῥᾷστα, καὶ γάρ εἰσιν ὦὥκιστοι, καὶ 
ἀποκτείνουσι καταλαβόντες, καὶ ὀπτῶσιν οὐ πυρί 
ἀλλὰ πρὸς τὴν εἵλην τὴν τοῦ ἡλίου ἐς μοίρας 
διαξήναντες. τρέφουσι δὲ καὶ αἶγας καὶ οἷς. 
καὶ σῖτον μὲν ποιοῦνται τὰ ἄγρια, πίνουσι δὲ τὸ 
ἐκ τῶν θρεμμάτων γάλα ὧν τρέφουσι. μνήμην 
δὲ αὐτῶν ἐν τοῖς ἀλόγοις ἐποιησάμην, καὶ εἰκότως" 
ἔναρθρον γὰρ καὶ εὔσημον καὶ ἀνθρωπίνην φωνὴν 
οὐκ ἔχουσιν. 

47. Χλωρὶς ὄνομα ὄρνιθος, ἥπερ οὖν οὐκ ἂν 
ἀλλαχόθεν ποιήσαιτο τὴν καλιὰν ἢ ἐκ τοῦ λεγομέ- 
νου συμφύτου: ἔστι δὲ pila τὸ σύμφυτον εὑρεθῆναί 
τε καὶ ὁρύξαι χαλεπή. στρωμνὴν δὲ ὑποβάλλεται 
τρίχας καὶ ἔρια. καὶ ὃ μὲν θῆλυς ὄρνις οὕτω 
κέκληται, ὃ δὲ ἄρρην, χλωρίωνα καλοῦσιν αὐτόν, 
καὶ ἔστι τὸν βίον μηχανικός, μαθεῖν τε πᾶν ὅ τι 

1 TOV Que 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 46-47 

τς Ctesias, because the colour is even stronger’ and 

more brilliant than the much-vaunted wares of 

(ii). And in the same part of India as the beetles, The Dog- 

are born the ‘ Dog-heads,’ as they are called—a name 
which they owe to their physical appearance and 
nature. For the rest they are of human shape and 
go about clothed in the skins of beasts; and 
they are upright and injure no man; and though 
they have no speech they howl; yet they under- 
stand the Indian language. Wild animals are their 
food, and they catch them with the utmost ease, for 
they are exceedingly swift of foot; and when they 
have caught them they kill and cook them, not over 
a fire but by exposing them to the sun’s heat after 
they have shredded them into pieces. They also 
keep goats and sheep, and while their food is the 
flesh of wild beasts, their drink is the milk of the 
animals they keep. I have mentioned them along 
with brute beasts, logical, for their speech is 
inarticulate, unintelligible, and not that of man. 

47. Golden Oriole@ is the name of a bird which The 

declines to build its nest with anything but comfrey, εν ἜΣ 

asitiscalled. Comfrey is a root which is hard to find 
and hard to dig up. For bedding it lays down hairs 
and wool. Chloris is the name given to the hen, but 
the cock-bird they call chlorion, and it is clever at 
getting a livelihood; it is quick to learn anything 

2 ΑΘ]. has confused the habits of two different birds: it 
is the Greenfinch, the yAwpis of Arist. HA 615 Ὁ 32, that 
puilds its nest of comfrey, etc. But Ael. uses the word to 
signify the Golden Oriole, a migratory bird, which the Green- 
finch is not, 



οὖν ᾿ἀγαθὸς καὶ τλήμων ὑπομεῖναι 

χειμῶνος ἄφετον καὶ ἐλεύθερον οὐκ ἂν ἴδοι τις 
αὐτόν, θεριναὶ . δὲ ὅταν ὑπάρξωνται 5. τροπαὶ 
τοῦ ἔτους, τηνικαῦτ᾽ ἂν > ἐπιφαίνουτο. ᾿Αρκτοῦ- 
ρός τε eméretAev,* ὁ δὲ ἀναχωρεῖ ἐς τὰ οἰκεῖα, 
ὁπόθεν καὶ δεῦρο ἐστάλη. ᾿ 

48. “Ὑπὸ θυμοῦ τεθηγμένον ταῦρον καὶ ὑβρί- 
ζοντα ἐς κέρας καὶ σὺν ὁρμῇ ἀκατασχέτῳ ὅ 
φερόμενον οὐχ ὁ βουκόλος ἐπέχει, οὐ φόβος 
ἀναστέλλει, οὐκ ἄλλο τοιοῦτον, ἄνθρωπος δὲ 
ἱστησιν αὐτὸν καὶ παραλύει τῆς ὁρμῆς τὸ «δεξιὸν 
αὑτοῦ γόνυ διασφίγξας ταινίᾳ καὶ ἐντυχὼν αὐτῷ. 


49. ‘H πάρδαλις πέντε ἔχει δακτύλους ἐν τοῖς 
ποσὶ τοῖς προσθίοις, ἐν δὲ τοῖς κατόπιν τέτταρας. 
ἡ δὲ θήλεια εὐρωστοτέρα τοῦ ἄρρενος. ἐὰν δὲ 
γεύσηται ἀγνοοῦσα τοῦ καλουμένου παρδαλιάγχου 
(πόα ; δέ ἐστιν), ἀποπάτημα ἀνθρώπου ποθὲν 
λιχνεύσασα ® διασώζεται. 

5 : ec A 7 / 7 | 
(50. Οἱ ἱπποι, τὰς κάτω βλεφαρίδας οὔ φασιν 
αὐτοὺς ἔχειν. ᾿Απελλῆν οὖν τὸν Ἐφέσιον αἰτίαν 
- xew. ᾿Απελλῆν οὖν τὸν φέσιον᾽ αἰτίαν 
ἐγουσιν ἐχειν, ἐπεί τινὰ ἵππον γράφων οὐ 
. ΄ Ὁ, “~ 
παρεφύλαξε τὸ ἴδιον τοῦ ζῴου. οἱ δὲ οὐκ ᾿Απελ- 
“ t 
λῆν φασι ταύτην τὴν αἰτίαν ἐνέγκασθαι, ἀλλὰ 
4 \ 
Mixwva,’ ἀγαθὸν μὲν ἄνδρα γράψαι τὸ ζῶον 
τοῦτο, σφαλέντα δ᾽ οὖν ἐς μό > εἰρημέ ΄ 
» σφαλέντα δ᾽ οὖν ἐς μόνον τὸ εἰρημένον. 
1 Schn: ἠριναί uss, Η. 2 ὑπάρχωνται. | 
τηνικαῦτα. 4 ᾿Αρκτούρου τε ἐπιτολαί. 

καὶ ἀκατασχέτως. 8 Radermacher : ἀνιχνεύ 
1 : evoaca MSS, Η. 
* Meursius: Νίκωνα. . 



4 3 
θ ,ὕ , ἜΝ CYA ‘ ΤῊ = oe 
μανθάνειν βάσανον, ὅταν ἁλῷ. Kal διὰ μὲν τοῦ 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 47-50 

whatsoever, and will patiently endure the ordeal of 
learning when in captivity. Inthe winter season you 
will not see it abroad and free, but at the occurrence of 
the summer solstice, that is when it will appear. As 
soon as Arcturus has risen® the bird returns to its 
native haunts whence it came to us. 

48. When once a Bull has been provoked to anger How to 
and is threatening violence with his horns and rushing eee aall 
on with irresistible speed, the herdsman cannot con- 
trol him, fear cannot check him, nor anything else; 
only a man may bring him to a halt and stay his 
onrush if he tie a scarf round his own right knee and 

face the Bull. 

49. The Leopard has five toes on its fore-paws and The 
four on its hind-paws. But the female is stronger een 
than the male. If it unwittingly eats what is called 
‘leopard’s-choke ’® (this is a herb), it licks some 
human excrement and preserves its life. 

50. Horses, they say, have no lower eyelashes, so The Horse, 
that Apelles ὁ of Ephesus incurred blame for ignoring 
this peculiarity in his picture of a horse. But others 
assert that it was not Apelles who was charged with 
this fault but Micon, a man of great skill in depicting 
this animal, although on this one point he made a 


α The morning rising of Arcturus in the region of Rome is 

on September 20. 
> Aconite. | 
¢ Apelles, the most renowned of Grecian painters, con- 

temporary of Alexander the Great.—Micon, fl. middle of 5th 
cent. B.c. at Athens, famous as painter and sculptor. 


its eyelashes _ 


4 > / id 
51. Tov otorpov φασιν ὅμοιον εἶναι μυίᾳ μεγίστη 
bs & 

\ \ \ > - ‘ 
καὶ εἶναι στερεὸν καὶ εὐπαγῇ καὶ ἔχειν κέντρον 

ἰσχυρὸν ἠρτημένον τοῦ σώματος, προΐεσθαι δὲ 
καὶ ἦχον ᾿βομβώδη. τὸν μὲν οὖν μύωπα ὅμοιον 
ναι 1 τῇ καλουμένῃ κυνομυίᾳ, βομβεῖν δὲ τοῦ 
οἴστρου μᾶλλον, ἔχειν δὲ ἔλαττον τὸ κέντρον. 

52 : “Ovous ἀγρίους οὐκ ἐλάττους ἵππων τὰ 
μεγέθη ἐν ἰνδοῖς γίνεσθαι πέπυσμαι. καὶ λευκοὺς 
μὲν τὸ ἄλλο εἶναι σῶμα, THY γε μὴν κεφαλὴν 
᾿ ἔχειν πορφύρᾳ παραπλησίαν, τοὺς δὲ ὀφθαλμοὺς 
ἀποστέλλειν κυανοῦ χρόαν. κέρας δὲ ἔχειν ἐπὶ 
τῷ μετώπῳ ὅσον πήχεως τὸ μέγεθος καὶ ἡμίσεος 
προσέτι, καὶ τὸ μὲν κάτω μέρος τοῦ κέρατος 
εἶναι λευκόν, τὸ δὲ ἄνω φοινικοῦν, τό γε μὴν 
μέσον μέλαν δεινῶς. ἐκ δὴ τῶνδε τῶν ποικίλων 
κεράτων πίνειν Ἰνδοὺς ἀκούω, καὶ ταῦτα οὐ 
πάντας, ἀλλὰ τοὺς τῶν ᾿Ινδῶν κρατίστους, ἐκ 
ee αὐτοῖς χρυσὸν περιχέαντας,2 οἷονεὶ 
ψε ios 5 τισὶ κοσμήσαντας βραχίονα wpatov 
ἀγάλματος. Kat φασι νόσων ἀφύκτων ἀμαθῆ καὶ 
ἄπειρον γίνεσθαι Ω τὸν ἀπογευσάμενον ἐκ τοῦδε τοῦ 
κέρατος. μήτε γὰρ σπασμῷ. ληφθῆναι ἂν αὐτὸν 
μήτε τῇ καλουμένῃ ἱερᾷ νόσῳ, μήτε μὴν διαφθα- 
ρῆναι φαρμάκοις. ἐὰν δέ τι καὶ πρότερον ἢ 
πεπωκὼς κακόν, ἀνεμεῖν τοῦτο, καὶ ὑγιᾶ γίνε- 
σθαι αὐτόν. πεπίστευται δὲ τοὺς ἄλλους τοὺς 
αν ὙΠῸ Πάυ ay Jie δὺς καὶ ἡμέρους καὶ ἀγρίους 
καὶ τὰ ἄλλα μώνυχα θηρία ἀστραγάλους οὐκ 
ἔχειν, οὐδὲ μὴν ἐπὶ τῷ ἥπατι χολήν, ὄνους δὲ τοὺς 

: pie bg i or φύεσθαι. : 
> περιχέοντας. | ψελλίοις. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 51-52 
51. They say that the Gadfly is like a fly of the The Gadfly 

largest size; it is robust and compact and has a 

strong sting attached to its body and emits a buzzing 

sound. The Horsefly on the other hand ‘is like fie ToeBoe 
dog-fly, as it is called, but though its buzz is louder 

than the Gadfly its sting is smaller.* 

52. I have learned that in India are born Ap beeen aor 
Asses as big as horses. All their body is white ex- 
cept for the head, which approaches purple, while 
their eyes give off a dark blue colour. They have a 
horn on their forehead as much as a cubit and a half its hom 
long; the lower part of the horn is white, the upper 
part is crimson, while the middle is jet-black. From 
these variegated horns, I am told, the Indians drink, 
but not all, only the most eminent Indians, and round 
them at intervals they lay rings of gold, as though 
they were decorating the beautiful arm of a 
statue with bracelets. And they say that a man 
who has drunk from this horn knows not, and 
is free from, incurable diseases: he will never be 
seized with convulsions nor with the sacred sick- 
ness,’ as it is called, nor be destroyed by poisons. 
Moreover if he has previously drunk some deadly 
stuff, he vomits it up and is restored to health. 

It is believed that Asses, both the tame and the 
wild kind, all the world over and all other beasts with 
uncloven hoofs are without knucklebones and without 
gall in the liver; whereas those horned Asses of 

@ Cp. 6. 37, and see Stud. wal. di fil. class. 12. 441. 
6 Epilepsy. 

ce tree sm orm mem 


4,5 γενέσθαι. 6 τὰ ἄλλα τά. 



9 4 7 ? 4 
Ἰνδοὺς ,λέγει Κτησίας τοὺς ἔχοντας τὸ κέρας 
΄--Ο \ 3 a 
ἀστραγάλους φορεῖν, καὶ ἀχόλους μὴ εἶναι: λέγον- 
ται δὲ οἱ ἀστράγαλ 7, i ae 
ut δ Τρ γαλοι. μέλανες εἶναι, καὶ εἴ τις 
| maha συντρίψειεν, εἶναι τοιοῦτοι καὶ τὰ ἔνδον 
τ . 
εἰσὶ O€ καὶ WKLOTOL οἵδε οὐ μόνον τῶν ὄνων 

3 ‘ το 1 Ny 7 
ἀλλὰ Kat ἵππων καὶ ἐλάφων: καὶ ὑπάρχονται μὲν 

ξ ~~ ~ 

ἡσυχῆ τοῦ δρόμου, κατὰ μικρὰ δὲ ἐπιρρώννυνται 
καὶ διώκειν ἐκείνους τοῦτο δὴ τὸ ποιητικὸν 
μεταθεῖν τὰ ἀκίχητά ἐστιν. ὅταν γε μὴν ὁ θῆλυς 
τέκῃ, καὶ περιάγηται τὰ ἀρτιγενῆ, σύννομοι 
αὐτοῖς οἱ πατέρες αὐτῶν φυλάττουσι * τὰ βρέφη 
διατριβαὶ δὲ τοῖς ὄνοις τῶν Ἰνδικῶν πεδίων τὰ 
ἐρημοότατὰ ἐστιν. ἰόντων 8 δὲ τῶν ᾿Ινδῶν ἐπὶ τὴν 
ἄγραν αὐτῶν, τὰ μὲν ἁπαλὰ καὶ ἔτι νεαρὰ ἑαυτῶν 
νέμεσθαι κατόπιν ἐῶσιν, αὐτοὶ δὲ ὑπερμαχοῦσι 
καὶ ἰασιὶ τοῖς ἱππεῦσιν ὁμόσε, καὶ τοῖς κέρασι 
παίουσι. τοσαύτη δὲ ἄρα ἡ ἰσχὺς ἡ τῶνδέ ἐστιν 
οὐδὲν ἀντέχει αὐτοῖς παιόμενον, ἀλλὰ εἴκει a 
διακόπτεται καὶ ἐὰν τύχῃ κατατέθλασται 4 καὶ 
ἀχρεῖόν ἐστιν. ἤδη δὲ καὶ ἵππων πλευραῖς ἐμπε- 
σόντες διέσχισαν καὶ τὰ σπλάγχνα ἐξέχεαν 
ἔνθεν του καὶ ὀρρωδοῦσιν αὐτοῖς πλησιάζειν οἷ 
ΤΕΣ; τὸ γάρ τοι τίμημα τοῦ γενέσθαι πλησίον. 
ἀνατὸς ἐστιν οἴκτιστος αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἀπόλλυνται 
καὶ αὐτοὶ καὶ οἱ ἵπποι. δεινοὶ δέ εἰσι καὶ λακτί 

τς Saree ὃ at λακτίσαι. 
Ὥγματα ὃὲ apa ἐς τοσοῦτον καθικνεῖται αὐτῶν 
ὡς ἀποσπᾶν τὸ περιληφθὲν πᾶν. ζῶντα μὲν οὖν 
τέλειον οὐκ ἂν λάβοις, βάλλονται δὲ ἃ Cae 
τέλειο ἂν λάβοις, β L δὲ ἀκοντίοις καὶ 
ὀιστοῖς, καὶ τὰ κέρατα ὃ ἐξ αὐτῶν ᾿ἸΙνδοὶ νεκρῶν 
σκυλεύσαντες ὡς εἶπον περιέπουσιν. ὄνων δὲ 

1 - f 
συντρίψει or -τρίψαι. 2 φυλάττονται. 



India, Ctesias says, have knucklebones and are not its knuckle- 

without gall. Their knucklebones are said to bee 
black, and if ground down are black inside as well. 
And these animals are far swifter than any ass or 
even than any horse or any deer. . They begin to run, 
it is true, at a gentle pace, but gradually gather 
strength until to pursue them is, in the language of 
poetry, to chase the unattainable. 

When the dam gives birth and leads her new-born 
colts about, the sires herd with, and look after, them. 
And these Asses frequent the most desolate plains in 

India. So when the Indians go to hunt them, the hunted by. 
the Indians 

Asses allow their colts, still tender and young, to 
asture in their rear, while they themselves fight on 
their behalf and join battle with the horsemen and 
strike them with their horns. Now the strength of 
these horns is such that nothing can withstand their 
blows, but everything gives way and snaps or, it may 
be, is shattered and rendered useless. They have in 
the past even struck at the ribs of a horse, ripped it 
open, and disembowelled it. For that reason the 
horsemen dread coming to close quarters with them, 
since the penalty for so doing is a most lamentable 
death, and both they and their horses are killed. 
They can kick fearfully too. Moreover their bite 
goes so deep that they tear away everything that 
they have grasped. A full-grown Ass one would 
never capture alive: they are shot with javelins and 
arrows, and when dead the Indians strip them 
of their horns, which, as I said, they decorate. 

a .-- ὠὀΓἑ τπ----ς.--ςρ-ς------- 

8. 5 >? > 2 
ἐστιν. ἰόντων } ἐπιόντων. 
4 κατέθλασται. 
7 ᾽ 
δ᾽ κέρατα οὕτω τά. 



ἽἼ ~ 37 / 
νδῶν ἃ 3 ΣΤ Kp 
βρωτόν ἐστι {τὸν κρέας: τὸ δὲ αἴτιον, 

πέφυκ ἶ 4 
εν εἶναι πικρότατον. 

5 : > \ wy i ~ 
= heen oe Ke ζῷα, φυσικὴν δὲ ἔχειν 
ἀριί mv μὴ owaxlerta Εὔδημός φησι, καὶ 
ἐπάγει μαρτύριον ἐκεῖνο τῶν ἐν τῇ Λιβύῃ Coa 
τὸ δὲ ὄνομα οὐ λέγει: ἃ δὲ λέγε ee 
τὸ δὲ ὄνομα eyes ἃ δὲ λέγει, ταῦτά ἐστιν 
Ὄχι ἂν θηράσῃ, ποιεῖν μοίρας ἕνδεκα, καὶ τὰς μὲν 
έκα σιτεῖσθαι, τὴν δὲ ἑνδεκάτην ἀπολείπειν (ὅτῳ 
δὲ καὶ ἀντὶ τοῦ καὶ ἐννοίᾳ τίνι σκοπεῖν ἀξιον) 
ἀπαρχήν γέ τινα ἢ δεκάτην, ὡς ἂν εἴποις. οὐκοῦν 
ἐκπλαγῆναι δίκαιον τὴν αὐτοδίδακτον σοφίαν 
(τήνδε) ᾿ τὴν γάρ τοι 3 μονάδα καὶ δυάδα καὶ 
τοὺς ἑξῆς ἀριθμοὺς ζῷον οἷδεν ἄλογον: ἀνθρώπῳ 
δὲ δεῖ πόσων μὲν τῶν μαθημάτων, πόσων δὲ τῶν 
πληγῶν, ἵνα ἢ μάθῃ ταῦτα εὖ καὶ καλῶς ἢ 

πολλάκις μὴ μάθῃ; 

δά, Λέγουσιν Αἰγύπτιοι (καὶ ῥᾳθύμως αὐτῶν 
οὐκ ἀκούουσιν ἄνδρες φιλόσοφοι) ἔν τινι νομῷ 
τῶν Αἰγυπτίων, ὅνπερ οὖν ἐξ Ἡρακλέους τοῦ 
Διὸς ὀνομάζουσι, παῖδα ὡραῖον ὡς ἂν Αἰγύπτιον 
χηνῶν ποιμένα, ἐράστριαν ἀσπίδα λαχεῖν καὶ 
μέντοι <kat>* παρ᾽ αὐτῇ εἶναι θαυμαστόν oe 
οὐτῶσαν TH ἐρωμένῳ ὄναρ προλέγειν τὰ Aon 
ἀμ eg ge eyew τὰς ἐπιβου- 
ἊΣ Ss ἐς αὐτὸν πανουργουμένας ἐκ θατέρου 
Ἴρου, omep ἣν αὐτῇ σύννομον, ὡς ἂν εἴποι τις 
ζηλοτυπίᾳ TH πρὸς τὸν παῖδα ὑπὲρ τῆς νύμφ ς 5 
ταῦτα πειρωμένου δρᾶν τοῦ ἄρρενος" sip be 

1 {τόν add. H. 
3 Schn: τὴν δέ ye. 

2 <rfvde> add. H. 
4 <xai> add. H, 

ON ANIMALS, IV. 52-54 

But thé flesh of Indian Asses is uneatable, the reason 
being that it is naturally exceedingly bitter. 

53. Eudemus declares that animals though devoid A calcu- 
. . atin 
of reason have a natural instinct for numbers, even πὰ 

though untaught, and adduces as evidence this ani- 
mal from Libya. Its name he does not mention, but 
what he says is this. Whatever it catches it divides 
into eleven portions; ten of these it eats, but the. 
eleventh it leaves (it is worth considering for whose 
benefit, from what cause, and with what intent) as a 
kind of first-fruits or tithe, so to say. Hence one’s 
amazement at this self-taught skill is justifiable: ἃ 
brute beast understands 1, 2, and the following num- 
bers; then think of all the instruction, all the whip- 
pings a human being needs if he is to learn these 
things well and truly—or often, if he is not to learn 


54. The Egyptians assert (and scholars do not lend Asp in love 
an indifferent ear to what they say) that in a certain Qooscherd 

district of Egypt which they name after Heracles * 
the son of Zeus, a good-looking boy, as Egyptian 
boys go, who herded geese, was beloved and even 
admired by a female Asp. It would keep company 
with its favourite and warn him in a dream as he slept 
of the plots that another savage creature, its fellow 
you might say, was hatching against him: the male 
‘Asp was attempting his life, being as it were jealous 
of the boy on account of its wedded bride. And the 

@ Nomos Heracleotes in Middle Egypt, of which the capital 
was Heracleopolis. 
Ogee a Teak tS ce τ----΄--- 
| 8 τῆς νύμφης τῆς ἀσπίδος. 


ς / 

ὑπακούοντα * πείθεσθαι καὶ φυλάττεσθαι. Ὅμη 
᾿ S 3) ; , is 

pos pev οὖν ἔδωκεν ἵππῳ φωνήν, ἀσπίδι δὲ ἡ 

φύσις, ἣ νόμων οὐδὲν μέλει, φησὶν Εὐριπίδης. 

7 3 ~ 
ὅδ. “Καμήλους ἔτη βιοῦν καὶ πεντήκοντα ἀκήκοα 
τὰς δὲ ἐκ Βάκτρων πέ προϊέ οὐ ey Ble 
deme iKTpwY πέπυσμαι προϊέναι καὶ ἐς δὶς 
τοσαῦτα. καὶ οἱ γε ἄρρενες καὶ πολεμικοί 
ἐκτέμνουσιν αὐτοὺς ot Ba ἣν ABO κεὶ 
erie τοὺς οἱ Βάκτριοι, τὴν ὕβριν καὶ 
τὸ ἀκολασταίνειν ἀφαιροῦντες, τὴν δὲ ῥώμην 
αὐτοῖς φυλάττοντες. κάονται 5 δὲ at θήλειαι τὰ 
ἐξάπτοντα és olotpov μέρη αὐτάς. 

56. Φώκην Evdnpos λέγει ἐρασθῆναι ἀνδρὸς 
σπογγιὰς θηρεύειν συνειθισμένου, καὶ προσ, αν 
τῆς θαλάττης ἔνθα ἦν ὕπαντρος πέτρα ὁμιλεῖν 
“ΠΝ τῶν δὲ ὁμοτέχνων ἦν ἄρα οὗτος αἴσχιστος 

λὰ ἐδόκει τῇ φώκῃ ὡραιότατος εἶναι. καὶ 
θαῦμα tows οὐδέν, ἐπεὶ καὶ ἄνθρωποι πολλάκις 
τῶν ἧττον καλῶν ἠράσθησαν, ἐς τοὺς ὡραιοτάτου 
οὐ παθόντες οὐδὲ ἕν, ἀλλ᾽ ἀμελήσαντες αὐτῶν : 

3 7 
57. Ἀριστοτέλης ὅ λέγει τὸν ὑπὸ ὕδρου πληγέντα 
παραχρῆμα. ὀσμὴν βαρυτάτην -4 Pave, 
"ραχρῆμα. ὀσμὴ ρυτάτην "ἀπεργάζεσθαι, ὡς 
μὴ οἱὸν τε εἶναι προσπελάσαι αὐτῷ τινα. λήθην 

TE κα ts v : 
ταχεῖσθαι τοῦ πληγέντος * 6 αὐτὸς λέγει καὶ 

7 A 39 A “ 
vt καὶ ἀχλὺν κατὰ τῶν ὀμμάτων πολλήν, καὶ 
ὕτταν ἐπιγίνεσθαι Kat τρόμον εὖ ὃ μάλα ἰσχυρόν 
καὶ ἀπόλλυσθαι διὰ τρίτης αὐτόν. ᾿ 

Ν ἐπακούοντα. 2 καίονται. 
; ᾿Απολλόδωρος Wellmann. 

τῷ πληγέντι, 
5 Reiske: εὐθύς. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 54-57 

boy would listen and obey and be on his guard. 
Now Homer [Il. 19. 404] allowed a horse to speak, 
and Nature, who according to Euripides * recks nought 
of laws’ [ fr. 920 N], did the same to an Asp. 

55. I have heard that Camels live for fifty years, The Camel 

but I have ascertained that those from Bactria live as ° 

much as twice that number. The males which are 
used in battle, the Bactrians castrate, thereby rid- 
ding them of their violent and intemperate dis- 

osition while preserving their strength. But in the 
case of the females they cauterize those parts which 

inflame them to lust. 


56. Eudemus asserts that a Seal] fell in love with Seal inlove 

a man whose habit was to dive for sponges, and that 
it would emerge from the sea and. consort with him 
where there was a rocky cavern. Now this man was 
the ugliest of his fellows, but in the eyes of the Seal 

with a Diver 

the handsomest. Perhaps there is nothing to wonder. . 

at, for even human beings have frequently loved the 
less beautiful of their kind, being quite unaffected by 
the best-looking and paying no attention to them. 

57. Aristotle says? that when a man has been 
bitten by a Water-snake he at once exhales a most 
foul odour, so much so that nobody can come near 
him. He says also that forgetfulness descends upon 
the bitten nian and a thick mist upon his eyes, and 
that madness ensues and a violent trembling, and 
that after three days he dies. 

¢ Not in any extant work. Wellmann (Hermes 26. 334) 
would substitute the name of Apollodorus for that of Aristotle, 
which he regards as a slip on the part of Ael. Cp. Nic. 2h. 425. 


The Water- 
spake, its 


58. Τὴν oivdda ὄρνεον εἰδέναι χρὴ οὖσαν, οὐ 

x Ὁ + f \ 3 7 
μὴν ὡς τινες ἄμπελον. λέγει δὲ ᾿Αριστοτέλης 
μεῖζον μὲν αὐτὸ εἶναι φάττης, περιστερᾶς γε μὴν 
ἧττον. καλοῦνται δὲ ὡς ἀκούω καὶ ἐν τῇ Σπάρτῃ 
οἰναδοθῆραί τινες. λέγοιτο δ᾽ ἂν καὶ κίρκη διαλ- 
λάττειν κίρκου οὐ μόνον τῷ γένει ἀλλὰ καὶ τῇ 

΄ 1 Ν 

_ 59. Kvavos (τὸ > ὄνομα, ὄρνις τὴν ; φύσιν, 
ἀπάνθρωπος τὸν τρόπον, μισῶν μὲν τὰς ἀστικὰς 
διατριβὰς καὶ τὰς κατ᾽ οἰκίαν αὐλίσεις, φεύγων 
δὲ καὶ τὰς ἐν ἀγροῖς διατριβὰς καὶ ὅπου καλύβαι 
τε καὶ ἀνθρώπων αὔλια, χαίρων δὲ ἐρημίαις καὶ 

a? eas > + A ᾿ . 3 , 
οὖς ἡδόμενος ὀρείοις κορυφαῖς καὶ πάγοις ἀποτόμοις. 

arr’ οὐδὲ ἠπείροις φιληδεῖ οὐδὲ 8 νήσοις ἀγαθαῖς, 
Σκύρῳ. δὲ καὶ εἴ τις τοιαύτη ἑτέρα ἄγαν λυπρὰ 
καὶ ἄγονος καὶ ἀνθρώπων χηρεύουσα ὡς τὰ πολλά. 

60. Σπίνοι δὲ ἄρα σοφώτεροι καὶ ἀνθρώπων τὸ 
μέλλον προεγνωκέναι. ἴσασι γοῦν καὶ χειμῶνα 
μέλλοντα, καὶ χιόνα ἐσομένην προμηθέστατα 
2 7 ᾿ a“ κι , 2. ᾿ 
ἐφυλάξαντο. καὶ τοῦ καταληφθῆναι δέει ἀποδι- 

7 A “ 
δράσκουσιν ἐς τὰ ἀλσώδη χωρία, καὶ αὐτοῖς τὰ 

/ b) 5 
δάση κρησφύγετα ὡς ἂν εἴποις ἐστίν. 

1 λέγοιτο... φύσει] λέγοιτο δ᾽ ἄν τι καὶ κ. διαλλάττον τοῦ κ. 
ὄρνεον. . . γένει φασὶν ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν φύσιν. τη 
. 3 τόξ add. ἢ. 

3 οὔτε. . οὔτε. 

4 , 4 \ , 
χωρία καὶ τὰ δασέα. 

ON ANIMALS, IV. 58-60 

| 58. You must know that the Oenas (Rock-dove) is a The Rock- 

bird and not, as some maintain, a vine. And ve 
Aristotle says [HA 544 b 6] that it is larger than a 
ring-dove but smaller than a pigeon. In Sparta ie 
I hear, there are men called Oenadotherae (Rock- 


The Circe may be said to differ from the falcon not The Circe 

only in sex but in its nature too. 

59. ‘ Blue-fowl 5 is its name; itis a bird; its ways The 
are apart from man; it hates to linger in cities or to 
lodge in a house; it even avoids lingering in fields or 
where there are cottages and huts belonging to man ; 
it likes desolate places and delights in ΠΡ ΠΝ ἰὴ οἰ 
and precipitous crags. It has no love even tor t : 
mainland or for pleasant islands, but for Scyros a 
any equally dreary, barren spot, generally destitute 
of human beings. : | | 

60. Chaffinches, it seems, are cleverer than man τ ae 
predicting the future. For instance, they can te 
when winter is coming, and they take the most sae | 
ful precautions against an impending snowfall, ες 
for fear of being overtaken they flee to the wood- 
lands where the thick foliage affords them, as you 
might say, an asylum. 

@ Perh. the ‘ Syrian Nuthatch.’ 


“~ A ~ ᾿ 
: Γῆν τὴν Ἰ]αριανῶν καὶ τὴν γείτονα ἸΚύξικον 
“A > - 
ὄρνιθας οἰκεῖν μέλανας ἰδεῖν φασι, τὸ δὲ σχῆμα 
> \ 
εἴποις ἱέρακας αὐτοὺς av. ἄγευστοι δέ εἰσι 

~ \ ~ 
σαρκῶν, καὶ σωφρονοῦσι περὶ τὴν γαστέρα, καὶ 

᾿ ? “A \ , > 
ee σπέρματα εἶναι δεῖπνον ἀπόχρη. ὅταν 
ε ὑπάρξηται τὸ μετόπωρον, ἐς τὴν ᾿Ιλιάδα γῆν 

3 7 ~ : ~ 
ἀγέλη τῶνδε τῶν ὀρνίθων (καλοῦσι δὲ αὐτοὺς 

μέμνονας) εὐθὺ τοῦ Μεμνονείου τάφου φοιτῶσι 
λέγουσι δὲ οἱ τὴν Τρωάδα ἔτι οἰκοῦντες ἡ boy 
ewat τι τῷ “Hobs * Μέμνονι. dverov-? καὶ ey 
μὲν τὸν νεκρὸν ἐς τὰ Σοῦσα τὰ οὕτω Μεμνόνεια 
ὑμνούμενα ὕπο τῆς μητρὸς κομισθέντα μετέωρον 
ἐκ τῶν φονῶν τυχεῖν κηδεύσεως τῆς προσηκούσης 
αὐτῷ, ἐπονομάζεσθαι ὃ δέ οἱ τὴν στήλην ; 
ἐνταῦθα ἄλλως. οὐκοῦν τοὺς ὄρνιθας τοὺς eae 
μοὺς τοῦ ypwos τοῦ προειρημένου ἀφικνεῖσθαι 
κατὰ πᾶν ἔτος, καὶ διαιρεῖσθαί τε καὶ διασχίζεσθαι 
ἐς ἔχθραν καὶ διαφοράν, καὶ μάχεσθαι μάχην καρ- 
Tepav,” ἔστ᾽ ἂν οἱ μὲν αὐτῶν ἀποθάνωσιν of 
ἡμίσεις, οἱ δὲ ἀπέλθωσιν of κρατήσαντες ἔνθ 
(τοι ὃ καὶ ἀφίκοντο. ὅπως <pev>® οὖν τάξι 
δρᾶται καὶ ὁπόθεν, οὔ μοι σχολὴ φιλοσοφεῖν co 
> 9 

τῷ τῆς “Hodis mss, H, τῆς del. De Stefani. 
εἰς τιμήν. 
3 Schn: ὀνομάζεσθαι. 

4 A 1 3 ~ 
KQPTEPay καὶ ES τοσοῦτον. 



1. They say that the country about Parium ° and The Ruff 

ἢ neighbour Cyzicus are inhabited by birds black in 

appearance; from their shape you would say that 
they were hawks. But they do not touch flesh, are 
temperate in their appetite, and for them seeds are a 
sufficient meal. And when late autumn sets in, a 
flock of these birds (they call them Memnons) ἢ resort 
to the land round Ilium, making straight for the tomb 
of Memnon.* And the people who still inhabit the 
Tyoad assert that there is a tomb there dedicated to 
Memnon the son of Eos (Dawn); and since the actual 
dead body was borne through the air by his mother 
from the midst of the carnage to Susa (celebrated for 
this reason as ‘ Memnonian’), where it was awarded | 
a becoming burial, the monument in the Troad is 
called after him to no purpose. And so year by year 
the birds named after the aforesaid hero arrive and 
separate themselves into hostile factions and fight 
violently until half their number are killed, when the 
victors depart and return whence they came. How 
this all comes to pass and for what reason, I have at 
the moment no leisure to speculate, nor yet to 
track down the mysteries of Nature. This however I 

@ Town at the western end of the S coast of the Propontis;_ 

Cyzicus is some 40 mi. further E. 
> Ruffs. 


δ. <rovy add. Η. ὁ (μέρ add. H. 



ΩΝ 4 
οὐδὲ L τῇ j ἱ ἀνιχν 
Boe μὴν τὰ τῆς φύσεως ἀπόρρητα ἀνιχνεύ 
εἰρήσεται δὲ ἐκεῖ ἐπιτά - 
ee δὲ ἐκεῖνο. ἐπιτάφιον τῷ παιδὶ τῷ τῇ 
᾿ ὧι καὶ Τιθωνοῦ τοῦτον ὅσα ἔτη τὸν ae 
ἀθλοῦσ ΐ re 
ει ἐν οὐ προειρημένοι ὄρνιθες. Πελίαν δὲ. 
ἅπα ὑγῶ | 
ag ἐτίμησαν EAAnves ἀγῶνι καὶ ᾿Αμαρυγκέᾳα 
Kat μέντοι καὶ Ἰ]Πάτροκλ i τὸ a 
ἄτροκλον καὶ τὸν ἀντίπαλον 

7 : 
Μέμνονος τὸν ᾿Αχιλλέα. 

2, Ἔν τῇ Ἵ ῦ ; | 
ne ἢ Κρήτῃ γλαῦκα μὴ γίνεσθαί φασι τὸ 
: ράπαν, ἀλλὰ καὶ εσκομισθεῖσαν ἔξωθεν ἀπο 
νήσκειν. ἐ = ὁ ᾿ 
ἤσκειν. ἔοικε δὲ ὁ Ἐῤριπίδης ἀβασανίστως 
πεποιηκέναι τὸν Ἰολύειδον ὁρῶντα τήνδε τὴν 
ὄρνιν κα ITH Ἵ | 
pow καὶ ἐξ αὑτῆς τεκμηράμενον ὅτι εὐρήσει τὸν 
τεθνεῶτα τῷ Μίνωι υἱόν.1 Ἵ 
- τ ὑ υἱὸν." πυνθάνομαι δὲ ἔγωγε 
ὄ ΄- od : 
ee pitas ἄδειν καὶ διδάσκειν ἐκεῖνα πρὸς 
τοῖ 3 a 
a ἢ διηνυσμένοις. δῶρον λαβεῖν τὴν γῆν 
ν 3 7 Ἂν 
τὴν Ἀρητικὴν ἐκ Διός, οἷα δήπου τροφὸν καὶ τὴν 
iene m3 t > 
A ψιν τὴν "ὑμνουμένην ἀποκρύψασαν αὐτόν, ἐλευ- 
ἐρα ῦ 
ἔραν εἶναι θηρίου πονηροῦ καὶ ἐπὶ λύμῃ yeyewn- 
μένου * παντός, καὶ μή ΩΣ pal ge 
oi » Καὶ μήτε αὐτὴν τίκτειν μήτε 
εν κομισθὲν τρέφειν. καὶ τὴν μὲν ἀποδεί- 
κνυσθαι τοῦ δώ nv ἐσχύ av: “dp 
: ἡώρου τὴν ἰσχύν: τῶν γάρ τοι 
προειρημένων ἄγονον εἶναι" εἰ δὲ ἐπὶ mei, 
ἢ ἐλέγχῳ τῆς ἐκ Διὸς yd jee 
ἦ ἐλγχς ἧς ἐκ Διὸς χάριτος τῶν ὀθνείων τι 
ἀγάγοι, τὸ δὲ ἐπιψαῦσαν μόνον τῆς γῆς ἀπόλ 

1 δι: # 4 

εὑρήσει καὶ τὸν Tad, δ 
| ! KOV TOY Ὁ 0 Μί Ὁ 
ye τεθνεῶτα τοῦ Μίνω (τῶ Μίνωι 


“pill mention. 
-“eontest around the tomb of the son of Eos and 

: Tithonus year after year, whereas the Greeks. held | 
put one contest in honour of Pelias,* of Amarynceus, ᾿ 

‘abroad it dies. 

ssivteatetase atin 


The aforesaid birds engage in this 

and even of Patroclus, and of Achilles the adversary 

of Memnon. 

9. They say that the Owl is not found at all in Crete κοίο 
Crete, and moreover that if it is introduced from Con” 
So it seems that Euripides un- 
critically represented Polyeidus ’ as seeing this 
bird and thereby conjecturing that he would 
discover the dead son of Minos. And I myself 
have ascertained that the Cretan histories, beside 
the facts already told, relate in verse and prose 
how Crete received from Zeus a boon—seeing that 
the island had nursed him and effected that famous 
concealment of him—, namely that it should be 
free of all noxious creatures born to do harm, 
that it should neither produce them nor support 
them if introduced from abroad. And the island 
proves how potent this boon was, for it produces none 
of the aforesaid creatures. But if a man by way of 
trying and testing the extent of Zeus’s favour im- 
ports one of these alien creatures, it has but to touch 

4 King of Iolcus; his son Acastus paid him the honour of 
funeral games.—Amarynceus, acc. to a later legend, sent help 
to the Greeks against Troy; see Hom. Il. 23. 630.—For the 
funeral games of Patroclus see Hom. Jl. 23.—The death of 
Achilles is referred to but not described in Hom. Od. 24. 37. 

> Polyeidus (i.e. the much-knowing), son of Coeranus and. 
descendant of Melampus, famous as seer and wonder-worker, 
divined through the presence of an owl that the body of 
Glaucus, the son of Minos, lay dead in a cask of honey and 
restored him to life. See Nauck 16 3, p. 558. 



Avobat. οὐκοῦν τοὺς θηρῶ ὴς 6 

vr: | 5 

ee ; θηρῶντας τοὺς ὄφεις ἐν τῇ 
i in τοιαῦτα παλαμᾶσθαι. ἡμερώσαν- 

“-ς Ὡ , 
ΡΣ ἐς θαῦμα οἵδε οὗ γόητες τῶν δακετῶν 
ἢ 4 Fest 

ηρίων πολλά, καὶ σὺν αὐτοῖς ἐπάγονται φόρτ 

γῆς τῆς Λιβύσσης σφί cpa ονθαν 

γ a Jaons σφίσι TO ἀρκοῦν ἐς THY χρείαν 

sown ela δὲ τῶν ὄφεων τοῦτο δρῶσιν, ἵνα μὴ 

» Ά -- 
ἀπόλωνται" καὶ διὰ ταῦτα ἐς τὴν νῆσον τὴν προει- 
pe ὅταν ἀφίκωνται, οὐ πρότερον κατατίθενται 
τὰ ζῷα, πρὶν ἢ ὑποσπεῖραι τὴν ξένην γῆν ἣν ἐπά- 

+ 3 4 4 
γονται. Kat ἐπὶ τούτοις ἀθροίζουσι τὰ πλήθη, καὶ 

μέντοι καὶ τοὺς ἀνοήτους τε καὶ πολλοὺς ἐκπλήτ- 
τουσιν. ἕως μὲν οὖν ἕκαστον αὐτῶν κατὰ το 
μένει. συνεσπειραμένον τε καὶ ἱδρυμένον a 
ἐπανίσταται μέν, οὐ μὴν ὑπερβάλλει τὴν olicelay 
κόνιν καὶ σύντροφον, ἐς τοσοῦτον ζῇ: ἐὰν δὲ 
ἐκφοιτήσῃ ἐς τὴν ὀθνείαν καὶ ἑαυτῷ ξένην γῆ 
τὴν ἐχθραίνουσαν αὐτῷ, ἀποθνήσκει, καὶ seas 

2 Ἁ 4 3 ~ A ~ 
εἰ yap τὸ ἐκ τοῦ Διὸς νεῦμα ἀτελὲς οὔτε πρὸς τὴν 

é > ‘4 
έ 4 4 if 
Θ τιν ἐγένετο οὔτε πρὸς ἄλλον τινὰ γένοιτο ἃ 
σχολῇ δήπου πρὸς 77, Tob sy exélve 
: ἷ ρ τὴν αὐτοῦ τροφὸν ἐκεῖνο 


the soil and it dies. Accordingly snake-hunters from and to 

the neighbouring Libya use devices of this kind. 
These charmers of venomous reptiles tame a great 

number and bring them for people to wonder at, and 

with them they import a load of soil from Libya 
sufficient for their need. This they do by way of 
recaution, to prevent the snakes from meeting their 
death. With this object, when they arrive at the 
aforesaid island they do not put down their snakes 
until they have laid a bed of the imported soil. This 
done, they collect crowds and fill the unintelligent 
majority with amazement. Now as long as each 
snake remains coiled up and settled in its place, or 
rises up without however crossing the limit of its 
own native dust, so long it lives. If however it 
strays on to the alien soil which is strange and hostile 
to it, it dies, and naturally so. For if the will of Zeus 
did not fail of effect in the case of Thetis, and would 
not fail in the case of any other person, far less, 1 
think, will it prove ineffectual when his own nurse is 



ανεῖται ἄκυρον. 
3. The river Indus is devoid of savage creatures ; ἃ monstrous 
nake in 

. | 
ὃ. ' 0 ποταμὸς 0 ᾿Ινδὸς ἄθηρός ἐστι, μόνος δὲ 
ἐν αὐτῷ τίκτεται σκώληξ φασί. καὶ τὸ μὲν εἶδο 
αὐτῷ ὁποῖον δήπου καὶ τοῖς ἐκ τῶν ξύλων ᾿ 
νωμένοις TE καὶ τρεφομένοις, ἑπτὰ «δὲ cae τὸ 
μῆκος προήκουσιν οἱ ἐκεῖθι, εὑρεθεῖεν δ᾽ ἂν καὶ 
μείζους ἔτι καὶ ἐλάττους: τὸ πάχος δὲ αὐτῶν 
δεκαετὴς παῖς γεγονὼς μόλις ταῖς χερσὶ περιβάλ- 
λειν ἀρκέσει." τούτοις δὴ ἄνω μὲν εἷς ὀδοὺ 
προσπέφυκε, κάτω δὲ ἄλλος, τετράγωνοι δὲ ἄ "ὦ 
πυγόνος δὲ τὸ μῆκος. τοσοῦτον δὲ ἄρα "Tar 


the only thing that is born in it is a worm, so they the mdus 

say, in appearance like those that are engendered in,. 

and feed upon, timber. But these creatures attain 
to a length of as much as seven cubits, though one 
might find specimens both larger and smaller. Their 
bulk is such that a ten-year-old boy could hardly en- 
circle it with his arms. A single tooth is attached to 
the upper jaw, another to the lower, and both are 
square and about eighteen inches long; and such is 

a Τ -ο------- 

1 θηρία. 2 πηχῶν MSS always. 
8 ἀρκέσειε most MSS, ἰσχύσει V, (ἂν) ἀρκέσειε Jae. 



VOL. I. 


39 7 3 a i 7 
ὀδόντων αὐτοῖς τὸ κράτος ἐστί: πᾶν ὅ τι ἂν ὑπ" 

> “ 7 
αὐτοῖ , ᾷ ᾿ 
ς λάβωσι συντρίβουσι ῥᾷστα, ἐάν τε λίθος ἣ 

ea ἴω at lg 
Ww TE Ἴμερον ζῷον ἢ ἄγριον. Kat μεθ᾽ ἡμέραν 
μὲν κάτω καὶ ἐν {τῷ} ἢ τοῦ. πὐταμον ta. 
i αἱ ἐν (τῷ) βυθῷ τοῦ ποταμοῦ δια- 
τρίβουσι, τῷ πηλῷ καὶ τῇ ἰλύι φιληδοῦντες, καὶ 
ἐντεῦθεν οὐκ εἰσὶν ἔκδ j ἴασο 
ἐντεῦ εἰσὶν ἔκδηλοι- νύκτωρ δὲ προΐα 
ἐς τὴν γῆν, καὶ ὅτῳ ἃ j ) ἵππω ἢ 
Bot ἢ ὁ ; τῷ ἂν περιτύχωσιν, ἢ ἵππῳ ἢ 
οἱ ἢ ὄνῳ, συντρίβουσιν αὐτόν, εἶτα σύρουσιν αὶ 
τὰ ἑαυτῶν ἤθη, καὶ ἐσθί ἐν τῷ δ 
J 00, καὶ ἐσθίουσιν ἐν τῷ ποταμῷ, καὶ 
\ , ἕ ἘΣ 
πάντα βρύκουσι 5 τὰ μέλη πλὴν τῆς τοῦ ζῴ 
κοιλίας. εἰ δὲ αὐ καὶ ἐν ἡμέ 1 ie 
αὐτοὺς καὶ ev ἡμέρᾳ πιέζοι λιμός 

HH Ld ,ὔ 
εἴτε κάμηλος πίνοι ἐπὶ τῆς ὄχθης εἴτε βοῦς, 

m2 t \ , 
aaa hed As καὶ λαβόμενοι ἄκρων τῶν χειλέων 
α ~ , 
ater eh αβῶς, ὁρμῇ βιαιοτάτῃ καὶ ἕλξει ἐγκρατεῖ 
ἐς τὸ ὕδωρ ἄγουσι, καὶ δεῖπνον ἴσχουσι. δορὰ δὲ 
€ 4 
ἕκαστον περιαμπέχει TO πάχος καὶ δύο δακτύλ 
ἄγρα δὲ αὐτῶν 8 καὶ θή ) 5 Be 
a 2 kat θήρα τὸν τρόπον τόνδε 
bag ἀγκιστρον παχὺ Kal ἰσχυρὸν ἁλύ 
σει σ OL : a : 
sie emp A peCnP =r καθιᾶσι, προσδήσαντες 
ὑτῷ λευκολίνου ταλαντιαῖον * ὅπλον, ἐρίῳ κατ 
λήσαντες καὶ τὸϑ καὶ τό, ft Bias a 
Kal TO, ἵνα μὴ διατράγῃ 6 
σκώληξ αὐτά, ἀναπή ἀπ εν 
ΠΝ νῶν ναπήξαντες δὲ ἐς τὸ ἄγκιστρον 
a a 7 eile εἶτα μέντοι ἐς TO τοῦ ποταμοῦ 
υ “~~ 
Ἶ wp μεθιᾶσιν. ἔχονται δὲ ἄνθρωποι τοῦ ὅπλου 
αὐ τριάκοντα, καὶ ἕκαστος ἀκόντιόν τε ἐνηγκύλη- 
ται καὶ μάχαιραν 7) ἈΠ μεΣὶ 
oe χαιραν παρήρτηται. καὶ παράκειται 
λα εὐτρεπῆ, παίειν εἰ δέοι: κρανείας δέ ἐστι 
τὰ τα, ἰσχυρὰ ἄγαν. εἶτα περισχεθέντα τῷ ἀγκί- 
τρῳ καὶ TO δέλεαρ καταπιόντα τὸν σκώληκ 
ἀνέλκουσι,5 θηραθέντα δὲ a j ae 
ρον ih npallevra, δὲ ἀποκτείνουσι, καὶ πρὸς 
τὴν εἰλην κρεβῶσι τριάκοντα ἡμερῶν. λείβεται 
1 (τῷ add. H 2 
ae f Schn: Bpvedar. - 

\ the strength of their teeth that they can crush with 
the greatest ease anything that they get between 


them, be it stone, be it animal, tame or wild. During 
the daytime they live at the bottom of the river, 
wallowing in the mud and slime ; for that reason they 
are not to be seen. But at night they emerge on to 
the land, and whatever they encounter, whether 
horse or ox or ass, they crush and then drag down to 
their haunts and eat it in the river, devouring every 
member of the animal excepting its paunch. If 

however they are assailed by hunger during the day 

as well, and should a camel or an ox be drinking on 
the bank, they slide furtively up and seizing firmly 
upon its lips, haul it along with the utmost force and 
drag it by sheer strength into the water, where they 
feast upon it. Each one is covered with a hide two 
fingers thick. The following means have been de- 

vised for hunting and capturing them. Men let its capture 

down a stout, strong hook attached to an iron chain, 
and to this they fasten a rope of white flax weighing 
a talent, and they wrap wool round both chain and 
rope to prevent the worm biting through them. On 
the hook they fix a lamb or a kid, and then let them 
sink in the river. As many as thirty men hold on to 
the rope and each of them has a javelin ready to hurl 
and a sword at his side. Wooden clubs are placed 
handy, should they need to deal blows, and these are 
of cornel-wood and very hard. Then when the worm 
is secured on the hook and has swallowed the bait, 
the men haul, and having captured it and killed it, 
hang it up in the sun for thirty days. From the body 

oe le -.-.---- τ τ τ ππτπτπτπτ ἑ π ͵ 

ἃ πλατέος. 

Ω 3 2. κα 
κατ αὐτῶν. 

6 ἐλ 

δ Jac: καὶ τὸ ἄγκιστρον. 


δὲ 3 3 ~ a x > 3 ΚΝ 

den i eames ἀπε Δ ee 
pinor ον ζᾷ ς δέκα. τοῦτο 

δὴ τὸ ἔλαιον {τῷ βασιλεῖ τῶν ᾿Ινδῶν κομίζουσι 

σημεῖα ἐπιβαλόντες "3 ἔχειν γὰρ αὐτοῦ ἄλλον 

οὐδὲ ὅσον ῥανίδα ἐφεῖται. ἀχρεῖον δέ ἐστι τὸ 

λοιπὸν τοῦ ζῴου σκῆνος. ἔχει δὲ ἄρα τὸ Dias, 

> \ 3 / ev ba ; 
ἰσχὺν ἐκείνην. ovtiva av ξύλων σωρὸν καταπρῆσαί 

rE \ 3 > Ἁ 

τε καὶ ἐς τ ἈΠ στορέσαι θελήσῃς, κοτύλην 

ἐπ ν τὰ a “ \ , i 2 
χέας τοῦδε ἐξάψεις, μὴ πρότερον ὑποχέας 

Μ“ ὲ 3 \ ~ 
πυρὸς σπέρμα: εἰ δὲ καταπρῆσαι ἄνθρωπον ἢ 

ᾧον, σὺ μὲν ἐπιχεῖς, τὸ δὲ παραχρῆμα ἐνεπρήσθ 

τούτῳ τοί φασι τὸν τῶν ᾿Ϊνδῶν βασιλέα καὶ ris 
πόλεις αἱρεῖν τὰς ἐς ἔχθραν προελθούσας οἱ, καὶ 
μήτε κριοὺς μήτε χελώνας μήτε τὰς ἄλλας ens. 
εἰς ἀναμένειν, ἐπεὶ καταπιμπρὰς ἥρηκεν: ἀγγεῖα 

“-- Ὁ ᾿ 

γὰρ κεραμεᾶ ὅσον κοτύλην ἕκαστον χωροῦντα 
ἐμ. ee καὶ ἀποφράξας ἄνωθεν. ἐς τὰς 
πῦλας σφενδονᾷ. ὁ 3 τύ av>* θυρίδων. 
τὰ μὲν ἀγγεῖα. leis IS is, abe 

aes ττε ub ἀπερράγη, καὶ 
τὸ ἔλαιον κατώλισθε, καὶ τῶν θυρῶν πῦρ κατεχύθ 
καὶ ἄσβεστόν ἐστι. καὶ ὅπλα δὲ κάει καὶ pe 
mous μαχομένους, καὶ ἄπλετόν ὃ ἐστι τὴν ἰσχύν 
κοιμίζεται δὲ καὶ ἀφανίζεται πολλοῦ φορυτοῦ 
καταχυθέντος.5 λέγει ὁ Κνίδιος Κτησίας ταῦτα 

4. ἫἋΑ ᾽ v4 ir 4 “~ ~ 
Pears Rear “ὅμοιον δελφῖνι ζῷόν ἐστιν, 
χει δὲ γᾷ a καὶ αὐτή. χρόαν δὲ οὐκ ἔστι μέλαινα, 
κυανῷ ἢ Ἵ ΕΝ 
ee ᾿ € τι τῷ βαθυτάτῳ, ἀναπνεῖ δὲ οὐ 
ραγχίοις, ἀλλὰ φυσητῆρι: τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ καλοῦ- 

; «(τῷ add. Η. 2 ἐπιβάλλοντες. 
3 χε, 4 τῶν» add. H. 
292 | 


there drips a thick oil into earthenware vessels; and the oil from 
each worm yields up to ten cotylae.. This oil they seal its body 

and bring to the Indian King; no one else is permitted 
to have somuch asadrop. The rest of the carcase is 
of no use. Now the oil has this power: should you 
wish to burn a pile of wood and to scatter the embers, 
pour on a cotyle and you will set it alight without pre- 
viously applying a spark. And if you want to burn a 
mati or an animal, pour some oil over him and at once 
heissetonfire. With this, they say, the Indian King 
even takes cities that have risen against him; he 
does not wait for battering-rams or penthouses or 
any other siege-engines, for he burns them down and 
captures them. He fills earthen vessels, each holding 
one cotyle, with oil, seals them, and slings them from 
above against the gates. When the vessels touch 
the embrasures they are dashed into fragments; 
the oil oozes down; fire pours over the doors, and 
nothing can quench it. And it burns weapons and 
fighting men, so tremendous is its force. It is how- 
ever allayed and put out if piles of rubbish are 

poured over it. | 
Such is the account given by Ctesias of Cnidus. 

4. The Porpoise is a creature like the dolphin, and 
it too has milk. Its colour is not black but resembles 
very deep blue. It breathes not through gills but 
through a blow-hole, for that is the name they give 

a] κοτύλη = about 4 pint. 
Te gr ee Ἡ ΤῊΝ 
Triller : ἄπληστον. 

8 πολλῷ φορυτῷ καταχυθέντι. 

Schn: φάλαινα. 




r ¢ a , \ cs 4 5 πὰ ᾿ς 
ow οἱ τοῦ πνεύματος τὴν ὁδόν. διατριβὴ δὲ ὁ 

Πόντος αὐτῇ καὶ ἡ ἐκεῖ θάλαττα: πλανᾶται δὲ 

(τῶν) ἠθῶν ἐκείνων ἐξωτέρω ἡ φώκαινα 3 

se . ” e θ a 7 3 3 3 zi 
5. Tov ἄρρενα ἡ θήλεια νικήσασα ὄρνις 8 ἐν τῇ 

/ “A ᾿ & 
μάχῃ, ἁβρύνεταί τε ὑφ᾽ ἡδονῆς καὶ καθίησι 
κάλλαια, οὐκ ἐς τοσοῦτον μὲν ἐς ὅσον καὶ of 

3 ὔ 7 ? “ \ > 
ἀλεκτρυόνες, καθίησι δ᾽ οὖν, καὶ φρονήματος 

ε ,ὔ ‘ ᾽ ’ 
ὑποπίμπλαται, καὶ βαίνει μακρότερα. 

6. Φιλοίκειον 6 δελφὶς ζῷον πεπίστευται. καὶ 
τὸ ὃ μαρτύριον, Alvds ἐστι πόλις Θρῇσσα. ἔτυχεν 
οὖν ἁλῶναι δελφῖνα καὶ τρωθῆναι μέν, οὐ μὴν ἐς 
θάνατον, ἀλλ’ (ὡς) ἔτι βιώσιμα εἶναι τῷ 
ἑαλωκότι. οὐκοῦν ἐρρύη. μὲν αἷμα, ἤσθοντο δὲ 
οἱ ἀθήρατοι, καὶ ἀφίκοντο ἐς τὸν λιμένα ἀγέλη, 
καὶ κατεσκίρτων, καὶ {δῆλοι ἦσάν τι δρασείον- 
τες οὐκ ἀγαθόν. of τοίνυν Αἴνιοι ἔδεισαν καὶ 
ἀφῆκαν τὸν ἑαλωκότα. καὶ ἐκεῖνοι κομισάμενοι 
ws ἕνα τῶν κηδεστῶν ὃ ᾧχοντο ἀπιόντες. σπα- 
νίως 19 δὲ ἄνθρωπος ἢ οἰκείῳ δυστυχήσαντι ἢ 
οἰκείᾳ κοινωνὸς σπουδῆς καὶ φροντίδος. 

9 > 

1. Ἔν Αἰγύπτῳ πίθηκος, ὥς φησιν Ἐὔδημος, 
ἐδιώκετο, αἴλουροι δὲ ἦσαν οἱ διώκοντες. ἀνὰ 

7 > 3 ’ [4 32" , 
κράτος οὖν ἀποδιδράσκων ὥρμησεν εὐθὺ δένδρου 
τινός, οἱ δὲ καὶ αὐτοὶ ἀνέθορον 11 dora: ἔχονται 
1 τῶν» add. Η. * Schn: φάλαινα. 
3 Κα 4 καἀλλ 
ὄρνιν. κάλλη. 

5 τούτου τό. 8. (ὡς) add. Η. | 
1 <dfAow> add. Cobet. 



to its air-passage. The Porpoise frequents Pontus 
and the sea round about, and rarely strays beyond its 
familiar haunts. ' 

5. When a Hen has defeated a cock-bird in battle The ons 
it gives itself airs from sheer delight and lets down gen 
wattles, not however to the same extent as cocks, 
although it does so and is filled with pride and struts 

more grandly. 

6. The Dolphin is believed to love its own kin, and Ὁ ϑαρμαιεά 
here is the evidence. Aenus is a city in Thrace. “™ 
Now it happened that a Dolphin was captured and. 
wounded, not indeed fatally, but the captive was still 
‘able to live. So when its blood flowed the dolphins 
which had not been caught saw this and came throng- 
ing into the harbour and leaping about and were 
plainly bent on some mischief. At this the people of 
‘Aenus took fright and let their captive go, and the 
dolphins, escorting as it might be some kinsman, 
departed. | 

But a human being will hardly attend or give a 
thought to a relative, be it man or woman, In mis- 


7. In Egypt, says Eudemus, ἃ Monkey was being Monkey: 
ursued and Cats were the pursuers. So the Monkey 7 
fled as fast as he could and made straight for a tree. 
But the Cats also ran up very swiftly, for they cling to 
τ οΠῤΠῤττς- τ -.... π0.0...ς...ὕ..ςὲ 
8 ἀγαθόν: ἐν ἔθει δὲ ἦν, ὡς τὸ εἰκός, καὶ αὐτοὺς νήχεσθαι καὶ 
παῖδας αὐτῶν. 

J “- hal f = 
9 us... κηδεοτῶν] ὡς ἑταίρων ἕνα τῶν K. ἢ γένει TPOTH 
κόντων. , 
10 σπάνιον. 11 συνέθορον. ΝΕ 

the bark and can also climb trees. But as he was 
oing to be caught, being one against many, he leapt 
from the trunk and with his paws seized the end of an 
overhanging branch high up and clung to it for a long 
while. And since the Cats could no longer get at 
him, they descended to go after other prey. So the 
Monkey was saved by his own considerable exertions, 
and it was to himself, as was proper, that he owed the 
reward for his rescue. 

yap τῶν φλοιῶν, καὶ ἔστι καὶ τούτοις ἐς δένδρα 
ἐπιβατά.:} 6 δὲ ws ἡλίσκετο εἷς ὦν, καὶ ταῦτα 
ὑπὸ πολλῶν, ἐκπηδᾷ τοῦ πρέμνου, καὶ κλάδου 
τινὸς ἐπηρτημένου 5 καὶ μετεώρου λαμβάνεται 
ἄκρου ταῖς χερσί, καὶ ἐγκρατῶς εἴχετο οὐκ ἐπ’ 
ὀλίγον: οἱ δὲ αἴλουροι, ὡς οὐκ ἣν ἐφιικκτὰ αὐτοῖς 
ἔτι, ἐπ᾿ ἄλλην θήραν κατέδραμον. 6 δὲ κατὰ 
πολλὴν τὴν σπουδὴν διεσώζετο, ἑαυτῷ ὀφείλων 
ὡς τὸ εἰκὸς ξωάγρια. ᾿ 


8. Aristotle says? that the soil of Astypalaea ὃ is Places 
unfriendly to snakes; just as, according to the same acer 
writer, Rhenea is to martens. No crow can go up mals 
on to the Acropolis at Athens. Say that Elis is the 

mother of mules,® and you say what is false. 

8. ᾿Αριστοτέλης ὄφεσιν ἔχθρὰν εἶναι τὴν ᾿Αστυ- 
παλαιέων γῆν λέγει, καθάπερ καὶ τὴν Ῥήνειαν 
ταῖς γαλαῖς ὁ αὐτὸς ὁμολογεῖ ἡμῖν. κορώνῃ δὲ 
ἐς τὴν ᾿Αθηναίων ἀκρόπολιν οὐκ <éo7w)? ἐπι- 
Bara.* ἡμιόνων δὲ Ἦλιν μητέρα οὐκ ἐρεῖς, ἢ τὸ 
λεχθὲν ψεῦδός ἐστιν. 

9. There is an agreement between the people of The Cicadas 
of Locris 

Rhegium and of Locris@ that they shall have access and 

9. “Ῥηγίνοις καὶ Λοκροῖς és τὴν γῆν τὴν 
ἀλλήλων παριέναι καὶ γεωργεῖν ἔνσπονδόν ἐστιν. 
οὐ μὴν ὁμολογοῦσι τούτοις οὐδὲ ἐς μίαν νοοῦσι 
καὶ τὴν αὐτὴν οἱ τέττιγες οἱ τῶνδε καὶ τῶνδε, 
ἐπεὶ τὸν μὲν Λοκρὸν ἐν “Ῥηγίῳ σιγηλότατον 
ἕξεις, τὸν δὲ “Ῥηγῖνον ἐν τοῖς Λοκροῖς ἀφωνότατον. 
καὶ τίς ἡ αἰτία τῆς τοιαύτης ἀντιδόσεως ὅ ἐγὼ 
μὲν οὐκ οἷδα οὐδὲ ἄλλος, εἰ μὴ μάτην θρασύνοιτο" 
οἶδε δέ, ὦ “Ῥηγῖνοι καὶ Λοκροί, μόνη ἡ φύσις. 

: \ ae ~ 
ποταμὸς γοῦν τῆς τε Ῥηγίνων καὶ τῆς Λοκρίδος 

1 3 f 
ἐπιβατόν. 2 ὑπηρτημένου 
8 “5 Ι 
: (ἔστιν) add. Η. τ ἢ 4 ἐπιβατόν. 
τοιαύτης ἀμοιβηδὸν εἰς τὴν σιωπὴν ἀντιδόσεως. 


to, and shall cultivate, one another’s lands. But the Bhegn 

Cicadas of the two territories do not agree to this and 
are not of one and the same mind, for you will find 
the Locrian Cicada is completely silent in Rhegium, 
and the Cicada from Rhegium is absolutely voiceless 
among the Locrians. What the cause of such an ex- 
change may be neither I nor anyone else, save an 
idle boaster, can say. Only to Nature, you men of 
Rhegium and of Locris, is it known. At any rate 
there is a river 6 separating the territories of Rhegium 

ἃ The passage is not in his extant works; fr.315 (Rose Arist. 
pseudepigraphus, Ὁ. 881), - 
> Astypalaea and Rhenea are islands of the Cyclades. 

¢ Op. Hdt. 4. 30. 
ἃ The two towns lay some 35 mi. apart in the ‘toe’ of Italy. 
6 The Caecinus ace. to Paus. 6, 6. 4, the Halex acc. to Strabo 

6. 260 and others, 


δι. ἃ , \ ot ᾿ 
τὰς pers, oe εἴργονταί ye οὐδὲ πλεθριαίῳ 
ov g 
oes αἱ ὄχθαι, καὶ ὅμως οὐδέτεροι ὃ 
ιαπέτονται αὐτόν. καὶ ἐ ᾳ ὃ 
ἘΠ τὸ ὄν. καὶ ἐν Κεφαλληνίᾳ ποταμός 
τιν, ὅσπερ οὖν τῆς τε εὐγονίας τῶν τεττίγων 
καὶ τῆς ἁγονίας aiTLOS. ν᾽ 

A 7 ? ~ , 
10. Τὸν βασιλέα αὐτῶν at μέλιτται πρᾶον ὄντα 
καὶ ἥμερον καὶ ὁμοῦ τι καὶ ἄκεντρον ὅταν αὐτὰς 
ἀπολίπῃ μεταθέουσί τε καὶ διώκουσι φυγάδα τῆς 

> ~ 3; ξ 
ἀρχῆς ὄντα. ῦ = αὐτὸ 4 | 
ρχῆς ῥινηλατοῦσι δὲ αὐτὸν ἀπορρήτως, 

\ - 

καὶ ἐκ τῆς ὀσμῆς τῆς περὶ αὐτὸν αἱροῦσι, καὶ ἐς 
τὴν βασιλείαν ἐπανάγουσιν ἑκοῦσαί τε καὶ βουλό- 
μεναι καὶ τοῦ τρόπου ἀγάμεναι. Πεισίστρατον 
δὲ ἐξήλασαν ᾿Αθηναῖοι καὶ Συρακόσιοι ἃ Διονύ- 
σιον καὶ ἄλλοι ἄλλους, τυράννους τε καὶ παρανό- 
μους ὄντας καὶ τέχνην βασιλικὴν ἀποδείξασθαι 
μὴ δυναμένους, ἥπερ οὖν φιλανθρωπία -τε καὶ τῶν 
ὑπηκόων ἐστὶ προστασία. 

11. Μέλει τῷ βασιλεῖ τῶν μελυττῶν κεκοσμῆ- 
σθαι τὸ σμῆνος τὸν τρόπον τοῦτον. τὰς μὲν 
προστάττει ὑδροφορεῖν, τὰς δὲ ἔνδον κηρία δια- 
πλάττειν, τὴν γε μὴν τρίτην μοῖραν ἐπὶ τὴν 
νομὴν προϊέναι- εἶτα μέντοι ἀμείβουσι τὰ ἔργα 
ἐκ περιόδου κάλλιστά πως ὃ ἀποκριθείσης.Θ αὐτὸς 
δὲ ὁ βασιλεύς, “ἀπόχρη οἱ τούτων πεφροντικέναι 
καὶ νομοθετεῖν ὅσα προεῖπον κατὰ τοὺς μεγάλους 

ἄρχοντας, ots ot φιλόσοφοι φιλοῦσιν ὀνομά 

1 διαστήματι μέσῳ 2 οὐθέτ 
, De οὐθέτεροι. 
3 Κεφαληνίᾳ. ; ὴ 

* Συρακού- MSs always, 

€ πως. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 9-1: 

and Locris, and the banks are not so much as a hun- 
dred feet apart; for all that the Cicadas of neither 
side fly across it. And in Cephallenia there is a river 
which occasions both fertility and barrenness among 


10. Bees when forsaken by their King, who is at Bees ae 
P ° ὃ ᾿ their King 

once gentle and inoffensive and also stingless, give | 
chase and pursue after the deserter from the post of 

rule. They track him down in some mysterious way 

and detect him by means of the smell he diffuses and 

bring him back to his kingdom of their own free will, 
indeed eagerly, for they admire his disposition. But 

the Athenians drove out Pisistratus,* and the Syra- 
cusans Dionysius,’ and other states their rulers, since 

they were tyrants and broke the laws and could not 
exhibit the art of kingship which consists in loving 

one’s fellow-men and protecting one’s subjects. 

11. It is the concern of the King Bee that his hive The King 
should be regulated in the following manner. To ooo 
some bees he assigns the bringing of water, to others 
the fashioning of honeycombs within the hive, while 
a third lot must go abroad to gather food. But after 

a time they exchange duties in a precisely deter- . 

-mined rotation. As to the King himself, it is enough 

for him to take thought and to legislate for the mat- 
ters that I mentioned above after the manner of great 
rulers to whom philosophers like to ascribe simul- 

4 Tyrant of Athens 560 8.c., twice expelled but regained 
power and held it till his death, 527 B.c. 
> See below, ch. 15 n. 
Sere ee sary ee ee . .----’--------- -- 
6 Gow: ἀποκριθεῖσαι (so H) φιλοῦσιν οἰκουρεῖν ai πρεσβύταται 
MSS, φιλοῦσιν. . . πρεσβύταται del. H. 


4 \ 
πολιτικούς τε καὶ βασιλικοὺς τοὺς αὐτούς" τὰ δὲ᾽ 

ἄλλα ἡσυχάζει καὶ τοῦ αὐτουργεῖν ἀφεῖται. ἐὰν δὲ 
ῆ λῷον ταῖς μελίτταις μεταστῆναι, τηνικαῦτα καὶ 
ὁ ἀρχων ἀπαλλάττεται. καὶ ἐὰν μὲν ἔτι νέος ἢ 
ἡγεῖται, αἱ δὲ λουπαὶ ἕπονται" ἐὰν δὲ πρεσβύτε. 
ρος, φοράδην ἔρχεται, κομιζουσῶν αὐτὸν μελιττῶν 
ἄλλων. αἱ μέλιτται δὲ ὑπὸ συνθήματι ἐς ὕπνον 
τρεποντᾶνι ὅταν δὲ δοκῇ καιρὸς εἶναι καθεύδειν 
6 βασιλεὺς μιᾷ προστάττει ὑποσημῆναι κατα- 
δαρθάνειν. καὶ ἡ μὲν πεισθεῖσα τοῦτο ἐκήρυξεν 
αἱ δὲ ἐς κοῦτον τρέπονται ἐντεῦθεν, τέως βομβοῦ- 
σαι. ἕως (μὲν) 8 οὖν περίεστιν 6 βασιλεύς͵, 
εὐθενεῖται * τὸ σμῆνος, καὶ ἀταξία πᾶσα ἠφανίσθη, 
καὶ οἱ μὲν κηφῆνες ἀγαπητῶς ἐν τοῖς ἑαυτῶν 
κυττάροις ἡσυχάζουσιν, αἱ δὲ 5. πρεσβύτεραι διαι- 
τῶνται ἰδίᾳ, καὶ αἱ νέαι ἰδίᾳ, καὶ καθ᾽ ἑαυτὸν ὃ 
“βασιλεύς, καὶ αἱ σχαδόνες ἐφ᾽ ἑαυτῶν εἰσι, καὶ ἡ 
τροφὴ καὶ αἱ ἄφοδοι χωρίς" ἐπειδὰν δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς 
ἀπόληται, ἀταξίας τε καὶ ἀναρχίας μεστὰ πάντα: 
οἱ τε γὰρ κηφῆνες τοῖς τῶν μελιττῶν κυττάροις 
ἐντίκτουσι, τά τε λοιπὰ ἐν ἀλλήλοις φυρόμενα 
εὐθενεῖσθαι τῷ σμήνει τὸ λοιπὸν οὐκ ἐπυτρέπει:' 
διαφθείρονται δὲ τελευτῶσαι ἐρημίᾳ ἄρχοντος. 
βίον δὲ καθαρὸν ζῇ μέλιττα, καὶ ξῴου οὐκ ἂν 
οὐδενὸς πάσαϊτό ποτε: καὶ οὐ δεῖται Πυθαγόρου 
συμβούλου οὐδὲ ἕν, ἀπόχρη δὲ ἄρα σῖτον “as ἢ 
i \ wf A \ “Τῇ 
εἶναι τὰ ἄνθη. ἔστι δὲ καὶ σωφροσύνην ἀκροτάτη. 
χλιδὴν γοῦν καὶ θρύψιν μεμίσηκε. καὶ τὸ μαρτύ- 
ριον, τὸν χρισάμενον μύρῳ διώκει τε καὶ ἐλαύνει 
ὡς πολέμιον ἀνήκεστα δράσαντα. οἶδε δὲ καὶ τὸν 

ξ é 

1 ἄγονται 26 
VT aL. ἕν. 
8 <uév> add. H. ἃ 


taneously the qualities of a citizen and of a king. 
For the rest he lives at ease and abstains from 
physical labour. If however it is expedient for the 
bees to change their dwelling, then the ruler departs, 
and if he happens to be still young, he leads the way 
and the rest follow; if however he is elderly, he is 
carried on his way and conveyed by other bees. 

At a signal bees retire to slumber. When it seems’ 
to-be time to go to sleep the King commands one bee 
to give the signal for going to rest. And the bee 
obeys and gives the word, whereupon the bees that 
have been buzzing till then retire to bed. Now so 
long as the King survives, the swarm flourishes and 
all disorder is suppressed. The drones gladly remain 
at rest in their cells, the older bees dwell in their 
quarters apart, the young in theirs, the King by 
himself, and the larvae in their own place. Their 
food and their excrement are in separate places. 
But when the King dies, disorder and anarchy fill the 
place; the drones produce offspring in the cells of the 
bees; the general confusion no longer permits the 
swarm to thrive, and finally the bees perish for want 
of a ruler. | | 

The Bee leads a blameless life and would never 
touch animal food. It has no need of Pythagoras for 
counsellor, but flowers afford it food enough. Itis in 
the highest degree temperate; at any rate it abhors 
luxury and delicate living; witness the fact that it 

ursues and drives away a man who has perfumed 
himself, as if he were some enemy who has perpe- 
trated actions past all remedy. It recognises too a 

4 εἰρήνῃ εὐθην-. 


ατρασεεατ σι: ΞΞΞΞ ΞΔ CEE CET 


ἐλθόντα 1 ἐξ ἀκολάστου optrias,® καὶ διώκει καὶ 
ἐκεῖνον οἷα δήπου ἔχθιστον. καὶ ἀνδρείας δὲ εὖ 
ἥκουσι καὶ ἄτρεπτοί εἶσιν. οὐδὲ ἕν γοῦν ζῷον 
ἀποδιδράσκουσιν, οὐδὲ μὴν κάκῃ εἴκουσι, χωροῦσι 
δὲ ὁμόσε. καὶ πρὸς μὲν τοὺς μὴ ἐνοχλοῦντας 
μηδὲ ἄρχοντας ἀδίκων μηδὲ τῷ σμήνει προσιόντας 
κακούργως καὶ σὺν ἐπιβουλῇ εἰρηναῖα αὐταῖς καὶ 
ἔνοπονδά ἐστι, πόλεμος δὲ ἀκήρυκτος τὸ ἀδόμενον 
τοῦτο ἐπὶ τοὺς λυποῦντας ἐξάπτεται, καὶ ὅστις 
ἥκει κεραΐσων τὸ μέλι αὐταῖς, ἐς τοὺς ἐχθροὺς 
ἠρίθμηται οὗτος. παίουσι δὲ καὶ τοὺς σφῆκας 
κακῶς. λέγει δὲ ᾿Αριστοτέλης ὅτι καὶ ἱππεῖ 3 
ποτε ἐντυχοῦσαι πρὸς τῷ σμήνει ἀπέκτειναν αὐτὸν 
ἐπιθέμεναι κατὰ τὸ καρτερὸν αἱ μέλιτται αὐτῷ 
ἵππῳ. ἤδη μέντοι καὶ πρὸς ἀλλήλας διαφέρονται, 
καὶ ai δυνατώτεραι κρατοῦσι τῶν ἡττόνων. κρα- 
τοῦσι δὲ ὡς ἀκούω αὐτῶν οἵ τε φρῦνοι καὶ οἱ ἐκ 
τῶν τελμάτων βάτραχοι οἵ τε μέροπες καὶ αἱ 
χελιδόνες, πολλάκις γε μὴν καὶ οἱ σφῆκες. ὅστις 
δὲ τούτων ἐκράτησε, Kaduetav ὥς γε εἰπεῖν τὴν 
νίκην ἐνίκησε: παιόμενοι γὰρ καὶ κεντούμενοι 
κακῶς ἀπαλλάττουσιν. εἰσὶ γὰρ οὐ μεῖον τῷ 
θυμῷ ἢ τοῖς κέντροις ὡπλισμέναι. οὐκ ἀμοιροῦσι 
δὲ οὐδὲ τῆς ἐς τὸ προμηθὲς σοφίας, καὶ ᾽Αριστο- 
τέλης τεκμηριοῦ ὃ λέγω. ἔστι δὲ τοιοῦτον. 
ἐλθοῦσαι μέλυτται 4 ἐπί τι σμῆνος οὐκ οἰκεῖον 
1 προσελθόντα. 

2 2 A Η 4 6 ’ ~ f 
ἀκολασίας TE Kal ὁμιλίας τῆς πρός τινα. 
3 Reiske : ἵ 4 αἱ 
ewske : ἵππῳ. at μ. 

* The ‘ horseman ’ is an addition of Aelian’s. 
> Two explanations are given: (i) Cadmus slew a dragon 
set by Ares to guard a well, From its teeth sprang armed 



man who comes from an unchaste.bed, and him also 

it pursues, as though he were its bitterest foe. And its courage 

Bees are well-endowed with courage and are un- 
daunted. For instance, there is not a single animal 

from which they flee; they are not mastered by 

cowardice but go to the attack. Towards those who 
do not trouble them or start to injure them or who 
do not approach the hive bent on mischief and with 
evil intent they show themselves peaceful and 
friendly ; but against those who would injure them 
the fires of a truceless war, as the phrase goes, are 
kindled; and anyone who comes to plunder their 

honey is reckoned among their enemies. And they 

sting even wasps severely. And Aristotle records its sting 

[HA 626 a 21] how Bees once finding a horseman 4 
near the hive attacked him violently and slew both 
him and his horse. And further, they fight with one 
another, and the stronger party defeats the weaker. 

But I learn that toads and frogs from pools, bee- its enemies 

eaters, and swallows defeat them, and frequently 
wasps do so too. Yet the victor achieves what you 
might call a Cadmean victory,” for he comes off badly 
from their blows and stings, since the Bees are armed 
with courage no less than with stings. But Bees are 
not without a share of the wisdom of foresight, and 
Aristotle vouches for my statement [HA 626 b 12] 
thus. Some Bees came to a hive that was not theirs 
but a different one and proceeded to plunder the 

men who would have fallen upon C. had he not prevailed upon 
them to kill one another. (ii) Eteocles the defender, and 
Polynices the assailant of Thebes, the city founded by Cadmus, 
slew each other in battle. The Thebans were victorious but 
were later driven out by the descendants of the. *‘ Septem 

contra Thebas.’ 



ἀλλὰ é ὲ ; ; 
ἐτερον, εἶτα τὸ μηδέν odict προσῆκον 

> tA / ξ \ 
ἐκεράιζον μέλι. αἱ δὲ καίτοι συλώμεναι τὸν σφέ- 
τερον πόνον, ὅμως ἐνεκαρτέρουν ἡσυχῆ ἀτρεμοῦ- 
σαι, εἶτα μέντοι τὸ μέλλον ἐγκρατῶς ἐ es 
ae i gk Mov ἐγκρατῶς ἐκαραδόκουν. 
ἐπεὶ o μελιττουργὸς τὰς πολλὰς τῶν ἐχθρῶν 
"ταν at ἔνδον καταγνοῦσαι ὅτι ἄρα δύνανται 
> \ Ja 
a ee εἶναι πρὸς τὴν μάχην τὴν ἰσοπαλῆ 
προελθοῦσαι κἀτ᾽ ἠμύναντο, καὶ δίκας ἀπήτησαν 
ὑπὲρ ὧν ἐσυλήθησαν οὐδαμῶς μεμπτάς. ὁ 

12, Καὶ τοῦτο δὲ φιλεργίας 1 τῆς τῶν 5. μελιτ- 

. τῶν μαρτύριονϑ ἐ 5 t Ἵ 0 
μαρτύρ ἐν γοῦν τοῖς χειμεριωτάτοις τῶν 

, Ἁ / 
χωρίων μετὰ [ἰλειάδων δυσμὰς ἐς ἰσημερίαν 
ἡρινὴν διατελοῦσιν οἰκουροῦσαί τε καὶ ἔνδον 
“~ 5Ὰ 3 
ἀτρεμοῦσαι ἀλέας πόθῳ καὶ φυγῇ ῥίγους αἱ 
μέλιτται: τὸν δὲ ἄλλον χρό Ἢ eee ϑι 
janes ζὸν ὃὲ ἄλλον χρόνον τοῦ ἔτους πάντα 
ἀργί ν τε“ καὶ ἡσυχίαν μισοῦσι, καὶ καμεῖν εἰσιν 
"ἢ αἱ. καὶ οὐκ ἄν ποτε ἴδοις βλακεύουσαν 
᾽ : a 
μέλιτταν τῆς wpas ἐκείνης ἔξω ἐν ἧ μαλκίει 5 τὰ 


; 13. Γ εωμετρίαν. δὲ καὶ κάλλη σχημάτων καὶ 
ὡραίας πλάσεις αὐτῶν ἄνευ τέχνης τε καὶ κανόνων 
καὶ τοῦ καλουμένου ὑπὸ τῶν σοφῶν διαβήτου 5 
ἀποδείκνυνται at μέλιτται. ὅταν δὲ ἀκα ἣ 
καὶ «εὐθενῇ ταῖς μελίτταις τὸ σμῆνος, Sen Cue 
ow” ὥσπερ οὖν αἱ μέγισταί τε καὶ πολυανδρού- 
μεναι τῶν πόλεων. οἷδε δὲ ἄρα ἡ Ὁ aaa 

: τῆς φιλεργίας. 
J aC: τῆς μ. L, τῶν μ. other Mss. 
τὸ μαρτύριον. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 11-13 

honey which did not belong to them... But the Bees 
which were being despoiled of their labours never- 
theless remained quiet and waited patiently to 
see what would happen. Then, when the bee- 
had killed the greater number of the 
enemy, the Bees in the hive realised that they 
were in fact sufficient to sustain an equal combat 
and emerged to strike back, and the penalty which 
they exacted for the robbery left nothing to cavilat. —- 

The Bee, its 

12. Here is further evidence of the industry 0b 
Bees. In the coldest countries from the time when 7“ 
the Pleiads have set@ until the vernal equinox they 
continue at home and stay quiet in the hive, longing 
for the warmth and shunning the cold. But for the 
rest of the year they abhor indolence and repose and 
are good at hard labour. And you would never see a 
Bee idling unless it were during the season when their 
limbs are numb with cold. 

13. Bees practise geometry and produce their The Bee, 
graceful figures and beautiful conformations without τοὺ 

any theory or rules of 

eall a ‘ compass.’ 
and the swarm thrives they send out colonies just as its colonies 

the largest and most populous cities do. Now the 
Bee knows when there is rain that threatens to per- τὸ wie 
sist, and when there will be a gale. But if surprised °° 

art, without what the learned 
And when their numbers increase 

as weather- 

@ About the beginning of November. 

5 Schn: μαλακιεῖ. 
6 , Α ) 7 ep i + tf? 
διαβήτου τὸ κάλλιστον σχημάτων ἐξάγωνόν τε καὶ ἐξάπλευρον 

καὶ ἰσογώνιον. 
7 καὶ εἰς ἀποικίαν ἐκπέμπουσιν. 



δ ~ 3 ~ > 
ὑετοῦ ἀπειλοῦντος ἐπιδημίαν καὶ σκληρὸν πνεῦ 
ἐσόμενον. εἰ δὲ αὐτῇ 1 dd 3 ee 
ἐσόμενον. εἰ ὑτῇ παρὰ ὄξαν γένοιτο τὸ τοῦ 
; ' 
πνεύματος, ὄψει φέρουσαν λίθον ἑκάστην ἄκροις 
> f 
τοῖς ποσὶν ἕρμα εἶναι. ὅπερ δὲ ὁ θεῖος Πλάτων 
περὶ τῶν τεττίγων λέγει καὶ τῆς ἐκείνων φιλῳδίας. 
“΄,3 Υ 
τε καὶ φιλομουσίας, τοῦτ᾽ ἂν καὶ περὶ τοῦ τῶ 
μελιττῶν χοροῦ εἴ δ ῦ ΤΣ 
os χοροῦ εἴποι τις. ὅταν γοῦν σκιρτήσω- 
lan ς ᾿ 
σιν ἢ π ανηθῶσιν, ἐνταῦθα οἱ σμηνουργοὶ κροτοῦσι 
Κρότον τινὰ ἐμμελῇ τε Kat συμμελῆ: αἱ δὲ ὡς 

ς \ ~ Ω 
ὑπὸ Σιειρῆνος ἕλκονται, καὶ μέντοι καὶ ὑποστρέ-. 

φ 3 θ 4 ? “ > 
ovow ἐς ἤθη τὰ οἰκεῖα αὖθις. 

: 3 nn 7 o~ | 
ra Ἐν τῇ Τυάρῳ ὃ" τῇ νήσῳ ᾿Αριστοτέλης 
evel μῦς εἶναι καὶ μέντοι καὶ τὴν γῆν σιτεῖσθαι 
“A 4 
τὴν σιδηρῖτιν. Ἀμύντας δὲ καὶ τοὺς ἐν Τερηδόνι 
(γῆς ὃ δέ ἐστιν αὕτη τῆς Βαβυλωνί ὴν αὐ 
; αὕτη τῆς Βαβυλωνίας) τὴν αὐτὴν 
προσφέρεσθαι λέγει. 
7 \ os f 
. Ev Λάτμῳ δὲ τῆς Καρίας ἀκούω σκορπίου 
εἶναι, οἵπερ οὖν τοὺς μὲ f f lose 
May: ρ οὖν τοὺς μὲν πολίτας σφίσι παίουσιν 
ἐς θάνατον, τοὺς δὲ ξένους ἡσυχῆ καὶ ὅσον παρα 
σχεῖν ὀδαξησμόν, ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν * τοῦ Ξενίου Διὸς 
\ “ -" 
τοῖς ἀφικνουμένοις τὸ δῶρον τοῦτο ἀποκρίναντος 

, \ : 
16, Βασιλεύονται δὲ ἄρα καὶ σφῆκες, ἀλλ᾽ οὐ 
τυραννοῦνται ὡς ἀνθ ὶ τὸ μ 
r , ws ἄνθρωποι. καὶ τὸ μαρτύριον, 
ἄκεντροι καὶ οἷδε εἰσί, καὶ οἱ μὲν ὑπήκοοι τὰ 
Ν we , ” 7 
5 Mag iota αὑτοῖς νόμον ἔχουσιν, οἱ δὲ ἄρχοντές 
\ \ , 
εἰσι ὑπλάσιοι μὲν τὸ μέγεθος, πρᾶοι δὲ καὶ οἷοι 
μήτε ἑκόντες λυπεῖν ἔχειν μήτε ἄκοντες. τίς οὖν 
5 - 
οὐκ ἂν μισήσειε ὃ Διονυσίους τοὺς ἐν Σικελίᾳ καὶ 

1 εἶναι καὶ μὴ ἀνατρέπεσθαι. 
2 Holstein: Τά 

otstein : Tape. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 1315 

by a wind, you will see every Bee carrying a pebble 

: petween the tips of its feet by way of ballast. What 

the divine Plato says [Phaedr. 230 c, 259 8] of cicadas 

‘and their love of song and music one might equally its love of 

say of the choir of Bees. For instance, when they °°”8 

frolic and roam abroad, then the bee-keepers make a 
clashing sound, melodious and rhythmical, and the. 
Bees are attracted as by a Siren and come back again 

to their own haunts. 

Gyarus and 

832 a 22] that there are Rats and that they actually poredon 
eat iron ore. And Amyntas says that the Rats of 
Teredon (this is in Babylonia) adopt the same food.’ 

(ii). I am told that on Latmus in Caria there are scorpions 

14 (i). In the island of Gyarus α Aristotle says [Mir. Rats in 

Scorpions which inflict a fatal sting on. their fellow- oe 

countrymen; strangers however they sting lightly 
and just enough to produce an itching sensation. 
This in my opinion is a boon bestowed upon visitors 
by Zeus, Protector of the Stranger. | 

15. Wasps also are subject to a King, but not, as The 
men are, to a despot. Witness the fact that their ἘΠΕ ESP 
Kings also are stingless. And their subjects have a 
law that they shall construct their combs for them. 

But although the rulers are twice the size of a subject, 
yet they are gentle and of a nature incapable 
of doing an injury either willingly or unwillingly. 
Who then would not detest the Dionysii of 

2 One of the Cyclades, some 40 mi. SEE of Attica. 
5 Op. 17. 17. | 
3 Holstein: γῆ. 4 Schn: δοκεῖ. 

5 μισήσῃ ΟΥ̓ -at. 


Sicily,* Clearchus of Heraclea, Apollodorus the 
oppressor of Cassandrea, Nabis the scourge of Sparta, 
if they trusted in the sword, when the King Wasps 
trust to their lack of sting and to their gentle nature? 

7 4 > [1 

Κλέαρχον τὸν ἐν Ἡρακλείᾳ καὶ ᾿Απολλόδωρον 

i Κασανδρέων λευστῆρα καὶ τὸν Λακεδαιμονίων 

ὑμεῶνα τὸν Νάβιν, εἴγε of μὲν ἐθάρρουν τῷ 
A > ἢ a 3 

ie τ δὲ ἀκέντρῳ καὶ τῇ πραότητι οἱ τῶν 

σφηκῶν βασιλεῖς ; 

16. This is what Wasps that are armed with a sting The Wasp 

are saidto do. When they observe a dead viper they Sofon 

᾽ὔ 4 ¢ ~ “~ Ἷ 
16. Λέγονται δὲ of τῶν σφηκῶν κεκεντρωμένοι 

1 3 “~ “ ‘ 
καὶ ἐκεῖνο δρᾶν. ὅταν θεάσωνται νεκρὰν ἔχιδναν, 

οἱ δὲ 3 id 4 / \ 

᾿ ἐμπίπτουσι καὶ φαρμάττουσι τὸ κέντρον. 
ὅθεν μοι δοκοῦσι μαθεῖν καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι μάθημα 
καὶ τοῦτο οὐκ ἀγαθό L μέ ἱ “με 
coe οὐκ ayalov. καὶ μέντοι Kal μαρτυρεῖ 
ἐν ᾿Οδυσσείᾳ “Ὅμηρος λέγων 

φάρμακον ἀνδροφόνον διζήμενος, ὄφρα οἱ εἴη 
ἰοὺς χρίεσθαι χαλκήρεας, 

“᾿ A sy / ” “a o 
ἢ καὶ νὴ Δία εἴ τι δεῖ τῷ περὶ “Hpaxddovs λόγῳ 
προσέχειν, (ὡς δ ἐκεῖνος ἔ Ὁ τῆς “ "4 
οσέχειν, Cas >> ἐκεῖνος ἔβαψε τῷ τῆς “YSpas id 
τοὺς ὀιστούς, οὕτω τοι καὶ ἐκεῖνοι τῇ βαφῇ τὰ 
ὶ ; ἑ 
κέντρα ὑποθήγουσιν.3 ' 

17. "Kor 4 3 \ ~ ’ὔ 3 ¢ ~ 
17. Ἔστω δὲ Kat τῇ μυίᾳ παρ᾽ ἡμῶν γέρας 
μὴ ἀμοιρῆσαι * τῆς μνή ἧς ἐνταῦ j 
ρῆσαι “ τῆς μνήμης τῆς ἐνταῦθα: φύσεως 
γάρ τοι καὶ ἐκείνη πλάσμα ἐστίν. αἱ μυῖαι αἱ 
\ \ ~ 
Πισάτιδες͵ κατὰ τὴν τῶν ᾿Ολυμπίων ἑορτὴν ὡς 
ἂν εἴποις σπένδονται καὶ τοῖς ἀφικνουμένοις καὶ 
1 <ws> add. Jac. 
3 δέ τι. 
4 γέρας καὶ εἰκότως εἰ μὴ ἀμοιρήσει. 

>- fa 
2 ἐπιθήγουσιν. 

* Dionysius the elder, c. 430-367 B.c., elec 
9 Ue C.; ted 
ruler of Syracuse, extended his power over Sicily ier 
Magna Graecia; represented as a tyrant of the worst kind.— 
Dionysius the younger succeeded his father, 367 5.0. Ejected 


swoop upon it and draw poison into their sting. It is 
from this source, I fancy, that men have acquired 
that knowledge, and no good knowledge either. 
And Homer is witness to the fact when he says in 

the Odyssey [1. 261] | 
‘Seeking a deadly drug, that he might have 

wherewithal to smear his bronze-tipped arrows.’ 

Or again, to be sure (if one can trust the story), just 
as Heracles dipped his arrows in the venom of the 
Hydra, so do Wasps dip and sharpen their sting. 

17. Let not the Fly lack the honour of a mention The Fly 

im this record of mine, for it too is Nature’s handi- 

The Flies of Pisa at the season of the Olympic 

festival make peace, so to speak, both with visitors 

from Sicily, he made himself Tyrant of Locris—and deserved 
the title. Recovered Syracuse by treachery but was again 
expelled in 345 B.c., by Timoleon.—Clearchus by cham- 
pioning the cause of the people against the nobles of Heraclea 
obtained the tyranny. After a reign of 12 years marked by 
signal cruelty he was murdered, 353 8.c.—Apollodorus, tyrant 
of Cassandrea, 3rd cent. B.c., became a byword for cruelty ; 
conquered and executed by Antigonus Gonatas .—Nabis usurped 
the kingship of Sparta, which he exercised with the utmost 
savagery; defeated by Philopoemen and Flamininus in his 
efforts to regain lost territory; finally murdered, 192 8.0. 




“ > é ¢ 7 “ 
τοῖς ἐπιχωρίοις. ἱερείων γοῦν καταθυομένων τοο-. 
οὕτων καὶ aipatos ἐκχεομένου καὶ κρεμαμένων 

- ς A ? ᾽, ”~ 
κρεῶν αἱ δὲ ἀφανίζονται ἑκοῦσαι, καὶ τοῦ γε 
“- ~ ? 4 
AX φειοῦ περαιοῦνται ἐς τὴν ἀντιπέρας ὄχθην 
καὶ ἐοίκασι τῶν γυναικῶν τῶν ἐπιχωρίων διαλ- 
λάττειν οὐδὲ ὁλί i μὴ ἃ 2yKpare 
ἄττειν οὐδὲ ὀλίγον, εἰ μὴ ἄρα τι ἐγκρατέστεραι 
αἱ μυῖαι ἐκεῖναι τῶν γυναικῶν ὁμολογοῦνται τοῖς 
ὲ ¢ “a 3 
ἔργοις" τὰς μὲν γὰρ ὁ τῆς ἀγωνίας καὶ τῆς κατ᾽ 
αὐτὴν σωφροσύνης νόμος ἐλαύνει τὰς γυναῖκας 1 
~ o ξ “” 
αἱ μυῖαι δὲ ἐκοῦσαι τοῖς ἱεροῖς ἀφίστανται, καὶ ἐν 
μὲν ταῖς ἱερουργίαις ὶ ὶ τὸν τῶν & 
“μὲν _ ἱερουργίαις καὶ παρὰ τὸν τῶν ἄθλων 
χρόνον Tov νενομισμένον ἀπαλλάττονται. λῦτο δ᾽ 
3 ie 3" 
ἀγών, αἱ δὲ ἐπιδημοῦσιν, ὥσπερ οὖν καθόδου 
τυχοῦσαι ψηφίσματι φυγάδες, εἶτα ἐπιρρέουσιν ἐς 
τὴν Ἦλιν αἱ μυῖαι αὖθις. 
18. ξ 3 3 3 ᾽; ~ 7 9 ᾿ 
τ 0 ὀρφὼς θαλάττιον ζῷόν ἐστι, καὶ εἰ 
ἐλοῖς καὶ ἀνατέμοις, οὐκ ἂν ἴδοις τεθνεῶτα παρα- 
χρῆμα ἀρ ἀλλὰ ἐπιλαμβάνει τῆς κινήσεως καὶ 
οὐκ ἐπ᾽ ὀλίγον. διὰ χειμῶνος δὲ ἐν τοῖς φωλεοῖς 
Ε 4 
οἰκουρῶν χαίρει, διατριβαὶ δὲ ἄρα at πρὸς τῇ γῇ 
μᾶλλον φίλαι αὐτῷ. "“᾿ 

19. Λύκος ὁμόσε ταύρῳ χωρεῖν καὶ ἰέναι οἱ 
κατὰ πρόσωπον ἠκιστός ἐστι, δέδοικε δὲ τὰ 
κέρατα καὶ τὰς ἀκμὰς αὐτῶν ἐκνεύει. καὶ ὡς ἐξ 
εὐθείας οἱ μαχούμενος ἀπειλεῖ: οὐ μὴν δρᾷ τοῦτο 
ἀλλὰ ὥσπερ οὖν ἐπιθησόμενος ὑποφαίνει, εἶτα 
μέντοι “προσπεσόντος ὁ δὲ ἑαυτὸν ὀξελέξας. ἐς τὰ 
νῶτα ἀνέθορε, καὶ ἐγκρατῶς ἔχεται τοῦ θηρὸς ὃ 


: τὰς γυναῖκας del. Cobet, 

40 ς ς a 
QUULS ὡς Ql γυναῖκες. 

ON ANIMALS, V. 17-19 

and with the local inhabitants. At any rate, despite 
the multitude of sacrifices, the quantity of blood shed 

and of flesh hung out, the Flies disappear of their avoids the 

Alpheus. And they appear to differ not a whit from 
the women there, except that their behaviour shows 
them to be more self-restrained than the women. 
For while women are excluded by the rules of train- 
ing and of continence at that season, the Flies of their 
own free will abstain from the sacrifices and absent 
themselves while the ceremonies are in progress and 
during the recognised period of the Games. ‘ Then 

was the assembly ended’ [Hom. JI. 24. 1] and the 

Flies come home, just like exiles whom a decree has 
allowed to return, and once again they stream into 


own free will and cross to the opposite bank of the games 

18. The Great Sea Perch is a marine creature, and The Great 

if you were to catch and cut it up, you would not then 
and there see it dead, but it retains the power of 
movement, and for a considerable time. All through 
the winter it likes to remain at home in its caverns, 
and its favourite resorts are near the land. 

Sea Perch 

19. The Wolf does not dare to close with a Bull and Wolf and 
to meet it face to face; he is afraid of its horns and BZ! » 

avoids their points. So he makes a feint of attacking 
the Bull frontally; he does not however attack but 
gives the appearance of being about to try; and 
then when the Bull makes a rush at him, the Wolf 
slips aside and leaps on its back and clings with might 
and main, beast wrestling with beast. And the Wolf 

- 3 ὀρφός. 4. ἐστι καὶ εἰκότως. 


ΟΣ Be nore pred! μὴ qq 


Ay; ¢ > ,ὔ λ A / > ~ 

np ὁ ἀντίπαλος, Kat κατισχύει αὐτοῦ σοφίᾳ 
~ 7 3 © 

φυσικῇ τὸ ἐνδέον ἀνακούμενος ὁ λύκος. 

20. "Ὄνος 6 θαλά ἐν τῇ ὶ τὴ Ἵ 
᾿ vos ὁ θαλάττιος ἐν τῇ γαστρὶ τὴν καρδίαν 
ἔλαχεν ἔχειν, ὡς οἵ δεινοὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα 1 ὅμολο- 
γοῦσιν ἡμῖν καὶ διδάσκουσιν. 

ε ~ ΚῚ | 

_ 21. O ταῶς oldev ὀρνίθων ὡραιότατος ὦν, Ka} 
\ 4 / A ‘ 

ἔνθα ot τὸ κάλλος κάθηται, καὶ τοῦτο οἶδε, καὶ 

» 5 3. A A \ 
em αὐτῷ κομᾷ Kat σοβαρός ἐστι, καὶ θαρρεῖ τοῖς ᾿ 

πτεροῖς, ἅπερ οὖν αὐτῷ καὶ κόσμον περιτίθησι, 
καὶ πρὸς τοὺς ἔξωθεν φόβον ἀποστέλλει, καὶ ἐν 
ὥρᾳ θερείῳ σκέπην οἴκοθεν καὶ οὐκ ἠτημένην 
οὐδὲ ὀθνείαν παρέχεται. ἐὰν γοῦν θελήσῃ φοβῆσαί 
τινα, ἐγείρας τὰ οὐραῖα εἶτα διεσείσατο καὶ 
ἀπέστειλεν ἦχον, καὶ ἔδεισαν of παρεστῶτες, ὡς 
ὁπλίτου τὸν ἐκ τῶν ὅπλων πεφοβημένοι δοῦπον. 
ἀνατείνει δὲ τὴν κεφαλὴν καὶ ἐπινεύει σοβαρώτατα, 
ὥσπερ οὖν ἐπισείων “τριλοφίαν. δεηθείς γε μὴν 
ψυχάσαι, τὰ πτερὰ ἐγείρει, καὶ ἐς τοὔμπροσθεν 
ἐπικλίνας συμφυᾶ σκιὰν ἀποδείκνυται τοῦ ἰδίου 
σώματος τὴν ἀκμὴν τὴν ἐκ τῆς ἀκτῖνος ἀποστέγων. 
εἰ δὲ εἴη καὶ ἄνεμος κατόπιν, ἡσυχῆ διίστησι τὰ 
πτερά: καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα «τὸ» διαρρέον αὔρας of 
μαλακὰς καὶ ἡδίστας ἐπιπνέον ἀναψύχειν τὸν ὄρ- 
νιν δίδωσιν. ἐπαινεθεὶς δὲ αἰσθάνεται, καὶ ὥσπερ 
οὖν ἢ παῖς καλὸς ἢ γυνὴ ὡραία τὸ μάλιστα πλεονε- 
κτοῦν 3 τοῦ σώματος ἐπιδείκνυσιν, οὕτω τοι καὶ 
ἐκεῖνος τὰ πτερὰ ἐν κόσμῳ καὶ κατὰ στοῖχον ὁρ- 
θοῖ, καὶ ἔοικεν ἀνθηρῷ λειμῶνι ἢ γραφῇ πεποικιλ- 

* Jae; δεινότατοι αὐτά, 

2 «τό add. Η. 




ON ANIMALS, V. 19-21 

overpowers it and by native cunning makes good his 
lack of strength. 

| 90. The Hake has its heart in its belly, as ex~ The Hake 
perts in these matters agree and inform us. | _ 

91. The Peacock knows that it is the most beautiful The Peacock 

of birds; it knows too wherein its beauty resides; it 
prides itself on this and is haughty, and gathers con- 
fidence from the plumes which are its ornament and 
which inspire strangers with terror. In summertime 
they afford it a covering of its own, unsought, not 
adventitious. If, for instance, it wants to scare 
somebody it raises its tail-feathers and shakes them 
and emits a scream, and the bystanders are terrified, 
as though scared by the clang of a hoplite’s armour. 
And it raises its head and nods most pompously, as 
though it were shaking a triple plume at one. 
When however it needs to cool. itself it raises its 
feathers, inclines them in a forward direction and dis- 
plays a natural shade from its own body, and wards 
off the fierceness of the sun’s rays. But if there is a 
wind behind it, it gradually expands its feathers, and 
the breeze which streams through them, blowing 
gently and agreeably, enables the bird to cool itself. 
It knows when it has been praised, and as some 
handsome boy or lovely woman displays that feature 
which excels the rest, so does the Peacock raise its 
feathers in orderly succession; and it resembles a 
flowery meadow or a picture made beautiful by the 
many hues of the paint, and painters must be pre- 
pared to sweat in order to represent its special 

3 ~ > a 
πλεονεκτοῦν εἰς ὡραν. 



4 ᾽ὔ, “--ῬΘΟ “- 
μένῃ πολυχροίᾳ τῇ τῶν φαρμάκων, καὶ ἱδρὼς πρό- 

7 > “~ 
Kettat ζωγράφοις εἰκάσαι τῆς φύσεως τὸ ἴδιον 

λ Ὁ 3 ~” > \ > 
καὶ ὅπως Exel τῆς ἐς THY ἐπίδειξιν ἀφθονίας 

παρίστησιν" ἐᾷ γὰρ ἐμπλησθῆναι τῆς θέας τοὺς 
παρεστῶτας, καὶ ἑαυτὸν περιάγει δεικνὺς φιλοπό- 
ae TO τῆς πτερώσεως πολύμορφον, ὑπὲρ τὴν τῶν 
nowy ἐσθῆτα καὶ τὰ (τῶν 1 Περσῶν ποικίλματα 

4 ς “-. \ 
τὴν ἑαυτοῦ στολὴν ἀποδεικνύμενος ἐκεῖνός γε 
σοβαρώτατα. λέγεται δὲ ἐκ βαρβάρων ἐς Ἕλληνας 

κομισθῆναι. καὶ χρόνου πολλοῦ σπάνιος ὧν εἶτα 
ἐδεώενυτο τῶν ἀνθρώπων τοῖς φιλοκάλοις μισθοῦ. 
καὶ Αθήνησί γε ταῖς νουμηνίαις ἐδέχοντο καὶ 
ἄνδρας καὶ γυναῖκας ἐπὶ τὴν ἱστορίαν αὐτῶν, καὶ 
τὴν θέαν πρόσοδον εἶχον. ἐτιμῶντο δὲ τὸν 
ἄρρενα καὶ τὸν θῆλυν δραχμῶν μυρίων, ὡς ᾽Αν- 
τιφῶν ἐν τῷ πρὸς ᾿Ερασίστρατον λόγῳ φησί. δεῖ 
δὲ καὶ διπλῆς οἰκίας τῇ τροφῇ αὐτῶν, καὶ φρουρῶν 
τε καὶ μελεδωνῶν. ὍὉρτήσιος δὲ 6 Ῥωμαῖος 
ὙΠ Ὁ ἐπὶ δείπνῳ ταῶν πρῶτος ἐκρίθη. 

) ἐξανδρος δὲ ὃ Μακεδὼν ἐν ᾿Ἰνδοῖς ἰδὼν τούσδε 
τοὺς ὄρνιθας ἐξεπλάγη, καὶ τοῦ κάλλους θαυμάσας 
ἠπείλησε τῷ καταθύσαντι ταῶν ἀπειλὰς βαρυτάτας. 

De Ἢ \ “ ῳ e , 3 
_ 22. Ἐς τοὺς ψυκτῆρας ὅταν οἱ μύες ἐμπέσωσιν, 
nw > 
ἀνανεῦσαι καὶ ἀνελθεῖν οὐ δυνάμενοι, τὰς ἀλλήλων 
οὐρὰς ἐνδακόντες εἶτα ἐφέλ ; ὅτε 
ς ς εἶτα ἐφέλκουσι τὸν δεύτερον ὃ 
πρῶτος καὶ ὃ δεύτ ; f y ἐν δὴ 
Bros Epos Tov τρίτον. οὕτω μὲν δὴ 
a 4 “- 
καὶ τούτους ἀλλήλοις συμμαχεῖν καὶ ἐπικουρεῖν ἡ 
' | 
σοφωτάτη φύσις ἐξεπαίδευσεν. 

ΟΝ ANIMALS, V. 21-22 

characteristics. And it proves how ungrudgingly it . 
exhibits itself by permitting bystanders to take their 

- fill of gazing, as it turns itself about and industriously 

shows off the diversity of its plumage, displaying 
with the utmost pride an array surpassing the gar- 
ments of the Medes and the embroideries of the 
Persians. It is said to have been brought to Greece 
from foreignlands. And since for a long while it was 
a rarity, it used to be exhibited to men of taste for a 
fee, and at Athens the owners used on the first day 
of each month to admit men and women to study 
them, and they made a profit by the spectacle. 
They used to value the cock and the hen at ten 
thousand drachmas,* as Antiphon says in his speech 
against Erasistratus.? For their maintenance a 
double establishment and custodians and keepers are 
needed. Hortensius the Roman was judged to have 
been the first man to slaughter a Peacock for a ban- 
quet. But Alexander of Macedon was struck with 
amazement at the sight of these birds in India, and 
in his admiration of their beauty threatened the 
severest penalties for any man who slew one. 

29. When Mice fall into cooling-vessels, since they 
cannot get out by swimming, they fasten their teeth 
into one another’s tails, and then the first pulls the 
second and the second the third. In this way has 
Nature in her supreme wisdom taught them to 

combine and help one another. 

@ About £375. 
> The speech is lost, but see Athen. 9. 397 ©, D. 

See ee tee a ὡς. 
| 1 ςτῶνΣ add. H. | 


23. ᾿ἙΕλλοχῶσιν οἱ κροκόδιλοι τοὺς ὑδρευομέ- 

3 ~ / 
vous ἐκ τοῦ Νείλου τὸν τρόπον τοῦτον. φρύγανα 
ἑαυτοῖς ἐπιβαλό 1 καὶ δι αὐτῶν ἐμβλέ 
ts ἐπιβαλόντες * καὶ δι’ αὐτῶν ἐμβλέποντες 
a“ # 
εἶτα ὑπονέουσι τοῖς φρυγάνοις. οἱ δὲ ἀφικνοῦνται 
7 “aA ‘4 
κεράμια 7) κάλπεις ἢ πρόχους κομίζοντες. εἶχα 
3 \ e ~ j 
ἀρυτομένους 2 αὐτοὺς ὑπεκδύντες τῶν φρυγάνων 
~ 3, 7 ~ 
καὶ τῇ ὄχθῃ προσαναπηδήσαντες ἁρπαγῇ βιαιο- 
3 ~ 
τάτῃ συλλαβόντες ἔχουσι δεῖπνον. κακίας δὴ Kal 
ν᾽ : i ~ }, 
πανουργίας κροκοδίλων συμφυοῦς εἴρηταί μοι τὰ 
νῦν ταῦτα. 

24. Λαγὼς δέδοικε κύνας καὶ μέντοι καὶ ἀλώπηξ. 
καὶ ποῦ «καὶ» σῦν ἐγείρουσιν * ἐκ τῆς λόχμης αἱ 
αὐταὶ τῇ ὑλακῇ, καὶ λέοντα ἐπιστρέφουσι, καὶ 
ἔλαφον διώκουσιν: ὀρνίθων δὲ οὐδὲ εἷς ὥραν 
ποιεῖται κυνός, ἀλλ᾽ αὐτοῖς πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὅ ἔνσπονδά 
ἐστι. μόνη δὲ ἡ ὠτὶς πέφρικε κύνας. τὸ δὲ 
αἴτιον, βαρεῖαί τέ εἰσι καὶ σαρκῶν ὄγκον περιφέ- 
ρουσιν. «οὔκουν αὐτὰς αἴρει τε καὶ ἐλαφρίζει τὰ 
πτερὰ ῥᾳδίως, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ταπειναὶ πέτονται 
καὶ κάτω περὶ γῆν, βρίθοντος τοῦ ὄγκου αὐτάς. 
αἱροῦνται δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν κυνῶν πολλάκις. ὅπερ 
ἑαυταῖς συνειδυῖαι, ὅταν ἀκούσωσιν ὑλακῆς, ἐς 
τοὺς θάμνους καὶ τὰ ἕλη καταθέουσι, προβαλ- 
λόμεναι ἑαυτῶν ταῦτα, καὶ ῥυόμεναι σφᾶς ἐκ τῶν 
παρόντων καὶ μάλα εὐπόρως. 

, 25. ᾿Οψὲ τοὺς γειναμένους ἄνθρωπος γνωρίζειν 
ἄρχεται, διδασκόμενος καὶ οἱονεὶ καταναγκαζόμε- 
νος ὃ ἐς πατέρα ὁρᾶν καὶ μητέρα ἀσπάζεσθαι καὶ 
οἰκείοις προσμειδιᾶν" οἱ δὲ ἄρνες περὶ τὰς μητέρας 

1 ἐπιβάλλοντες, 2 ἀρυομένους, 


ON ANIMALS, V. 23-25 

23. This is the way in which Crocodiles lie in wait The _ 
for those who draw water from the Nile: they cover "°° 
themselves with driftwood and, spying through it, 
swim up beneath it. And the people come bringing 
earthen vessels or pitchers or Jugs. Then, as men 
draw water, the creatures emerge from the drift- 
wood, leap against the bank, and seizing them with 
overpowering force make a meal of them. So much 
for the innate wickedness and villainy of Crocodiles. 

94, The Hare dreads Hounds, and so too does the The Busters 
Fox. And Hounds, I fancy, with their barking wilh eee 
rouse a boar from the brake, and will bring a lion to 
bay, and pursue a stag. Yet there is not a single 
bird that cares anything for a Hound, but there is 
peace between them. The Bustard alone is afraid 
of Hounds, the reason being that these birds are 
heavy and carry a burden of flesh about with them. 
Their wings do not easily lift them and carry them 
through the air, so they fly low along the ground, 
weighed down by their bulk. Hence they are fre- 
quently captured by Hounds. And since they, are 
aware of this, whenever they hear the bark of 
Hounds, they run away into thickets and swamps, 
using these as a protection and. escaping instant 

danger without difficulty. 

25. The human child is slow to recognise its The Lamb 
parents: it is taught and, one might say, compelled 7 
to look at its father, to greet its mother, and to smile 
upon its relatives. Whereas Lambs from the day of 

4 Jac: auveyetpovow. 
8. Retske: κατᾳδόμενος. 


8. ἐκαίς add. Η. 

8 9 7 A 
παρ᾽ αὐτῶν. 


~ 3 A “σ᾿ ἃ a 
πηδῶσιν ἀπὸ γενεᾶς, καὶ ἴσασι τό τε ὀθνεῖον Ka}: 
4 ? “ ἃ Ἁ ~ a 
TO οἰκεῖον, καὶ παρὰ τῶν νομέων μαθεῖν δέονται 
οὐδὲ ἕν. : ἂς 

26. MupnAdcrarov ἐστιν ὁ πίθηκος ζῷον, καὶ 
πᾶν ὃ τι ἂν ἐκδιδάξης τῶν διὰ τοῦ σώματος 
πραττομένων ὁ δὲ εἴσεται ἀκριβῶς, ἵνα ἐπιδεί- 
ξηται + αὐτό. ὀρχεῖται 5 γοῦν, ἐὰν μάθῃ, καὶ 
αὐλεῖ, ἐὰν ἐκδιδάξῃς. ἐγὼ δὲ καὶ ἡνίας κατέχοντα 

Ἂ 4 > 7 8 ᾿ 
εἶδον καὶ ἐπιβάλλοντα τὴν μάστιγα καὶ ἐλαύνοντα. 

καὶ ἄλλο δ᾽ ἄν τι μαθὼν καὶ ἄλλο οὐ διαψεύσαιτο 

Tov διδάξαντα" οὕτως apa ἡ φύσις ποικίλον τε Kal 

εὐτράπελόν ἐστιν. 

21. Ἴδιαι δὲ καὶ διάφοροι τῶν ζῴων καὶ αἵδε 
ai φύσεις. τοὺς ἐν τοῖς Βισάλταις λαγὼς διπλᾶ 
ἥπατα ἔχειν Θεόπομπος λέγει. τὰς δ᾽ ἐν Λέρῳ 
μελεαγρίδας ὑπὸ μηδενὸς ἀδικεῖσθαι τῶν γαμψω- 
νύχων ὀρνέων λέγει "lorpos. τοὺς δὲ ἐν Νευροῖς 
βοῦς ᾿Αριστοτέλης φησὶν ἐπὶ τῶν ὦμων ἔχειν τὰ 
κέρατα, ᾿Αγαθαρχίδης δὲ τὰς ἐν Αἰθιοπίᾳ ds 
κέρατα ἔχειν. Σώστρατος δὲ τοὺς ἐν τῇ Κυλλήνῃ 
κοσσύφους πάντας λέγει λευκούς. ᾿Αλέξανδρος 
d€ ὁ Μύνδιος {τὰΣ ἐν τῷ Πόντῳ πρόβατα 
πιαίνεσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ πικροτάτου φησὶν ἀψινθίου. 
τὰς δὲ ἐν τῷ Μίμαντι γινομένας αἶγας ἕξ μηνῶν 
μὴ πίνειν, ὁρᾶν δὲ ἐς τὴν θάλατταν μόνον καὶ 
Kexnvevar καὶ τὰς αὖρας τὰς ἐκεῖθεν δέχεσθαι 6 
αὐτὸς λέγει. αἶγας δὲ ᾿Ιλλυρίδας ὁπλὴν ἀκούω 

1 va μαθὼν καὶ ἀποδείξηται. 

2 4 3 a“ 
Kal ὀρχεῖται. 

8 Perh. καὶ τῶνδε Η. 4 <ra> add. Jac. 



ON ANIMALS, V. 25-27 

their birth gambol about their dams and know what 
is strange and what is akin to them. They have no 
need to learn anything from their shepherds. 

26. The Monkey is a most imitative creature, and The Monkey 

any bodily action that you teach it it acquires exactly, 
so as to be able to display its accomplishment. For 
instance, it will dance, once it has learnt, and if you 
teach it, will play the pipe. And I myself have even 
seen it holding the reins, laying on the whip, and 
driving a chariot. And once it has learnt whatever 
it may be, it would never disappoint its teacher. So 
versatile and so adaptable a thing is Nature. 

27. Here are further examples of the peculiar and Peculiarities 

diverse natures of animals. Theopompus reports 
that in the country of the Bisaltae* the Hares have 
a double liver. According to Ister the Guinea-fowls 
of Leros are never injured by any bird of prey. 
Aristotle says® that among the Neuri*® the Oxen 
have their horns on their shoulders, and Agatharcides 
says that in Ethiopia the Swine have horns. Sostra- 
tus asserts that all Blackbirds on Cyllene ὦ are white. 
Alexander of Myndus says that in Pontus the Flocks 
grow fat upon the bitterest wormwood. He states 
also that Goats born on Mimas® do not drink for 
six months; all they do is to look towards the sea 
with their mouths open and to drink in the breezes 
from that quarter. I learn that the Goats of Illyria 

¢ Macedonian tribe living on W coast of the gulf of the 

ὃ Not in any surviving work; fr. 313 (Rose p. 331). 

¢ Tribe living between the rivers Boug and Dnieper. 

@ Mountain in N Arcadia. 

6 Mountain on coast of Ionia, W of Smyrna. 


of certain 


ἔχειν, ἀλλ᾽ οὐ χηλήν. Θεόφραστος δὲ δαιμονιώ- 
τατα λέγει ἐν τῇ Βα υλωνίᾳ γῇ τοὺς ty Bs 
ἀνιόντας, ἐκ τοῦ ποταμοῦ εἶτα μέντοι ἐν τῷ ξηρῷ 
τὰς νομὰς ποιεῖσθαι πολλάκις. 

28, ἼἼδιον δὲ ἄρα <o>* πορφυρίων πρὸς τῷ 
ξζηλοτυπώτατος εἶναι καὶ ἐκεῖνο " δήπου κέκτηται. 
φιλοίκειον. αὐτὸν εἶναί φασιν καὶ τὴν συντροφίαν 
τῶν συννόμων ἀγαπᾶν. ἐν οἰκίᾳ γοῦν τρέφεσθαι 

πορφυρίωνα καὶ ἀλεκτρυόνα ἤκουσα, καὶ σιτεῖσθαι 

μὲν τὰ αὐτά, βαδίζειν δὲ τὰς ἴσας βαδίσεις καὶ 
κοινῇ κονίεσθαι. οὐκοῦν ἐκ τούτων φιλίαν τινὰ 
θαυμαστὴν αὐτοῖς ἐγγενέσθαι. καί ποτε ἑορτῆς 
ἐπιστάσης ὁ δεσπότης ἀμφοῖν. τὸν , ἀλεκτρυόνα 
καταθύσας εἱστιάθη σὺν τοῖς οἰκείοις" 6 δὲ 
πορφυρίων τὸν σύννομον οὐκ ἔχων καὶ τὴν ἐρη- 
μίαν μὴ φέρων ἑαυτὸν ἀτροφίᾳ ca 

29. Ἔν Αἰγίῳ τῆς ᾿Αχαίας ὡραίου. παιδός, 
᾿Ωλενίου τὸ γένος, ὄνομα ᾿Αμφιλόχου, ἤρα χήν. 
Θεόφραστος λέγει τοῦτο. σὺν tots ᾿Ωλενίων δὲ 
φυγάσιν ἐφρουρεῖτο ἐν Αἰγίῳ ὁ παῖς. οὐκοῦν ὁ 
χὴν αὐτῷ δῶρα ἔφερε. καὶ ἐν Χίῳ Ῥλαύκης τῆς 
κιθαρῳδοῦ ὡραιοτάτης οὔσης εἰ μὲν ἤρων ἄνθρω- 
ποι, μέγα οὐδέπω" ἠράσθησαν δὲ καὶ κριὸς καὶ 
χήν, ὡς ἀκούω, τῆς αὐτῆς. 

1 ¢§> add. H. 

3 ew . \ 3? “a 
O OpVLsS Kat εκεινο. 

¢ Aegium, one of the principal cities of Achaia, stood on the 
coast near the W end of the Corinthian gulf. It was the 
regular meeting-place of the Achaean League. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 27-29 

have a solid, not a cloven hoof. And Theophrastus 
[. 111. 2] has the most amazing statement that in 
Babylonia the fish frequently come out of ne river 

and pasture on dry land. 

98, Now the Purple Coot, in addition to being The Purple 

extremely jealous, has, I believe, this peculiarity : © 

they say that it is devoted to its own kin and loves 
the company of its mates. At any rate I have heard 
that a Purple Coot and a Cock were reared in the 
same house, that they fed together, that they walked 
step for step, and that they dusted in the same spot. 

From these causes there sprang up a remarkable > 
friendship between them. And one day on the 
occasion of a festival their master sacrificed the Cock 
and made a feast with his household. But the Purple 

_ Coot, deprived of its companion and unable to endure 

the loneliness, starved itself to death. 

29. In Aegium,* a city of Achaia, a good-looking Geese in 

boy, an Olenian ® by birth, of the name of Amphilo- 

chus, was loved by a Goose. Theophrastus relates beings 

this [ fr. 109]. The boy was kept under guard with 
exiles from Olenus in Aegium, and so the Goose used 
to bring him presents. In Chios Glauce, the harp- 
player, being a woman of extraordinary beauty, was. 
adored by men, not that there is anything wonderful 
in that, but I am told that a Ram and a Goose also. 
fell in love with her. 

’ Olenus was 2 small town on the NW coast of Achaia, near 
the mouth of the Pirus. The reference to ‘exiles from Ὁ. 
is obscure; it may signify an effort on the part of the Achaean 
League to ensure peace among the 12 cities of Achaia. As 

the League was broken up by Alexander, the event must have 

occurred earlier. 



When Geese cross the Taurus range they go in fear Geese and 
of the eagles; so each of them bites on a pebble oe 
to prevent it from uttering its cry, Just as though 
they had gagged themselves, and so they cross in 
silence and by these means generally slip past the 
eagles. The Goose. being of a very hot and fiery habits and 
nature is fond of bathing and delights in swimming, are 
and prefers very moist fare, grass, lettuce, and all 
other things that generate coolness in its body. But 

Οἱ δὲ χῆνες διαμείβοντες τὸν ‘Tabpov τὸ ὄρος de- 
δοίκασι τοὺς ἀετούς, καὶ ἕκαστός γε αὐτῶν Λλίθον 
ἐνδακόντες, ἵνα μὴ κλάζωσιν, ὥσπερ οὖν ἐμβαλόν- 
τες σφίσι στόμιον, διαπέτονται σιωπῶντες, καὶ 
τοὺς ἀετοὺς τὰ πολλὰ ταύτῃ διαλανθάνουσι. 
θερμότατος δὲ ἄρα ὧν καὶ διαπυρώτατος τὴν 
φύσιν ὁ χὴν φιλόλουτρός ἐστι καὶ νήξεσι χαίρει 
καὶ τροφαῖς μάλιστα ταῖς ὑγροτάταις καὶ πόαις 


SERRA are SEEN ἦ ie τὰν " “ΩΣ 
Hasty BYLINE ESL AEST ett 20s LIOR THA LST LUNI od αξ κα. τ τέρα WpepsldvenNeseTd pas 


iain tai 



s f A ~ “- Ω 5 A 
καὶ θριδακίναις Kat. τοῖς λοιποῖς, oa αὑτοῖς 
3, “ > / > \ \ ? ; 
ἔνδοθεν ψῦχος ἐργάζεται: εἰ δὲ Kat ἐξαυαΐνοιτο 

“- “σι 7 3 nw ? 
ὑπὸ (τοῦδ! λιμοῦ, δάφνης φύλλον οὐκ ἂν Payor, 
: ¢ A 3 2 
οὐδ᾽ ἂν πάσαιτο ῥοδοδάφνης οὔτε ἑκὼν οὔτε ἀκων'" 

> / ‘ > 

olde yap ὅτι τεθνήξεται τούτων τινος ἐμφαγών. 

ἄνθρωποι δὲ ὑπ᾽ ἀσωτίας ὃ ἐπιβουλεύονται καὶ ἐς 

lo \ ,ὔ 

τροφὴν καὶ ἐς ποτόν.) μυρίοι γοῦν καὶ πίνοντές 
? 7 ῖ 3 / 

πι κακὸν κατέπιον, ws ᾿Αλέξανδρος, καὶ ἐσθίοντες, 

¢ / ec “a 8 4 ¢ 7 

ὡς Κλαύδιος ὁ Ῥωμαῖος καὶ Βρεττανικὸς ὁ τούτου 

- > f , 
παῖς: καὶ κατακοιμηθέντες οὐκ ἐξανέστησαν xpy- 

; ~ ΄ 
σει φαρμάκου, οἱ μὲν ἑκόντες τοῦτο σπάσαντες, οἱ 
δὲ ἐπιβουλευθέντες. 

30. Ὁ δὲ χηναλώπηξ, πέπλεκταί οἱ τὸ ὄνομα 4 
de τῶν <éxarépov>® τοῦ ζῴου ἰδίων τε καὶ 
συμφυῶν. ἔχει μὲν γὰρ τὸ εἶδος τὸ τοῦ χηνός, 
πανουργίαν ὃ δὲ δικαιότατα ἀντικρίνοιτο ἂν τῇ 
ἀλώπεκι. καὶ ἔστι μὲν χηνὸς βραχύτερος, ἀνδρειό- 
τερος δέ, καὶ χωρεῖν ὁμόσε δεινός. ἀμύνεται γοῦν 
καὶ ἀετὸν καὶ αἴλουρον καὶ τὰ λοιπά, ὅσα αὐτοῦ 
ἀντίπαλά ἐστιν. 

1 <rod> add. H. 2 Pauw: ὑπὸ σοφίας. 

8. Ges: ὕπνον. 4 ὄνομα καὶ εἰκότως. 

5 <éxarépou» add. Η. 6 πανουργίᾳ. 



even if it is exhausted with hunger it will not eat a 
bay-leaf or touch a rose-laurel either willingly or 
against its will,.for it knows that if it eats either of 
them it will die. | 
Yet men through their unbridled appetites are the Human 
victims of plots against their food and drink. At any Meee 
rate countless numbers have swallowed some bane dink 
while drinking, like Alexander,? or in food, like 
Claudius the Roman,? and Britannicus, his son.° 
And having fallen asleep from a dose of poison, they 
never rose again, some having drunk it deliberately, 

others because they were the victims of a plot. 

30. The Egyptian Goose owes its composite name The 
(goose-fox) to the innate peculiarities of the two qos 
creatures. It has the appearance of a goose, but 
for its mischievousness it might most justly be com- 
pared to the fox. It is smaller than a goose but more 
courageous, and is a fierce fighter. For instance, it 
defends itself against an eagle, a cat, and all other . 
animals that come against it. ; ' 

@ Alexander died (323 8.0.) of a fever aggravated by 
excessive drinking. 

> Roman Emperor, 4.D. 41-54, poisoned by his. wife 
Agrippina. | 

¢ Poisoned by order of Nero, a.v. 55. 



31. δια δὲ ὄφεως καὶ ἐκεῖνά ἐστι. τὴν καρ- 
δίαν κεκλήρωται ἐπὶ TH φάρυγγι, τὴν δὲ χολὴν 
ἐν τοῖς ἐντέροις, πρὸς δὲ τῇ οὐρᾷ τοὺς ὄρχεις 
ἔχει, τὰ δὲ Wa τίκτει μακρὰ καὶ μαλακά, τὸν δὲ 
ἰὸν ἐν τοῖς ὀδοῦσι φέρει. : 

~ 4 ἴω + ~ ? ι 
; 52. Tad δὲ τῷ ὄρνιθι τῷ προειρημένῳ καὶ 
ἐκεῖνα συμφυᾶ καὶ ἰδία, ἅπερ ἐστὶ μαθεῖν ἄξια. 
τρία ἔτη γενόμενος. κυήσεως ἄρχεται καὶ ὠδῖνα 

ἀπολύει καὶ τῆς τῶν πτερῶν πολυχροίας τε καὶ 

ὥρας τότε ἄρχεται. ἐπφάξει δὲ οὐ. κατὰ τὸ ἑξῆς, 
ἀλλὰ παραλιπὼν δύο ἡμέρας. ἤδη δ᾽ ἂν τέκοι 
καὶ ὑπηνέμια ὃ ταώς, ὡς καὶ ὄρνιθες ἕτεροι. 

33. Ἢ νῆττα, ὅταν τέκῃ, τίκτει μὲν Ἰ ἐν ξηρῷ, 
πλησίον δὲ ἢ τῆς λίμνης ἢ τοῦ τενάγους ἢ ἄλλου 
τινὸς ὑδρηλοῦ χώρου καὶ ἐνδρόσου. τὸ δὲ νήτ- 

ue 2 φύσει τινὶ ἰδίᾳ καὶ ἀπορρήτῳ οἶδεν ὅ ὅτι μήτε, 

τῆς ὃ μετεώρου φορᾶς of μέτεστι μήτε μὴν Tis 
ἐν τῇ χέρσῳ διατριβῆς. καὶ ἐκ τούτων ἐς τὸ 
ὕδωρ πηδᾷ, καὶ ἐξ ὠδίνων ἐστὶ νηκτιική, καὶ 
μαθεῖν οὐ δεῖται, ἀλλὰ καταδύεται καὶ ἀναδύεται 
πάνυ σοφῶς καὶ ὡς ἤδη χρόνου πεπαιδευμένη 
τοῦτο. ἀετὸς δέ, ὃ ὃν καλοῦσι νηττοφόνον, ἐπιπηδᾷ 
τῇ νηχομένῃ ὡς ἁρπασόμενος: ἡ δὲ καταδῦσα 
ἑαυτὴν ἠφάνισεν, εἶτα ὑπονηξαμένη ἀλλαχόθι 
ἐκκύπτει. ὁ δὲ καὶ ἐκεῖ πάρεστι, καὶ αὖθις 
κατέδυ ἐκείνη, καὶ πάλιν ταῦτα καὶ πάλιν. καὶ 
δυοῖν θάτερον’ ἢ γὰρ καταδῦσα ὁ ἀπεπνίγη, ἢ 6 

1 μέντοι. 2 νεοττίον. 
3 Fal ? 5» 4 P ᾿ , 
τῆς ἐν ἀέρι. auw: καταδύς. 


ΜΟΥ ΡΥ ΤΥ ΤΡ ΡΥ εὐον καρρθκονονδέ Pe οὐ ΑΝ 



ΠΡΟ το τε: 

SE Se 

ON ANIMALS, V. 31-33 

91. The following features are peculiar to the Anatomy of 

Snake. The heart has its allotted place close to the ™° °™™**° 

throat, the gall in the intestines; its testicles are 
close to the tail; the eggs which it produces are long 
and soft; its poison is contained in the fangs. 

32. The Peacock (I have described the bird the Peacock 

above) ἃ has these further innate peculiarities which 
are worth knowing. When three years old it begins 

‘to be pregnant and lays its eggs, and then starts to 

assume that many-coloured and beautiful plumage. 
But it does not brood upon its eggs immediately, 
but passes over two days. And the Peacock, like 
other birds, may from time to time lay a Wi Eee 

33. When the Duck lays its eggs it lays them on The Duck 

land but close to a lake or shallow pool or some other 
watery, moist spot. And the Duckling by some 
mysterious instinct knows that it is incapable both of 
flying high in the air and of remaining on land. For 
this reason it leaps into the water and can swim 
from the moment itis hatched ; it has no need to learn 
but dives and comes up again with great skill as 
though it had already been taught for some time. 

But the Eagle which they call the ‘ duck-killer ἡ and Eagle 

swoops upon the Duck as she swims, meaning to carr 

her off; but the Duck dives and vaniches. and then 
after swimming under water, bobs up in another 
place. But the Eagle is there also, and again the 
Duck dives; and this happens again and again. 
Then one of two things follows: either the Duck 
after a dive is drowned, or the Eagle goes off after 

@ See ch. 21. 


μὲν ἀπέστη ἐπ᾽ ἄλλην ἄγραν, ἡ δὲ ἔχουσα τὸ 

2 \ > [4 ἊΝ 
. ἀδεὲς ἐπινήχεται αὖθις. 

34. Πλέον- ἔχει τῶν ἀνθρώπων ὁ 6 κύκνος ἐν τοῖς 
μεγίστοις" οἷδέ τε γὰρ ὁπότε τοῦ βίου τὸ τέρμα 
ἀφικνεῖται αὐτῷ, καὶ μέντοι καὶ εὐθύμως φέρειν 
αὐτὸ προσιὸν ὑπὸ τῆς φύσεως λαχὼν 1 ἔχει 
δῶρον τὸ κάλλιστον' πεπίστευκε γὰρ ὅτι μηδενὸς 
ἀλγεινοῦ μηδὲ λυπηροῦ μέτεστι θανάτῳ. ἄνθρω- 

ποι δὲ ὑπὲρ οὗ οὐκ ἴσασι δεδοίκασι, καὶ ἡγοῦνται 
μέγιστον εἶναι κακὸν αὐτό. τοσοῦτον δὲ dpa τῷ 

κύκνῳ περίεστιν εὐθυμίας, ὡς καὶ ἐπὶ τῇ κατα- 
στροφῇ τοῦ βίου τοῦ σφετέρου ἄδειν καὶ ἀνα- 
κρούεσθαι = οἷον ἐπικήδειόν τι ἑαυτῷ 3 μέλος. 
τοιοῦτόν τινα καὶ τὸν Βελλεροφόντην ἡρωικῶς 
καὶ μεγαλοψύχως ἐς θάνατον παρεσκευασμένον 6 
Edpurions ὑμνεῖ. πεποίηκε γοῦν πρὸς THY ἑαυτοῦ 
υχὴν λέγοντα αὐτὸν 

ἦσθ᾽ εἰς θεοὺς μὲν εὐσεβής, ὃ ὅτ᾽ ᾿ ἦσθ᾽, ἀεί, 
ξένοις τ᾽ ἐπήρκεις, οὐδ᾽ ἔκαμνες εἰς ἀιλονξ; 

καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τούτοις. 
τινα ἐπικήδειον ἑαυτῷ ὁ μοῦσαν, ἐφόδια διδοὺς 
τῆς ἀποδημίας ἢ θεῶν ὕμνους ἢ ἔπαινον οἰκεῖόν 
τινα. μαρτυρεῖ δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ ὃ Σωκράτης ὅτι Ader 
οὐ λυπούμενος ἀλλὰ εὐθυμούμενος μᾶλλον" μηδὲ 
γὰρ ἄγειν σχολήν ποτε φδῇ καὶ μέλει τὸν κατὰ 
τῆς ψυχῆς € ἔχοντά τι πρόσαντες καὶ ἀλγεινόν. 
"Ἔχει δὲ ἄρα ὁ κύκνος οὐ μόνον πρὸς τὸν θάνα-͵ 
τον ἀνδρείως, ἤδη δὲ καὶ πρὸς μάχας. ἀδίκων μὲν 
οὖν οὐκ ἄρχει, οἷα δήπου σώφρων καὶ πεπαιδευμέ- 

1 λαβών. 


2 ἀναγηρύεσθαι V?. 


> ραν ς 1 ¢ 7 “~ 
OVKOUV καὶ O KUKVOS μελῳδεῖ 

ON ANIMALS, V. 33-34 

other prey ; whereupon the Duck, with nothing to 
fear, swims once more upon the surface. 

34. The Swan has this advantage over men in 
matters of the greatest moment, for it knows when 
the end of its life is at hand, and, what is more, in 
bearing its approach with cheerfulness, it has received 
from Nature the noblest of gifts. For it is confident 
that in death there is neither pain nor sorrow. But 
men are afraid of what they know not, and regard 
death as the greatest of 41} 115. Now the Swan has 
so contented a spirit that at the very close of its life 
it sings and breaks out into a dirge, as it were, for 
itself. Even so does Furipides [ fr. 311 N] sing of 
Bellerophon, prepared like a hero of high soul for 
death. For example, he has portrayed him address- 
ing his soul thus: 

‘Reverent wast thou ever in life towards the 
gods; strangers didst thou succour; nor didst thou 
ever grow weary towards thy friends — 

and so on. So then the Swan too intones its own 
funeral chant, and either by hymns to the gods or 
by the rehearsal of its own praises it makes provision 
for its departure. Socrates also testifies [Pl. Phaedo 
84 ΕἾ] to the fact that it sings not from sorrow but 
rather from cheerfulness, for (he says) a man whose 

heart is vexed and sore has no leisure for song and 


Now death is not the only thing that the Swan 
faces with courage: it is not afraid of a fight. But 
though it will not be the first to do an injury, any 

3 ~ f ; 7 4 ? “- 
τοῦτο τὸ. αὐτῷ. 


The Swan 
and death 


Bn eter aki 



vos ἀνήρ, τῷ δὲ ἄρξαντι : οὔτε ἀφίσταται οὔτε 
εἴκει. οἱ μὲν οὖν ὄρνιθες οἱ λοιποί, εἰρηναῖα 
αὐτοῖς πρὸς αὐτοὺς καὶ ἔνσπονδά ἐστιν," 6 δὲ 
ἀετὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦτον ὥρμησε πολλάκις, ὡς 
Ἀριστοτέλης ' φησί, “καὶ οὐδεπώποτε ἐκράτησεν, 
ἡττήθη δὲ ἀεὶ μὴ μόνον σὺν τῇ ῥώμῃ τοῦ κύκνου 
μαχομένου, ἀλλὰ καὶ σὺν τῇ δίκῃ ἀμυνομένου. 

35. Ὃ ἐρῳδιὸς τὰ ὄστρεα ἐσθίειν δεινός ἐστι 
καὶ μεμυκότα αὐτὰ καταπίνει, ὥσπερ οὖν of 
πελεκᾶνες τὰς κόγχας. καὶ ἐν τῷ καλουμένῳ 
πρηγορεῶνι ὑποθερμαίνων ὁ ἐρῳδιὸς φυλάττει τὰ 

Ξ \ e 4 “~ > 
ὄστρεα: τὰ δὲ ὑπὸ τῆς ἀλέας διίσταται, Kal 

3 ~ ? 7 \ 
ἐκεῖνος αἰσθανόμενος Ta μὲν ὄστρακα ἀνεμεῖ, 

«δος r Oey , ἫΝ 
φυλάττει δὲ τὴν σάρκα, καὶ ἔχεν τροφὴν ἀναλίσκων 

} Ean ~ - 3, β 
τῇ τῆς πέψεως δυνάμει τὸ ἔσω παρελθὸν ὁλόκλη- 


56. ᾿Ονομά ἐστιν ὄρνιθος ἀστερίας, καὶ τιθασεύε- 
ταί γε ἐν τῇ Αἰγύπτῳ, καὶ ἀνθρώπου φωνῆς 
ἐπαΐει. εἰ δέ τις αὐτὸν ὀνειδίζων δοῦλον εἴποι, ὃ 
δὲ ὀργίζεται" καὶ εἴ τις ὄκνον καλέσειεν αὐτόν, ὃ 
δὲ βρενθύεται καὶ ἀγανακτεῖ, ὡς καὶ ἐς τὸ ἀγεννὲς 
σκωπτόμενος καὶ ἐς ἀργίαν εὐθυνόμενος. 

3 ~ 
37. Hi κατέχοι τις ὀπὸν Κυρηναῖον καὶ AdBouro 

,ὔ “~ 
τῆς νάρκης, ἐνταῦθα δήπου τὸ ἐξ αὐτῆς πάθος 
ἐκπέφευγε. δράκοντα δὲ θαλάττιον εἰ ἀνασπάσαι 

1 ἄρξαντι καὶ ἐπιβουλεύοντι. 2 Schn : εἶσιν. 

6 “This is no Heron but some other bird ’ (Thompson, Gh. 
birds, 8.v.). 


ON ANIMALS, V. 34-37 

more than a sober, educated man would be, yet it 
will not retire and give way before an aggressor. 
While all other birds are on terms of peace with the 
Swan, the Eagle has frequently attacked it, as 
Aristotle says [HA 610 a1, 615 b 1], though it has 
never yet overcome it, but has always been defeated 
not only through the strength of the Swan in battle 
but also because in defending itself the Swan has 
justice on its side. 

35. The Heron is a great eater of oysters and The Heron 

swallows them when closed,* as pelicans swallow 
mussels. And the Heron warms the oysters a little 
in what is called its ‘ crop’ and retains them there. 
Under the influence of the heat the oysters open, and 
the Heron becoming aware of this, disgorges the 
shells but retains the flesh; and it lives by consuming 
entire, thanks to a strong digestion, all that passes 
down into it. | 

36. There is a bird called Asterias (starling ?),? and 
in Egypt, if tamed, it understands human speech. 
And if anyone by way of insult calls it ‘slave,’ it 
gets angry; and if anyone calls it ‘ skulker,’ it takes 
umbrage and is annoyed, as though it was being 
jeered at for its low birth and rebuked for its indo- 


37. If a man with the juice of silphium on his hands The Torpedo 

seizes the Torpedo, he avoids the pain which it in- 
flicts. And should you attempt to draw the Great 7 

’ Thompson (Gk. birds, s.v. ἀστερίας) records Bittern as a 
common but unsatisfactory interpretation, but offers no other. 



SIL p Mes Rae ne ICON i 
g ΤΣ ΟΣ 


Rene pe Tease 
ἜΣ ΞΕ 3 


“A ~ 2 2 ς \ | 
τῇ δεξιᾷ ἐθέλοις, ὃ δὲ οὐχ ἕψεται, ἀλλὰ μαχεῖ- 

1 \ 3 4 νι “-- 
ται ἡ κατὰ κράτος" εἰ δὲ τῇ ἀριστερᾷ ἀνάγοις 5 
εἴκει καὶ ἑάλωκεν. ' 

98. Χάρμιδος ἀκούω τοῦ Μασσαλιώτου λέγοντος 
φιλόμουσον μὲν εἶναι τὴν ἀηδόνα, ἤδη δὲ καὶ 
φιλόδοξον. ἐν γοῦν ταῖς ἐρημίαις ὅταν ἄδῃ πρὸς 
ἑαυτήν, ἁπλοῦν τὸ μέλος καὶ ἄνευ κατασκευῆς τὴν 
ὄρνιν dew ὅταν δὲ ἁλῷ Kal τῶν ἀκουόντων ᾿ ᾿ 
διαμαρτάνῃ, ποικίλα τε ἀναμέλπειν καὶ ena 
ἐλίττειν τὸ μέλος. καὶ Ὅμηρος δὲ τοῦτό μο 
δοκεῖ ὑπαινίττεσθαι λέγων ᾿ i 

ws δ᾽ ὅτε Πανδαρέου κούρη χλωρηὶς ἀηδών 
καλὸν ἀείδῃσιν ἔαρος νέον ἱσταμένοιο, ᾿ 
δενδρέων ἐν πετάλοισι καθεζομένη πυκινοῖσιν, 
n τε θαμὰ τρωπῶσα χέει πολυηχέα φωνήν. 

" , \ 

ἤδη μέντοι τινὲς Kal πολυδευκέα φωνὴν ypd- 

φουσι τὴν ποικίλως μεμιμημένην, ὡς τὴν BO : 
5 >? 2) 3 ? ᾿ ΤῊΣ : re 

τὴν μηδ᾽ ὅλως ἐς μίμησιν παρατραπεῖσαν. 

39. Λέγει Δημόκριτος τῶν ζῴων μόνον τὸν 
λέοντα ἐκπεπταμένοις τίκτεσθαι τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς, 
ἤδη τρόπον τινὰ τεθυμωμένον καὶ ἐξ ὠδίνων 
δρασείοντά τι γεννικόν. ἐφύλαξαν δὲ ἄλλοι καὶ 

“καθεύδων ὅτι κινεῖ τὴν οὐράν, ἐ j 3 
! εἴ τὴν οὐράν, ἐνδεικνύμενος ὡς 

τὸ εἰκὸς ὅτι μὴ πάντῃ ἀτρεμεῖ, μηδὲ μὴν κυκλω- 
σάμενος αὐτὸν καὶ περιελθὼν ὁ ὕπνος καθεῖλεν 
ὥσπερ οὖν καὶ τῶν ζῴων τὰ λοιπά... τοιοῦτόν ΕἸ 
φυλάξαντας Αἰγυπτίους ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ κομπάξειν 
φασὶ λέγοντας ὅτι κρείττων ὕπνου λέων ἐστὶν 
1 μάχεται. _ 3 ἄγοις. 


ee ΟΣ ΙΕ ΠΡ R 
li ἘΞ ΕΣ ΣΕ τον EE LAPSED ME ἐνερ ; Bie 

feypep riley eerser jist 


LSI af papa 


ON ANIMALS, V. 37-39 | 

Weever from the sea with your right hand, it will not 
come but will fight vigorously. But if you haul it up 

with your left hand, it yields and is captured. 

38. From a statement of Charmis of Massilia I The 
learn that the Nightingale is fond of music, and even 
fond of fame. At any rate when it is singing to itself 
in lonely places, he says, its melody is simple and 
spontaneous. But in captivity when it has no lack of 
hearers it lifts up its voice, warbling and trilling its 
melting music. And Homer seems to me to hint as 

much when he says [Od. 19. 518] 

‘ And as when the daughter of Pandareus, the 
greenwood Nightingale, sings sweet at the first 
oncoming of spring, as she rests amid the thick 
leafage of the trees, and ever varying her note 
pours forth her full-throated music.’ 

But there are those who write πολυδευκέα φωνήν, 
that is, ‘ variously imitating music,’ Just as ἀδευκέα 
signifies ‘ unadapted for imitating.’ 

39. Democritus asserts that the Lion alone among The Lion 

animals is born with its eyes open @ and from the hour 
of birth is already to some extent angry and ready to 
perform some spirited action. And others have 
observed that even when asleep the Lion moves his 
tail, showing, as you might expect, that he is not 
altogether quiescent, and that, although sleep has 
enveloped and enfolded him, it has not subdued 
him as it does all other animals. The Egyptians, 
they say, claim to have observed in him something of 
this kind, asserting that the Lion is superior to sleep 

@ See 4. 34. 



ἀγρυπνῶν ἀεί. ταύτῃ τοι καὶ ἡλίῳ ἀποκρζνειν 
αὐτὸν αὐτοὺς πέπυσμαι: καὶ γάρ ToL καὶ τὸν 
ἥλιον θεῶν ὄντα φιλοπονώτατον ἢ ἄνω 1 τῆς γῆς 
ὁρᾶσθαι ἢ τὴν κάτω πορείαν ἰέναι μὴ ἡσυχάζοντα. 
μηρόν τε μάρτυρα Αἰγύπτιοι ἐπάγονται, λέγοντα 
ἠέλιόν τ ἀκάμαντα. ἔστι δὲ πρὸς τῇ ῥώμῃ καὶ 
συνετὸς ὁ λέων. ταῖς γοῦν βουσὶν ἐπιβουλεύει 




and for ever awake. And I have ascertained that 
it is for this reason that they assign him to the sun, 
for, as you know, the sun is the most hard-working » 
of the gods, being visible above the earth or pursuing 
his course beneath it without pause. And the 
Egyptians cite Homer as a witness when he speaks 
of the ‘ untiring sun ’ [J/. 18. 239]. And in addition 
to his strength the Lion shows intelligence. For in- 

, ~ > 3 27 oe 
νύκτωρ φοιτῶν ἐς τὰ αὖὔλια. Ὅμηρος δὲ d 
δ} ~ ᾽ ρα ε poe? 
ἤδει καὶ τοῦτο λέγων stance, he has designs upon cattle and goes to their 
| folds by night. Now Homer was aware of this when 

he said [J/. 11. 172]: 

‘ Like cattle which a lion has scared, coming in 
the dead of night.’ 

And he strikes terror into them all by his strength, 
but seizes only one and devours it. And when he and his prey 
has gorged himself, he wishes to preserve the re- 
mains for another occasion, yet he is ashamed to 
stay and watch over them, as though he were afraid 
of starving from want of food. Accordingly with 
jaws agape he breathes upon them and trusts to his 
breath to guard them while he himself goes on his 
way. But when the other beasts arrive and realise 
to whom the remains upon the ground belong, they 
do not venture to touch them but go their way for 
fear of seeming to rob and diminish anything that 
belongs to their king. Now if the Lion chances to 
be lucky and has good hunting, he forgets his former 
prize, disregards it as being stale, and goes away. 
Otherwise he returns to it as to a private store. And 
when he has eaten more than enough, he empties 

Ψ 8 ᾽ 3 4 βόες ὥς : 
ἃς τε ὅ λέων ἐφόβησε μολὼν ἐν νυκτὸς ἀμολγῷ. 
καὶ ἐκπλήττει μὲν ὑπὸ τῆς ἀλκῆς πάσας," μίαν δὲ 
ἐξαρπάσας ἔδει ὃ ὅταν δὲ ἐς κόρον ἐμπλησθῇ, 
βούλεται μὲν ταμιεύσασθαι καὶ ἐς αὖθις, αἰδὼς δὲ 
ἰσχει αὐτὸν φρουρεῖν παραμένοντα, ὡς τροφῆς 
χήτει λιμὸν δεδιότα. οὐκοῦν περιχανὼν ἐμπνεῖ 
μὲν τοῦ καθ᾽ ἑαυτὸν ἄσθματος, καὶ τούτω τὴν 
φυλακὴν ἐπιτρέπει, ἀπαλλάττεταί γε μὴν αὐτός" 
τὰ δὲ “ἄλλα ζῷα ἥκοντα καὶ αἰσθανόμενα ὅτου 
λείψανόν ἐστι τὸ κείμενον, οὐ τολμᾷ προσάψασθαι, 
ἀλλὰ , ἀπαλλάττεται δεδιότα δοκεῖν συλᾶν καὶ 
περικόπτειν τι τοῦ σφετέρου βασιλέως. τῷ δὲ 
ἄρα εἰ μὲν εὐθηρία δ γένοιτο καὶ εὐερμία, λήθην 
| τοῦ πρώτου λαμβάνει καὶ ὡς ἕωλον ἀτιμάσας 
Ἵ ἀπαλλάττεται" εἰ δὲ μή, ὡς ἐπ᾽ οἰκεῖον θη- 
σαύρισμα παραγίνεται. ὅταν δὲ ὑπερπλησθῇ, κενοῖ 
<avTov ἡσυχίᾳ καὶ ἀσιτίᾳ, ἢ αὖ πάλιν πιθήκῳ 

ΡΣ ΣΟ ΤΣ Στὴν τ: is 
Boat ¥ hh 

Lester iskaieiuna\da tine. TORT RTT ATEN 
CLE Cis eT OEE AEE OS LSS Hing wearer ate 




ifs SLE, pate 

Ries DL Lei ted SS ET SOPOT 
ae ae a 

ir PSA AAS Κα aire foe he dane 
RSS far 
ote - 

1 * t ¢ - 
: κατὰ τὸ ἢ ἄνω. ® βόες ws MSS omit. | : : : +3 
ἡ ὡς 8 ὅτε ᾿ himself by lying quiet and abstaining from food, or 
: ἐάσας: ee eae ; | 4 alternatively he catches a monkey and eats some of | 
ἐδει" ὁ αὐτὸς λέγει ποιητὴς ταῦτα. : 
332 . | 8 εὐθηρία ἑτέρου. 


Resa penta 

NASI ein alec es 

SO ee RS eA ene at ες ες 
Sree nasi 


Α A “-- 
περιτυχὼν καὶ τούτου φαγὼν κενοῦται τὴν γαστέρα. 

ταῖς ἐκείνου λάπάξας σαρξίν. ἦν δὲ ἄρα δίκαιος 
ὁ λέων καὶ οἷος | 
ἄνδρ᾽ ἐπαμύνασθαι, ὅτε τις πρότερος } χαλεπήνῃ. 
τῷ γοῦν ἐπιόντι ἀνθίσταται {καὶ τὴν ἀλκαίαν 
ἐπισείων καὶ ἑλίττων κατὰ τῶν πλευρῶν εἶτα 
ἐγείρει ἑαυτὸν ὥσπερ οὖν ὑποθήγων μύωπι. τόν 
γε μὴν βαλόντα μέν, οὐ τυχόντα δὲ τῇ ἴσῃ ἀμυνού- 
μενος 8 φοβεῖ μέν, λυπεῖ δὲ οὐδὲ ἕν. ἡμερωθείς 
γε μὴν ἐξέτι νεαροῦ πραότατός ἐστι καὶ ἐντυχεῖν 
ἡδύς, καὶ ἔστι φιλοπαίστης, καὶ πᾶν ὅ τι οὖν 
ὑπομένει πραόνως τῷ τροφεῖ χαριζόμενος. “Avvwy 
γοῦν λέοντα εἶχε σκευαγωγόν, καὶ Βερενίκῃ λέων 
πρᾶος συνῆν, τῶν κομμωτῶν ἃ διαφέρων οὐδὲ ἕν. 
ἐφαίδρυνε γοῦν τῇ γλώττῃ ὃ τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτῆς, 
καὶ τὰς ῥυτίδας ἐλέαινε, καὶ ἦν ὁμοτράπεζος, 
πράως τε καὶ εὐτάκτως ἐσθίων καὶ ἀνθρωπικῶς. 
«(καὶ)» 5 "Ovduapyos δὲ ὁ Κατάνης τύραννος καὶ 6 
Κλεομένους υἱὸς συσσίτους εἶχον λέοντας. 

40. Εὐωδίας τινὸς θαυμαστῆς τὴν πάρδαλιν 
μετειληχέναι φασίν, ἡμῖν μὲν ἀπορρήτου, αὐτὴ δὲ 
οἷδε τὸ πλεονέκτημα τὸ οἰκεῖον, καὶ μέντοι καὶ 
τὰ ἄλλα ζῷα συνεπίσταται τοῦτο ἐκείνῃ, καὶ 

2 «καί add. Schn. 
& Pierson: κομμώντων. 

6 <xat> add. H. 

1 πρότερον. 
3 ἀμυνόμενος. 
° γλώττῃ ἡσυχῆ. 

α Hanno, Carthaginian general, 3rd cent. B.c. Cp. Plut. 
Mor. 799 E. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 39-40 

it, voiding and emptying his belly by means of its 
The Lion is after all upright and one to 

‘ defend himself against the man who should assail 
him first ’ [Hom. J. 24. 369; Od. 16. 12]. 

Thus, he faces his attacker and by lashing with his 
tail and winding it about his flanks rouses himself as 
though he were stimulating himself with a spur. 
And if a man shoot at him but miss him, he will 

defend himself by a fair return: he will scare the 
man but do him no harm. If he has been domesti- 

cated since the time when he was a cub, he is ex- The Lion 
f ame 

tremely gentle and agreeable to meet, and is fond ὁ 
play, and will submit with good temper to any treat- 
ment to please his keeper. For instance, Hanno® 
kept a Lion to carry his baggage; a tame Lion was 
the companion of Berenice ὃ and was no different 
from her tiring-slaves: for example, it would softly” 
wash her face with its tongue and smooth away her 
wrinkles; it would share her table and eat in a 
sober, orderly fashion just like a man. And Ono- 
marchus, the Tyrant of Catana, and the son of 
Cleomenes 5 both had Lions with them as table-. 
companions. . 

40. They say that the Leopard has a marvellous The Leopard. 

fragrance about it. To us it is imperceptible, though 
the Leopard is aware of the advantage it possesses, and 
other animals besides share with it this knowledge. 

ὃ Which of the various queens named Berenice is here 
referred to, is uncertain; if the queen of Ptolemy III, she 
lived ¢. 273~226 B.c. : 
¢ Nothing more is known of these persons. 


Sree ae Πα 


Up anne 




CEC an eee 


LORS SESE Cs a ae 





pista ARES 61180 




ey 7? ? ε 1 4 : , »-»Ἢ e ᾽ὔ ὃ 
ἁλίσκεταί οἱ! τὸν τρόπον τοῦτον. ἡ πάρδαλις 
΄“᾿ ? Ly \ ξ 7 “aA λό me 
τροφῆς δεομένη ἑαυτὴν ὑποκρύπτει ἢ λόχμῃ πολλῇ 
n 3 > ay 
ἢ φυλλάδι βαθείᾳ, καὶ ἐντυχεῖν ἐστιν ἀφανής. 
“ “- a 4 : 
μόνον δὲ ἀναπνεῖ. οὐκοῦν ot veBpot καὶ <atS2 
a ? \ ‘ ~ 
δορκάδες καὶ ot αἶγες οἱ ἄγριοι 8 Kal τὰ τοιαῦτα 
“᾿ if ~ 
τῶν ζῴων ὡς ὑπό τινος tvyyos τῆς εὐωδίας 
3 ,. ξ \ 2 “ 
ἕλκεται, καὶ γίνεται πλησίον’ ἡ δὲ ἐκπηδᾷ καὶ 

ἔχει τὸ θήραμα. 

41. ἸΠυνθάνομαι τῶν ζῴων τὰ μηρυκάξζοντα 
τρεῖς ἔχειν κοιλίας, καὶ ὀνόματα αὐτῶν ἀκούω 
κεκρύφαλον ἐχῖνον ἤνυστρον. σηπίαι δὲ καὶ τευθί- 
des δύο νέμονται προβοσκίσιν' οὐ γάρ To! 
χεῖρον οὕτως ὀνομάσαι καὶ ἐκ τῆς χρείας καὶ ἐκ 
τοῦ σχήματος ἐπαρθέντα. καὶ ὅταν ἢ χειμέρια 
καὶ κλύδων τεταραγμένος, ai δὲ τῶν πετρῶν 
λαμβάνονται ταῖς αὐταῖς προβολαῖς, καὶ ἔχονται 
ὡς ἀγκύραις πάνυ ἐγκρατῶς, καὶ ἄσειστοί τε καὶ 
ἄκλυστοι μένουσιν' εἶτα εἰ γένοιτο ὑπεύδια, 
ἀπολύουσί τε ἕαυτὰς καὶ ἐλευθεροῦσι, καὶ νέουσι 
πάλιν, εἰδυῖαι μάθημα οὐκ εὐκαταφρόνητον, χειμῶ- 
νος φυγὴν καὶ ἐκ τῶν κινδύνων σωτηρίαν. 

42. Kt σοι βουλομένῳ μαθεῖν ἐστι μελιττῶν 
ὀνόματα, οὐκ ἂν βασκήναιμι εἰπεῖν ὅσα πέπυσμαι. 
ἡγεμόνες καλοῦνταί τινες καὶ ἄλλαι σειρῆνες καὶ 
ἐργοφόροι τινὲς καὶ ἕτεραι πλάστιδες. Νίκανδρος 
δὲ fT εὐφορεῖν ἡ ὃ τοὺς κηφῆνάς φησι. περὶ δὲ τὴν 

.ι : 3 
1 ἐκείνῃ. . . of] τῇ παρδάλει καὶ ἁλίσκεται ἐκείνῃ. 

2 <at> add. H. 3 αἱ αἶγες ai ἄγριαι. 
paca > ὑδροφόροι H. 

6. ἀφορεῖν Post, ὑδροφορεῖν Reiske, H, εὐπορεῖν OSchn. 

ON ANIMALS, V. 40-42 

and the Leopard catches them in the following | 
manner. When the Leopard needs food it conceals 
itself in a dense thicket or in deep foliage and is in- 
visible; it only breathes. And so fawns and gazelles 
and wild goats and suchlike animals are drawn by the 
spell, as it were, of its fragrance and come close up. 
Whereat the Leopard springs out and seizes its prey. 

41. I learn that ruminants have three ¢ stomachs, Ruminants 
and their names, I gather, are κεκρύφαλον (the second 2n4 their 
stomach, reticulum), ἐχῖνος (the third stomach, many- 
plies), and ἤνυστρον (the fourth stomach, abomasum). 

Cuttle-fish and Squids feed themselves with two cuttle-fsh 
‘ probosces.’ (There is no harm in so styling them : 224 ther 
their use and their form induce one to do'so.) And 
in stormy weather when there is broken surf, these 
creatures grip the rocks with their tentacles and cling 
fast as with anchors, and there they stay, safe from 
shock and sheltered from the waves. Later, when 
it grows calm, they let themselves go and are free 
again to swim about, having learnt what is by no 
means to be despised, viz., how to avoid a storm and 
to escape from danger. | 

42. If it is your wish to learn the names of Bees, Bees, their 
I would not grudge you the knowledge that I have Y8"0us 
acquired. Some are called ‘captains,’ others 
‘ sirens,’ ® some again ‘ workers,’ and others ‘ moul- 

ders.’ And Nicander says [ fr. 93] that the Drones — 

@ Cp. Arist. HA 507 b 1; Ael. has omitted to mention the 
κοιλία μεγάλη, big stomach or paunch. " 

ὃ Thompson on Arist. HA 623 b 11 takes ‘siren’ to be 
‘some species of the solitary wasp, e.g. Humenes, Synagris, 
ete.’ ys 

VOL. I. N 




ἀρ ee 


ei ΝΘ Siren (ee 



τ a fs 
σύντα oH ae RA MN SSL TAST IAA PO Are 

SPE oe I PS RE oS AS τ τ οΥ 2 
tei a ἜΤΟΣ 





- ᾽ ~ 3; ᾽; τ aT \ 
τῶν Καππαδόκων γῆν ἄνευ κηρίων τὸ μέλι τὰς 

ς Ἁ \ > “~ 
μελίττας ἐργάζεσθαί φασι, παχὺ δὲ εἶναι τοῦτο 
κατὰ τὸ ἔλαιον λόγος ἔχει. ἐν Ἰραπεζοῦντι δὲ τῇ 
τς κι Ὁ - f ; 
Ποντικῇ ἐκ τῆς πύξου γίνεσθαι μέλι πέπυσμαι, 
βαρὺ δὲ τὴν ὀσμὴν τοῦτο εἶναι, καὶ ποιεῖν μὲν 
4 e ? 3}; Ἃ ὃ 4 3 Xr a “4 
τοὺς ὑγιαίνοντας ἔκφρονας, τοὺς δὲ ἐπιλήπτους és 

ὑγίειαν ἐπανάγειν αὖθις. ἐν Μηδίᾳ δὲ ἀποστάξειν 

τῶν δένδρων ἀκούω μέλι, ὡς Ἐὐριπίδης 1 ἐν τῷ 
Κιθαιρῶνί φησιν ἐκ τῶν κλάδων γλυκείας σταγόνας 
3 “" ,» ‘ \ 3 , Ζλ 3 ~ 
ἀπορρεῖν. γίνεσθαι δὲ καὶ ἐν Θράκῃ μέλι ἐκ τῶν 
“~ 3} 3 \ ? ᾿ , > , 
φυτῶν ἤκουσα. ἐν δὲ Μυκόνῳ μέλιττα οὐ γίνεται, 

ἀλλὰ καὶ {φἔξωθεν 5 κομισθεῖσα ἀποθνήσκει. 

’ ; \ ~ 
43. Περὶ τὸν Ὕπανιν ποταμὸν γίνεσθαι τὸ ζῷον 
4 ? Ὁ λ [4 ἾἌ “λ 
τὸ μονήμερον οὕτω καλούμενον ᾿Αριστοτέλης 
“~ 4 ΠΟ ΚΦ “~ 
φησί, τικτόμενον μὲν ἅμα τῷ KvEeder,® ἀποθνῆσκον 

4 3 A Ἁ ey 7] 7 
δὲ ἐπὶ δυσμὰς ἡλίου τρεπομένου. 

44, "Eyes δὲ {τὸ δῆγμα ἡ σηπία ἰῶδες καὶ 
\ 20 ἢ > A ἜΣ ἥν. ose 
τοὺς ὀδόντας ἰσχυρῶς ὑπολανθάνοντας. ἦν δὲ 
ἄρα δηκτικὸν καὶ <d6>° ὀσμύλος καὶ 6 πολύπους" 
᾿ ΄ . ἃ ϑ f , ~ Oh 
καὶ δάκοι μὲν av οὗτος σηπίας βιαιότερον, τοῦ δὲ 
7 A i a. 
ἰοῦ μεθίησιν ἥττου. 
ὁ Hid. ταῖς Βάκχαις... 


{τόδ add. H. 

2 <elwbev> add. H. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 42-44 

.. . And they say that all over Cappadocia the Bees 
produce honey without combs, and the story goes Honey of 
that it is thick like oil. I am informed that at 7a7loxs 
Trapezus in Pontus honey is obtained from box-trees, 

but that it has a heavy scent and drives healthy 
people out of their senses, but restores the frenzied 

to health. I learn that in Media® honey drips from 

the trees, just as Euripides [Bacc. 714] says that on 
Cithaeron sweet drops flow from the boughs. In 
Thrace too I have heard that honey is produced from 
plants. On Myconus? there are no bees, and more- 

over if imported from outside they die. | 

43. Aristotle says [HA 552 Ὁ 20] that on the banks the 
of the river Hypanis 5 there occurs a creature that ῬΑ σ᾽ 
goes by the name of ‘ day-fly,’ ὁ because it is born in 
the morning twilight and dies when the sun begins 
to set. : 

44, The Cuttle-fish has a poisonous bite and teeth The 
that are concealed very deep within. It seems also 7°" 
that the Osmylus¢ and the Octopus are given to 
biting. And the Octopus has a more powerful bite 
than the Cuttle-fish, although it emits. less poison. 

Ael. is copying [Arist.] Mir. 831 b 26 where the MSS read 
Λυδίᾳ. ᾿ ἊΝ 
> One of the Cyclades. ° o 
¢ Mod. Boug. aa fee he 
4 *‘ A May-fly, probably . .. the large Ephemera longicauda . 
Oliv.’ (Thompson on Arist. loc. cit.). 
6 Α kind of octopus with an unpleasant musky smell: 
Eledone moschata’ (Thompson, Gk. fishes). ~ | 

i <6) add. A ᾿ ᾿ Ε 



EEE, eee 
Pant peepee on ee τς 

ra πὰ τῇ ΠΕΡ ΩΣ ΣΙ: 


Phecetrivenniontenr tects zat or esol sites 
aaacinsetotesainictnetetiteos a! 


ease ἘΣΣΙ ΤΙΣ tf 


45. Tov σῦν τὸν ἄγριόν φασι μὴ πρότερον ἐπί 
‘4 4 Ἅ \ / € ~ 
τινα φέρεσθαι πρὶν ἢ τοὺς χαυλιόδοντας ὑποθῆξαι: 
μαρτυρεῖ δὲ ἄρα καὶ “Ὅμηρος τοῦτο λέγων 

, \ Ὁ ‘ aA , 
θήξας λευκὸν ὀδόντα μετὰ γναμπτῆσι γένυσσιν.. 

παχύνεσθαι δὲ τὸν σῦν ἀκούω μάλιστα μὴ λούμε- 
νον, ἀλλὰ ἐν τῷ βορβόρῳ διατρίβοντά τε καὶ 
στρεφόμενον καὶ πίνοντα ὕδωρ τεθολωμένον, καὶ 
ἡσυχίᾳ καὶ στέγῃ σκοτωδεστέρᾳ χαίροντα καὶ 
τροφαῖς ὅσαι φυσωδέστεραί τέ εἰσι καὶ ὑποπλῆσαι 
δύνανται. καὶ Ὅμηρος δὲ ἔοικε ὑποδηλοῦν ταῦτα. 
περὶ μὲν οὖν τοῦ καλινδεῖσθαι αὐτοὺς 5. καὶ 
φιληδεῖν τοῖς ῥυπαρωτέροις τέλμασι.. .3 λέγων 
σύες χαμαιευνάδες" ὅτι δὲ τῷ τεθολωμένῳ ὕδατι 
πιαίνονται ... .4 φησὶ 
ἔλαν ὕδωρ | 
πίνουσαι, τά θ᾽ ὕεσσι τρέφει τεθαλυῖαν ἀλοιφήν. 

wd 4 7 “ i 7 Ἁ 4 3 7 
ὅτι δὲ χαίρουσι TH σκότῳ διὰ τούτων ἐλέγχει 
, Ὁ ᾿ ~ κὰ i fF. ὃ 3 3 ~ 
πέτρῃ ὕπο yAaduph εὗδον Bopéw ὑπ᾽ ἰωγῇ. 

4 A i. > ἢ “~ “A Ὡ ,ὔ 
τὸ δὲ φυσῶδες αἰνίττεται τῆς τροφῆς ὅταν λέγῃ 
βάλανον μενοεικέα ἐσθίειν αὐτάς. εἰδὼς δὲ ἄρα 
Ὅμηρος ὡς καὶ ἰσχναίνεται καὶ ἐπιτρίβει τὰ κρέα 
ὗς ὁρῶν τὸν θῆλυν, πεποίηκε τοὺς ἄρρενας ἰδίᾳ 

᾽ 4 \ é Ὁ ἡ 2 “ἢ 
καθεύδοντας καὶ τὰς θηλείας ἰδίᾳ. ἐν Σαλαμῖνι 
δὲ χλωροῦ σίτου καὶ ληίου κομῶντος ἐὰν σῦς 

1 Aovdpevov. 8 αὐτόν. 
3. Lacuna. 4 Lacuna. 

* The chief city in Cyprus. Eustathius on Hom. Od. 18. 29 
says that there was a law in Cyprus permitting landowners to 
remove the teeth of any pig that they found foraging among 

340 | 


Mtoe tEHa ES 



Soph St 



45. They say that the Wild Boar does not attack The wild 
a man until he has whetted his tusks. And Homer °°" 

testifies to this when he says [1]. 11. 416] 

‘Having whetted the white tusk between his 
curved jaws.’ . 

And I learn that the Boar fattens himself chiefly 
by not washing but spending his time wallowing in 
the mud, drinking the turbid water, and revelling in 
the quiet and the darkness of his lair and in all the 
more inflating foods that can fillhim up. And Homer 
appears to imply as much, for touching their wallow- 
ing and their fondness for the more muddy ponds. . . 
when he says [Od. 10. 243] ‘ hogs that make their 
bed upon the ground.’ And that they fatten them-_ 
selves upon turbid water . . . he says [Od. 13. 409] 

‘ drinking black water, which fosters the rich fat on 

And that they delight in darkness he proves in the 
following words [Od. 14. 533] : ἊΝ 

‘ They slumbered beneath a hollow rock under 
shelter from Boreas.’ 

And he hints at the inflating quality of their food 
when he says [Od. 13. 409] that they eat ‘ the satisfy- 
ing acorn.’ Now Homer knowing that the Boar 
grows thin and that his flesh wastes if he looks at the 
Sow, has described [Od. 14. 13] the Boars as sleeping 
in one place and the Sows in another. In Salamis 4 
if a Sow breaks in and grazes the corn when green or 

their crops. So Irus threatens to knock out the teeth of 
Odysseus, disguised and unknown, whom he regards as an 
interloper in the palace in Ithaca. 



3 : vos 1 > / / 3 ‘ yy ; λ f 

ἐμπεσοῦσα + ἀποκείρῃ, νόμος ἐστὶ Σαλαμινίων 
‘ 3 “- ᾿ ~ > 

τοὺς ὀδόντας ἐκτρίβειν αὐτῆς. καὶ τοῦτο εἶναι τὸ 

παρ᾽ Ὅμήρῳ συὸς ληιβοτείρης φασίν. οἱ δὲ 

ln ~ νι es 
ἑτέρως νοοῦσι, καὶ λέγουσι χλωροῦ σίτου τὴν dp 

΄“- 2 fd 
γευσαμένην ἀσθενεῖς ἔχειν τοὺς ὀδόντας . 

46. "ἔδωκε δὲ ἄρα ἡ φύσις ταῖς κυσὶ τραυμά- 
3 / , 3 \ Ld 3 4 
τῶν ἀντίπαλον πόαν. εἰ δὲ ἕλμινθες αὐτὰς λυ- 
- Sete! : 7 ,ὔ 
motev,” τοῦ σίτου τὸ καλούμενον λήιον ἐσθίουσαι 
ἐκκρίνουσιν αὖτάς. λέγονται δὲ καὶ ὅταν δέωνται 
τὴν γαστέρα ἑκατέραν κενῶσαι πόαν τινὰ ἐσθίειν, 
~ » 3 : : } nw 
καὶ TO μέν τι τῆς τροφῆς τὸ ἐπιπολάζον ἀνεμεῖν, 

:- \ 4 7 3 ? a) A 5 
τὰ δὲ περιττὰ κάτωθεν ἐκκρίνεσθαι αὐταῖς φασιν. 

ἐντεῦθεν καὶ τὸ συρμαΐζειν Αἰγύπτιοι λέγονται 
μαθεῖν. πέρδικες δὲ 85 καὶ πελαργοὶ τρωθέντες 
καὶ φάτται τὴν ὀρίγανον, ὡς λόγος, διατρώγουσιν, 
εἶτα τοῖς τραύμασιν ἐντιθέντες ἀκοῦνται τὸ σῶμα 
καὶ μέντοι (καὶ) τῆς ἀνθρώπων ἰατρικῆς δέονται 
οὐδὲ ἕν. : 

41. Οὐ δεήσομαι ἐνταῦθα μάρτυρος πρεσβυτέ- 

ON ANIMALS, V. 45-47 

a field of waving corn, there is a law of the Sala- 

minians that her teeth must be destroyed. And 

they say that the passage in Homer [Od. 18. 29] about 
‘a sow that consumes the crops’ refers to this. 
Others take a different view and assert that when a 
Sow has tasted green corn its teeth are weakened. 

46. It would appear that Nature has provided 
grass as a remedy for the wounds of Dogs. And if 
they are troubled with worms they get rid of them 
by eating “ standing ’ corn, as it is called. And when 
they need to empty both stomachs they are said to 
eat some grass, and as much of their food as remains 
undigested they vomit up, while the remainder is 
excreted. It is from this source that the Egyptians 
are said to have learnt the practice of taking purges. 

But Partridges, Storks, and Ring-doves, when 

wounded are said to chew marjoram and then to 
spread it on their wounds and cure their body; and 
they have no need at all of man’s healing art. 

47. In this matter I shall have no need of any 
witness from antiquity but shall narrate what I 

myself have seen and know. | 
A man captured a Lizard of the excessively green A Lizard, 

é 2 blinded, 
and unusually large species, and with a point made regains its 

of bronze he pierced and blinded the Lizard. And sight 
after boring some very fine holes in a newly fashioned 
earthenware vessel so as to admit the air, but small 
enough to prevent the creature from escaping, he 

pov, ἃ δὲ αὐτὸς ἔγνων ἐρῶ 5 σαῦρον τῶν χλωρῶν 
So τ᾿ ΄ὕ a. / ὃ % το τν σῶς AX \ 

μὲν ὑπεράγαν, adpotépwv δὲ τὴν ἕξιν συλλαβὼν 
Ἁ ‘ : ὔ we ᾿ 

ἀνὴρ καὶ κέντρῳ πεποιημένῳ χαλκοῦ πείρας ὃ 

εἶτα τυφλώσας τὸν σαῦρον καὶ χύτραν κεραμέαν 

τῶν νεωστὶ εἰργασμένων διατρήσας πάνυ λεπταῖς 

A - f : “- 
ὁπαῖς, ὡς μὴ εἴργειν μὲν τὸ πνεῦμα, οὐ μὴν 
᾿ ᾿ ; “a ld ~~ 
ἐκείνῳ παρασχεῖν ἔκδυσιν, καὶ γῆν ἐγχέας Kal | 
aie * The expression is used loosely’ to denote the stomach 

1. Barnes s πεσοῦσα. ΝΠ ΕΝ - proper and the intestines, for the dog has but one stomach. 
3 χε. . | —~ ἊΝ - a $$ es 
ὁ ζκαί) αὐᾶ. He 3 3° BP whe, τοὺς ee ἡ τ δ, λέγω. δ᾽ διείρας. 

342. . i ὁ 343 


μάλα ἔνδροσον, καὶ τὸ θηρίον ἐμβαλὼν καὶ πόαν 
τινὰ ἧς οὐκ εἶπε τὸ ὄνομα καὶ δακτύλιον σιδήρου 2 
πεποιημένον καὶ ἔχοντα λίθον Taydrnv, ᾧπερ οὖν 
ἐνείργαστο γλύμμα σαῦρος, τὴν μὲν χύτραν 
ἐπηλύγασεν, ἐννέα ἐμπλάσας σημεῖα, ὧν ἀφήρει 
σφραγῖδαϑ ἐφ᾽ ἡμέρας ἐννέα. καὶ τὴν ἐπὶ 
πάσαις. ἀφανίσας ἀνοίγει τὸ σκεῦος, καὶ ἔγωγε 
εἶδον. τὸν σαῦρον ἐμβλέποντα, καὶ εὐωποτάτους 5 
τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς τοὺς τέως πεπηρωμένους εἶχε. 
καὶ τὸν μέν, ἔνθεν ἠρέθη, ἐνταῦθα ἀπελύσαμεν, 
δακτύλιον δὲ ἐκεῖνον ὁ ἀνὴρ ὁ ταῦτα δράσας 
ὀφθαλμοῖς ἀγαθὸν ἔφασκεν εἶναι. | 

48. "Euol δὲ αἴσχιστον δοκεῖ, ὦ ἄνθρωποι, 
φιλίαν μὲν τοῖς ζῴοις πρὸς ἄλληλα εἶναι, μὴ 
μόνοις τοῖς συννόμοις αὐτῶν μηδὲ μὴν τοῖς ὅμογε- 
σιν, ἤδη δὲ Kal Tol δὲ 4 4 
veow, ἤδη δὲ Kal τοῖς μηδὲν προσήκουσί σφισι 
κατὰ τὸ κοινὸν γένος. ταῖς γοῦν αἰξὶν αἱ οἷς 
φίλιαι, περιστερᾷ δὲ πρὸς τρυγόνα φιλία, φίλα 
δὲ ἀλλήλοις 8 νοοῦσι φάτται τε καὶ πέρδικες, 
ἀλκυόνα δὲ καὶ κηρύλον ποθοῦντε ἀλλήλω πάλαι 
ἴσμεν, κορώνην τε ἐρῳδιῷ φίλα νοεῖν καὶ λάρον 
τῷ καλουμένῳ κολοιῷ καὶ ixtivw ἅρπην. πολε- 
μοῦσι δὲ αἰώνιον πόλεμον καὶ ἄσπονδον ὡς εἰπεῖν 
κορῶναί τε καὶ γλαῦκες" πολέμιοι δὲ ἄρα εἰσὶν 
ἰκτῖνός τε καὶ κόραξ, καὶ πυραλλὶς πρὸς τρυγόνα, 
καὶ βρένθος καὶ Adpos,? πάλιν τε ὃ χλωρεὺς πρὸς 

: ἔκδυσιν te πόαν] «ἔκδυσιν, τὸ θηρίον ἐμβαλὼν καὶ γῆν 
ὑποχέας καὶ μ. ἐ. καὶ πόαν. 
: Ges : σιδηροῦν. <ptav> odp.? H. 
πάσαις THY ἐννάτην. εὐωποτέρους. 
| περιστερὰ... φίλη. 


ay δι 

8 ro, 


esi ere HEL LA EEY 

SSA IG Netty 

πρϑομμεδυρλενεν την eRc UN 

LO ee 




ON ANIMALS, V. 47-48 

heaped some very moist earth into it and put the 
Lizard inside together with a certain herb, of which 
he did not divulge the name, and an iron ring with 
a bezel of lignite engraved with the figure of a lizard. 
After stamping nine seals upon the vessel he then 
covered it up, removing one seal daily for nine days. 
And when he had destroyed the last seal of all he 
opened the vessel, and I myself saw the Lizard 
having its sight and its eyes, which till then had been 
blinded, seeing perfectly well. And we released the 
Lizard on the spot where it had been captured, and 
the man who had done these things asserted that that 
ring of his was good for the eyes.. 

48, It fills me with shame, you human beings, to 
think of the friendly relations that subsist between 
animals, not only those that feed together nor even 
those of the same species, but even between those 
that have no connexion through a common origin. 
For instance, Sheep are friends with Goats; there is 
friendship between Pigeon and Turtle-dove; Ring- 
doves and Partridges entertain friendly feelings to- 
wards one another; we have long known that the 
Halcyon and the Cery] desire each other; that the 
Crow is friendly disposed towards the Heron, and the 
Sea-mew towards the Little Cormorant, as it is called, 
and the Shearwater towards the Kite. But there is 

war everlasting and without truce, so to say, between 

Crows and Owls. Enemies too are the Kite and the 
Raven, the Pyrallis and the Turtle-dove, the Bren- 
thus 5 and the Sea-mew, and again the Greenfinch(?) 

@ Unknown water-bird. Perh. the ‘ Avocet,’ Gossen ὃ 187. 

ae eee ee ἰ-,-ς----ὕὕ. Ὁ 
8 εἰς ἀλλήλους. 9. Ges: πάγρος. 




and enmities 

'χελιδὼν ἐκβάλλει χελιδόνα νεκράν. 

remy wes acetates yt eA Ue ton fold ar nN de cre ii rind acs fod eee 


τρυγόνα, Kal αἰγυπιοὶ καὶ ἀετοί, καὶ κύκνοι καὶ 
δράκοντες, καὶ πρὸς βουβαλίδας καὶ ταύρους 1 
λέ v A 2 δὲ 2 "λέ, \ ὃ m4 

govres. ἔχθιστα 5 δὲ ἄρα ἐλέφας καὶ δράκων 

3 ι \ 3 , ¢ > 7 e ot νκν se 
VY, Καὶ TPOS ἀσπίδα O ὑχνευμῶν, ὁ δὲ αἴγιθος Ττῳ.- 

ὄνῳ: ὃ μὲν γὰρ ὠγκήσατο, ῥήγνυται δὲ τῷ 
αἰγίθῳ τὰ Bd, καὶ οἱ νεοττοὶ ἐκπίπτουσιν ἀτελεῖς" 

ΝΟ - “- “3 » aA 
6 δὲ τιμωρῶν τοῖς τέκνοις ἐπυπηδᾷ τῶν ὄνων τοῖς 
4 4 3 f > f ~ 4 3 f i 
ἕλκεσι, καὶ ἐσθίει αὐτά. μισεῖ δὲ ἀλώπηξ κίρκον 
καὶ ταῦρος κόρακα, καὶ ὁ ἄνθος ὃ τὸν ἵππον. 
χρὴ δὲ εἰδέναι τὸν πεπαιδευμένον καὶ μηδὲν 

ὔ 3 4 [γέ 4 \ ,ὔ , 

μάτην ἀκούοντα ὅτι καὶ δελφὶς φαλλαίνῃ διάφορος, 
λάβρακές γε μὴν κεστρεῦσι, μύραιναι δὲ γόγγροις, 
καὶ ἄλλα ἄλλοις. 

49. Αἱ ἄρκτοι τῶν θηρατῶν τοὺς ἐς ὁ στόμα 
‘ fo > 
πεσόντας καὶ TO πνεῦμα ἐς ἑαυτοὺς ὥσαντας 

dodpnodpevat ws νεκροῦυς παραλιμπάνουσι, καὶ 

“ “Ἅ 4 - A / “σ᾿ 
δοκεῖ τοῦτο τὸ ζῷον νεκρὸν βδελύττεσθαι. μισοῦσι 

\ \ ε 7 ᾿ > ᾿ e A , \ 
δὲ καὶ of μύες τοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἑαυτῶν διαίταις Kat 

ὃ - 3 θ ? : 4 , 4 5 
καταδρομαῖς ἀποθανόντας, Kal μέντοι <KaL> 
6. μύρμηκες δέ, 
\ 3 f > “- “- \ ᾽ 
καὶ ἐκείνοις ἐκφορᾶς νεκρῶν μέλειν καὶ καθαίρειν 
τοὺς σφετέρους χηραμοὺς ἡ σοφωτάτη φύσις 
ἔδωκεν, ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῦτο ἴδιον τῶν ἀλόγων, τὰ 
ὁμογενῆ τε καὶ ὁμοφυᾶ τεθνεῶτα τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν 
? 4 Caan) 7 4 2 7 7 
ἀποφέρειν θᾶττον. λέγουσι δὲ Αἰθιόπων λόγοι 
αἱμυλίας τε καὶ κόμπου “Ἑλληνικοῦ ἄγευστοι ὅτι 
Pla 37 7) 3Ὰ 2 A . 3 4 
dpa ἐλέφαντα θεασάμενος ἐλέφας νεκρὸν οὐκ ἂν 
παρέλθοι μὴ τῇ προβοσκίδι γῆν ἀρυσάμενος Καὶ 

2 ἔχθιστον. 

1 καὶ ταύρους del. H (1876). 
8 Ges: ἄνθιος. 4 ἐπί Schn. 





ON ANIMALS, V. 48-49 

and the Turtle-dove, the Aegypius and the Eagle, 
Swans and Water-snakes(?),2 and Lions are the 
enemies of Antelopes and Bulls. The bitterest hate 
exists between the Elephant and the Python,? be- 
tween the Asp and the Ichneumon, between the Blue 
Tit and the Ass, for directly the Ass brays the Blue 

Tit’s eggs are smashed and the young ones are spilt, - 

still imperfect. And so to avenge its offspring the 

Blue Tit leaps upon the Ass’s sore places and feeds 
on them. The Fox detests a Falcon and the Bull a 
Raven, and the Buff-backed Heron the Horse. And 
an educated man who attends to what he hears 
should know that the Dolphin is at feud with the 

Whale, the Basse too with the Mullet, and the Moray | 

with the Conger Eel, and so on. 3 

49, When Bears have sniffed at hunters who have Animals’ 

fallen on their face and knocked the breath out of 
themselves, they leave them for dead, and it seems 
that these creatures are disgusted by a dead body. 
Mice also hate those that die in their holes and lurking- 
places; and a Swallow too ejects a dead Swallow 
from its nest. 
wisdom of Nature, are careful to carry away dead 
bodies and to cleanse their nests, for it is character- 
istic of brute beasts that, when one of their own 
species and kind has died, they speedily remove it 
out of sight. And Ethiopian histories, which are 

untainted by the pretentious plausibility of the 

Greeks, tell us that if one Elephant sees another 
lying dead, it will not pass by without drawing up 

α See Arist. HA 602 Ὁ 25. . δ᾽ Lit. ‘ dragon.’ 

6 : 1 4 ir : 
' VEKPQAV καὶ με LTT Qt. 


δ ¢xal> add. H. 

Ants also, thanks to the supreme 

dislike of 
dead bodies 

and its dead 



ἐπιβαλών, ὡς ὁσίαν τινὰ ἀπόρρητον ὑπὲρ τῆς 
φύσεως τῆς κοινῆς ἐκτελῶν-Σ εἶναι γὰρ τὸ μὴ 
δρᾶσαι τοῦτο ἐναγές. ἀπόχρη δέ οἱ καὶ κλάδον 
ἐπιβαλεῖν, καὶ ἄπεισι τὸ κοινὸν ἁπάντων τέλος 
μὴ ἀτιμάσας. ἀφῖκται δὲ λόγος ἐς ἡμᾶς καὶ 
ἐκεῖνος. ὅταν ἐλέφαντες ἀποθνήσκωσιν ἐκ τραυ- 
μάτων ἢ βληθέντες ἐν πολέμῳ ἢ ἐν θήρᾳ παθόντες 
τοῦτο, τῆς πόας τῆς παρατυχούσης ἢ τῆς κόνεως 
τῆς ἐν ποσὶν ἀνελόμενοι, ἐς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀναβλέ- 
πουσι καὶ βάλλουσί τι τῶν προειρημένων, καὶ 
φωνῇ τῇ σφετέρᾳ κινύρονταί τε καὶ ποτνιῶνται, 
ὥσπερ οὖν τοὺς θεοὺς μαρτυρόμενοι ἐφ᾽ οἷς 
ἐκδίκως τε καὶ ἐκνόμως ὑπομένουσιν. 

ὅ0. Ἴδια δὲ ἄρα τῶν ζῴων καὶ ταύτῃ 5 δήπου 
καταγνῶναι πάρεστι. τοὺς γοῦν ὄρνεις τοὺς 
ἠθάδας καὶ τοὺς ἐν ποσὶ τρεφομένους τε καὶ 
ἐξεταξομένους ὁρῶμεν ἵππους καὶ ὄνους καὶ βοῦς 
καὶ καμήλους θαρροῦντας" εἰ δὲ καὶ ἐλέφαντί που 
πράῳ καὶ ἡμέρῳ συντρέφοιντο, οὗ δὲ οὐκ ὀρρωδοῦ- 
ow, ἀλλὰ καὶ δι’ αὐτῶν ἐκείνων ἔρχονται. ἤδη 
de ἀλεκτρυόνες καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ νῶτα αὐτῶν ἀναπέτον- 
ται. τοσοῦτον αὐτοῖς τοῦ θάρσους περίεστι καὶ 
τοῦ ἀδεοῦς. ᾿πτοίαν δὲ αὐτοῖς ἐντίθησι καὶ δέος 
ἰσχυρὸν γαλῆ παραδραμοῦσα. καὶ μυκήσεων μὲν 
καὶ ὀγκήσεων οὐ ποιοῦνται ὦραν, κρίξασαν δὲ 
ἄρα μόνον πεφρίκασι τὴν προειρημένην. χηνῶν 
δὲ Kae” κύκνων ἅ καὶ στρουθῶν τῶν μεγάλων ἢ 
τι ἢ οὐδὲν φροντίζουσιν, ἱέρακα δὲ βραχύτατον ὃ 
ὄντα ὀρρωδοῦσιν. 6 δὲ ἀλεκτρυὼν ᾷἄσας φοβεῖ 

3 ~ 
1 ἐκτελῶν καὶ φεύγων ἄγος. 


συ ee ea 





LS SSS Sa ites eon nie ei 

ON ANIMALS, V. 49-50 

some earth with its trunk and casting it upon the 
corpse, as though it were performing some sacred and 
mysterious rite on behalf of their common nature; 
and that to fail in this duty is to incur a curse. It is 
enough for it even to cast a branch upon the body ; 
and with due respect paid to the common end of all 
things the Elephant goes on its way. 

And there has reached us also the following story. 
‘When Elephants are dying of wounds, stricken either 
in battle or in hunting, they pick up any grass they 
may find or some of the dust at their feet, and looking 
upwards to the heaven, cast some of these objects in 
that direction and wail and ery aloud in indignation 
in their own language, as though they were calling 
the gods to witness how unjustly and how wrongfully 
they are suffering. 

* 50 (i). By the following cases also, I think, one may 
recognize traits peculiar to animals. For instance, 

A dying 


and fear in 

we see domestic fowls that are reared at the feet, and _ 

have experience, of horses, asses, cows, or camels, 
showing no fear of them. And if they are fed along 
with, say, a tame and gentle elephant, they are not 
afraid but even move about among those creatures. 
And cockerels even fly up on to their backs, such are 
their resulting courage and freedom from fear. But 
they are fluttered and terrified if a marten runs by. 
To the lowing of cattle or the braying of an ass they 
pay no attention; but a marten has but to chatter 
and they tremble. For geese, swans, and ostriches 
they care little or nothing, but are in terror of a hawk 
although it is very small. With its crowing a cock 

3 γε Kal. 

5 βραχύτερον. * 

2 καῦτα. 
4 Reiske: κυνῶν. 





‘ 7 ; > ᾿ οὶ \ , : 
μὲν λέοντα, ἀναιρεῖ δὲ βασιλίσκον: οὐ μὴν φέρει 1 
οὔτε αἰλούρους οὔτε ἰκτίνους. αἱ δὲ περιστεραὶ 

> ~ ~ “~ 
ἀετῶν μὲν κλαγγὴν καὶ γυπῶν θαρροῦσι, ἘΠΕ 

δὲ καὶ ἁλιαέτων οὐκέτι. 

Ἢ δὲ ποίμνη 5 καὶ ὃ ἔριφος καὶ πώλιον πᾶν ἐπὶ 
τὰς μητρῴας θηλὰς ἔ ἔρχεται γεννηθέντα παραχρῆμα, 
καὶ μέντοι καὶ τῶν οὐθάτων σπῶντα ἐμπίπ' αται" 
πολυπραγμονεῖ δὲ τὸ τεκὸν. οὐδὲ ἕν, ἀλλὰ ἕ ἕστηκεν. 
ὕπτια δὲ. παραβάλλει τὰς θηλὰς τοῖς βρέφεσι. τὰ 

σχιζόποδα πάντα, λύκοι καὶ κύνες Kal λέαιναι 
καὶ παρδάλεις. 

51. ΠΠολυφωνότατα δὲ τὰ ζῷα καὶ πολύφθογγα 
ὡς ἂν εἴποις ἡ φύσις ἀπέφηνεν, ὥσπερ οὖν καὶ 
τοὺς ἀνθρώπους. ὁ γοῦν Σικύθης ἄλλως φθέγγεται 
καὶ ὁ ᾿Ινδὸς ἄλλως, καὶ ὁ Αἰθίοψ ἔχει. φωνὴν 
συμφυᾶ * καὶ οἱ Σάκαι: φωνὴ δὲ “Ἑλλὰς ἄλλη, καὶ 
᾿Ῥωμαία ἄλλη. οὕτω τοι καὶ τὰ ζῷα “ἄλλο ἄλλως 
προΐεται τὸν συγγενῆ τῆς γλώττης. ἦχόν TE καὶ 
ψόφον" τὸ μὲν γὰρ βρυχᾶται, “μυκᾶται δὲ ἄλλο, 
καὶ χρεμέτισμα ἄλλου καὶ oyKnNots <aMov >, δ 
ἄλλου βληχηθμός τε καὶ μηκασμός," καί τισι μὲν 
ὠρυγμός, τισὶ δὲ ὑ αγμὸς φίλον, καὶ ἄλλῳ 7 
dppaletv: κλαγγαὶ δὲ 8 καὶ ῥοῖζοι καὶ κριγμοὶ 
καὶ ὠδαὶ καὶ μελῳδίαι. καὶ τραυλισμοὶ καὶ μυρία 
ἕτερα δῶρα τῆς φύσεως ἴδια τῶν ζῴων ἄλλα 

52. ᾿Ανὰ τὴν χώραν τὴν Αἰγυπτίαν. ἀσπίδες 
φωλεύουσι τοῦ Νείλου πλησίον ἐπὶ τῆς ὄχθης 

ἑκατέρας. καὶ τὸν μὲν ἄλλον χρόνον φιλοχωροῦσι. 

1 οὐ φέρει μήν. 2 Abresch: λίμνη. 


PRLS τστ τον νς--------------.... 







eee TROT 

SS $ 


ON ANIMALS, V. 50-52 

scares a lion and is fatal to a basilisk, and yet it 
cannot endure cats or kites. And pigeons are not - 

_ afraid at the cry of eagles and vultures, but they are 

at the cry of falcons and of sea-eagles. 

(ii). The lamb, the kid, and every foal directly it is Animals 
born goes for its dam’s teats and sucks the dugs until ror yeong 
it is full, And the parent shows no concern but | 
stands still. Whereas all animals with parted toes, 
wolves, hounds, lions, leopards, lie down to give their 

young suck. 

51. Nature has made animals with an immense The various 
variety of voice and of speech, as it were, even as she by animals” 
has men. For instance, the Scythian speaks one 
language, the Indian another; the Ethiopian has a 
natural language, so too have the Sacae; the. lan- 
guage of Greece and that of Rome are different. 

And so it is with animals: each has a different way 
of producing the tone and the sound natural to its 
tongue. Thus, one roars, another lows, a third 
whinnies, (another) brays, yet another baas and 
bleats; while to some howling is customary, to others 
barking, and to another snarling. Screaming, 
whistling, hooting, singing, warbling, twittering, 
and countless other gifts of Nature are peculiar to 

different animals. 

52. In the Egyptian countryside Asps have their Reptiles 

oretell and 

holes by the Nile on either bank. Most of the time avoid the 
they stay round about their <lurking-places) and are tee of the 

3 ἀνέφηνεν. 4 συμφυῆ. 
5 ς «ἄλλου» add. Gow. 
Noe καὶ eared, φθέγματα. 
ᾧ ἄλλῳ. τε καί. 



4 9 ~ ς 4 > . 
καὶ ἀγαπῶσιν... .1, ὡς τὰς οἰκίας τὰς σφετέρας 

οἱ ἄνθ . μέλλ =e τοῦ 0 ᾿ 
i ἄνθρωποι. μέλλοντος δὲ τοῦ ποταμοῦ κατὰ τὴν 
ὥραν τὴν θέρειον 5 

τὰ ἀπωτέρω τοῦ Νείλου χωρία, καὶ τοὺς ὄχθους 
τοὺς ὑπερέχοντας ἐσέρπουσι, καὶ μέντοι καὶ τὰ 
σφῶν αὐτῶν ἔκγονα ἐπάγονται, δῶρον τοῦτο ἴδιον 
λαχοῦσαι παρὰ τῆς φύσεως εἰδέναι ποταμοῦ 
τοσούτου καὶ οὕτως ἐργατικοῦ τὴν ἀνὰ πᾶν ἔτος 
ἐπιδημίαν, καὶ τὴν ἐξ αὐτοῦ κατάληψίν τε καὶ 
λύμην φυλάττεσθαι. καὶ at χελῶναι δὲ καὶ οἱ 
καρκίνοι καὶ ob κροκόδιλοι τὰ φὰ κατὰ τὴν ὥραν 
τὴν αὐτὴν μετακομίζουσιν ἐς τὰ ἄβατα τῷ πο- 
ταμῷ καὶ ἀνέφικτα: καὶ ἐντεῦθεν ἤδη λογίζονται 
οἱ ἐντυγχάνοντες τοῖς τῶν προειρημένων φοῖς ὁ 
Νεῖλος ἀνελθὼν ἐς πόσον ἐπαρδεύσει 4 σφίσι τὴν 

. γῆν. 

53. Oi ἵπποι. οἱ ποτάμιοι τοῦ Νείλου μέν εἰσι 
τρόφιμοι: ὅταν δὲ τὰ λήια ἐνακμάζῃ καὶ ὦσιν ot 
στάχυες ξανθοί, οὐκ ἄρχονται παραχρῆμα κείρειν 
αὐτοὺς καὶ ἐσθίειν, ἀλλὰ παραμείβοντες ἔξωθεν 
τὸ λήιον “στοχάζονται πόσον αὐτοὺς ἐμπλήσει ὃ 
μέτρον, εἶτα λογισάμενοι τὸ ἀποχρῆσον σφίσιν 
ἐμπίπτουσι καὶ ἀναχωροῦσιν ἐπὶ πόδα ἐμπιπλάμε- 
νοι, τὸ ῥεῦμα τοῦ ποταμοῦ κατὰ νώτου λαβόντες. 
πεφιλοσόφηται δὲ ἄρα τοῦτο αὐτοῖς, ἵνα εἴ τινες 
τῶν γεωργῶν ἐπίοιεν ἀμυνούμενοι,δ οἱ δὲ ἐκ τοῦ 
ῥάστου ἐς τὸ ὕδωρ καταδραμεῖν ἔχοιεν, τοὺς 
πολεμίους ἀντιπροσώπους, ἀλλὰ οὐκ ὄπισθεν οἱ 
ἵπποι οὗτοι δοκεύοντες. 

ΠῚ 1 Lacuna: ζὑποδρομάςΣ conj. Η. 

Bicansssonnyusinniys ctu " 
ως Fn SEALS SSS TSS SS TS or eae a 

3 ~ Ἁ 

! ἀναπλεῖν," πρὸ τριάκοντά που. 
“- 3 

ἡμερῶν αἱ προειρημέναι ἀσπίδες μετοικίζονται ἐς. 






ON ANIMALS, V. 52-53 

as attached to them as human beings are to their 
own homes. But when in the summertime the river 
threatens to overflow, the aforesaid Asps emigrate 
some thirty days beforehand to districts further 
away from the Nile and creep into bluffs above the 

‘yiver, and, what is more, bring their young with 

them: they have received from Nature this special 
gift of being able to foretell the annual visitation of 
a river so mighty and so active, and to guard against 
being overtaken and destroyed by it. And at the 
same season turtles and.crabs and crocodiles transfer 
their eggs to spots which the river cannot touch or 
reach. Hence those who come across the eggs of 
the aforesaid creatures calculate to what extent the 
Nile will rise and irrigate their land. 

53. Hippopotamuses are nurslings of the Nile, and The Hippo- 

when the crops are ripe and the ears are yellow they 
do not forthwith begin to graze and eat them but pass 
along outside the crop and calculate what area will 
satisfy them; and then, having reckoned how much 
will be enough, they fall to, and as they fill them- 
selves they withdraw backwards, keeping the river 
behind them. Now this move they have cleverly 
devised so that, should any farmers attack them in 
self-defence, they can run down into the water with 
complete ease, on the look out for enemies in front 
of them but not looking behind them. | 

2 Anon.: τὴν ὦ. θερείαν A, τῶν θείων other MSS. 

3 ἀναπλεῖν, ἀναχθεῖσαι καὶ ὠθούμεναι ὑπό τε πλήθους ὕδατος 
καὶ τῶν ἐτησίων ἀνέμων. | 
4 Reiske: εἶτα ἀρδεύσει. 

5 ἐμπλήσειε. 

8 ἀμυνόμενοι. 

7 Ges: δοκοῦντες. 


ποτ ον το σοσοτ DNA RR SN POA LYONS al sed 


τι : 
54. Ev τῇ Μαυρουσίᾳ γῇ at παρδάλεις τοῖς 
πιθήκοις. οὐ κατὰ τὸ καρτερὸν οὐδὲ ὅπως ἂν 
ἐχωσιν ἀλκῆς τε καὶ ῥώμης ἐπιτίθενται. τὸ δὲ 
αἴτιον, οὐ χωροῦσιν ὁμόσε, ἀλλὰ ἀποδιδράσκουσὶιν 
αὐτὰς καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ δένδρα ἀναθέουσι καὶ ἐκεῖ 
κάθηνται, τὴν ἐξ ἐκείνων ἐπιβουλὴν φυλαττόμενοι. 
ἦν δὲ ἄρα ἡ πάρδαλις καὶ τοῦ πιθήκου δολερώτε- 
ρον. olas γοῦν ἐπ᾿ αὐτοῖς παλαμᾶταί τε καὶ 
βάπτει τὰς πάγας. ὅπου πλῆθος πιθήκων κάθην- 
ται, ἐνταῦθα ἐλθοῦσα ἑαυτὴν ὑπέρριψε τῷ δένδρῳ, 
καὶ κεῖται κατὰ τοῦ δαπέδου ὑπτία, καὶ τὴν μὲν 
γαστέρα διώγκωσε, παρῆκε δὲ τὰ σκέλη, τὼ δὲ 
ὀφθαλμὼ κατέμυσε, πιέζει γε μὴν 3 τὸ ἄσθμα, 
καὶ κεῖται νεκρὰ δή. οἱ δὲ ἄνωθεν τὴν ἐχθίστην 
ἰδόντες τεθνάναι νομίζουσιν αὐτήν, καὶ ὃ μάλιστα 
βούλονται, τοῦτο καὶ οἴονται. οὐ μὴν θαρροῦσιν 
ἤδη, ἀλλὰ πεῖραν καθιᾶσι, καὶ ἔστιν ἡ πεῖρα, ἕνα 
ἑαυτῶν τὸν δοκοῦντα... ἀδεέστατον 8 καταπέμ- 
ποῦσι, βασανίσοντα καὶ κατασκεψόμενον τὸ τῆς 
παρδάλεως πάθος. ὁ δὲ κάτεισιν οὐ παντελῶς 
ἀδεής, ἀλλὰ ὀλίγον καταδραμὼν εἶτα ὑπέστρεψεν, 
τοῦ φόβου ἀναστείλαντος αὐτόν: Kal κατῆλθε 
πάλιν, καὶ πλησίον γενόμενος ἀνεχώρησε, καὶ 
ὑπέστρεψεν αὖθις, καὶ τὼ ὀφθαλμὼ κατεσκέψατο, 
καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα * «εἰ μεθίησιν ἐξήτασεν. ἡ δὲ 
ἀτρεμοῦσα καὶ μάλα ἐγκρατῶς ἐντίθησίν οἱ τὸ 
κατὰ μικρὰ ἀδεές. προσελθόντος δὲ καὶ παραμέ- 
νοντος ἀπαθοῦς καὶ οἱ μετέωροι πίθηκοι θαρροῦσιν 
ἤδη, καὶ καταδραμόντες ἔκ τε ἐκείνου τοῦ δένδρου 
καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ὅσα πλησίον παραπέφυκεν, ἀθρόοι 
* οὕτως ἐπιτίθενται. 

a + . 
τ 5, 2. μὴν καὶ συνέχει. 
ἀδεέστερον. : ' 





54. In Mauretania Leopards do not attack Mon- Leopard and 

keys with force nor with all the strength and. power 
at their command, the reason being that the Monkeys 
do not face them but escape from them and run up 
trees and sit there on guard against the designs of 
the Leopards. Yet it seems that after all the Leo- 
pard is craftier than the Monkey, for such -designs 

and traps does it contrive for the Monkeys. It comes 
‘to the place where a gathering of Monkeys is seated, 

throws itself down beneath a tree, lies on the ground 

on its back, inflates its belly, relaxes its legs, closes 

both eyes, and even holds its breath, and lies there 
like one dead. And the Monkeys looking down upon 
their most hated enemy, fancy it to be dead; and 
what they most fervently desire, that they believe. 
For all that, they do not as yet take courage but make 
an experiment, and the experiment is this: they send 
down one of their number whom they regard as the 
most fearless to test and to scrutinise the state of the 
Leopard. So the Monkey descends not altogether 
unafraid; but after running down a little way he 
turns back, fear causing him to retreat. Anda second 
time he descends and having approached, withdraws ; 
‘and a third time he returns and observes the Leo- 
pard’s eyes and examines it to see if it is breathing. 
But the Leopard, by remaining motionless with the 
utmost self-control, inspires a gradual fearlessness in 
the Monkey. And since it approaches and remains 
close by and takes no harm, the Monkeys up aloft also 
now gather courage and run down from that particu- 
lar tree and from all others that grow near by, and 
assembling in a mass encircle the Leopard and dance 

4 ὶ - 2 4 1 8 
. πνευμα TE καὶ TO αἀσύῦμα. 


ὡς, δο 


7 7 ,ὔ 4 
γενόμενοι περιέρχονταί τε Kal περιχορεύουσιν 
> 4 εν > 7 ~ 
αὐτήν. εἶτα ἐμπηδήσαντες αὐτῇ καὶ ἐπιβάντες 
f ‘ 4 ; 
κατεκυβίστησαν καὶ κατωρχήσαντο κέρτομόν τινα 
: , 3 

‘ 7 “ j : 
Kat “πιθήκοις πρέπουσαν ὄρχησιν, Kat ποικίλως. 

ἐνυβρίσαντες, ἣν ἔχουσιν ὡς ἐπὶ νεκρᾷ χαρὰν καὶ 
ἡδονὴν ἐμαρτύραντο. ἡ δὲ ὑπέμεινε πάντα, εἶτα 
ὅταν ἐννοήσῃ κεκμηκέναι ὑπό τε τῆς χορείας 
αὐτοὺς καὶ τῆς ὕβρεως, ἀδοκήτως ἀναπηδήσασα 
καὶ ἐσθοροῦσα 3 τοὺς μὲν τοῖς ὄνυξι διέξηνε, τοὺς 
δὲ τοῖς ὀδοῦσι διεσπάσατο, καὶ τὴν ἐκ τῶν 
πολεμίων πανθοινίαν τε καὶ πανδαισίαν ἀφθο- 
νώτατα ἔχει. τλημόνως δὲ ἔχειν ὃ καὶ καρτερῶς 
καὶ γεννικῶς ἡ φύσις κελεύει τὴν πάρδαλιν 
ὑπὲρ τοῦ τῶν πολεμίων ἐνυβρισάντων περιγενέσθαι 
καρτερικώτατα ἐναθλοῦσαν καὶ μὴ δεομένην εἰπεῖν 
τέτλαθι δὴ κραδίη. ὅ γε μὴν τοῦ Λαέρτου ἑαυτὸν 
ἐξεκάλυψεν ὀλίγου πρὸ τοῦ καιροῦ, τὴν ἐκ τῶν 
παιδισκῶν ὕβριν μὴ φέρων. 

55. ᾽ν τοῖς ᾿Ινδοῖς ot ἐλέφαντες, ὅταν τι τῶν 
δένδρων αὐτόρριζον ἀναγκάζωσιν αὐτοὺς ot ᾿Ινδοὶ 
ἐκσπάσαι, οὐ πρότερον ἐμπήδῶσιν ® οὐδὲ ἐπιχει- 
ροῦσι τῷ ἔργῳ πρὶν ἢ διασεῖσαι αὐτὸ καὶ διασκέ- 
ψασθαι dpd γεῦ ἀνατραπῆναι οἷόν τέ ἐστιν 7 
παντελῶς ἀδύνατον. 

€¢ > ᾿ 
56. Αἱ ἐν Σύροις ἔλαφοι γίνονται μὲν ἐν ὄρεσι 
/ 3 “ς 
μεγίστοις, ᾿Αμανῷ τε καὶ Λιβάνῳ καὶ Καρμήλῳ: 
7] \ a : 
ὅταν δὲ βουληθῶσι περαιώσασθαι τὴν θάλατταν, 
> ἃ 4 9.2 > -. : 
ἐπὶ τὰς Novas ἀφικνοῦνται ἡ ἀγέλη, καὶ ἀναμέ- 
2 ἐκθοροῦσα. 

1 Ges: ὀρχηστικήν. 
ἔχει. 4 κατέχει. 








ON ANIMALS, V. 54-56 

round it. Then they leap upon it and turn somer- 
saults on its body and by dancing in triumph a dance 
appropriate to monkeys, and by a variety of insults 
testify to the joy and delight they feel over the sup- 

posed corpse. But the Leopard submits to all this 

until it realises that the Monkeys are tired by their 
dancing and their insolence, when it leaps up un- 
expectedly and springs at them. And some it 
lacerates with its claws, others it tears to pieces with 
its teeth, and enjoys without stint the ample and 

sumptuous banquet provided by its enemies. It is 

Nature that bids the Leopard endure with heroic 
fortitude, so that it may rise superior to the insults 
of its enemies, bearing up with the utmost patience 
and finding no need to say ‘endure, my heart’ 
(Hom. Od. 20. 18].. Indeed the son of Laertes was 
within an ace of revealing himself prematurely 
through being unable to tolerate the insults of the 

55. In India Elephants, when compelled by the Saat 

natives to pull up some tree, roots and all, do not 
immediately attack it and begin the task, until they 
have shaken it and have tested it thoroughly to see 
whether in fact it can be overturned, or whether that 
is utterly impossible. 

56. The Deer of Syria are born on the highest Deer cross- 

ing the sea 

mountains, on Amanus, on Libanus, and on Carmel. 
And when they want to cross the sea the herd goes 
down to the beaches and waits until the wind drops; 

δ Jac: ἐκ-. 
δ Ν Hw > Ν 
εἴ ye apa ΟΥ̓ εἰ apa γε. 



vovot τοῦ πνεύματος THY P0iow,* Kai ἡνίκα ἂν 
αἴσθωνται πρᾶον αὐτὸ καὶ ἥσυχον καταπνέον 
τηνικαῦτα ἐπιθαρροῦσι τῷ πελάγει. νέουσι δὲ 
κατὰ στοῖχον, καὶ ἀλλήλων ἔχονται, τὰ γένεια at 
ἑπόμεναι τῶν προηγουμένων τῇ ὀσφύι ἐπερείδου- 
σαι" ἡ .. ἢ τελευταία δὲ γενομένη τῇ πρόσθεν 
ἐπὶ πάσαις ἑαυτὴν ἐπαναπαύσασα εἶτα οὐραγεῖ 
στέλλονται δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν Κύπρον πόθῳ τῆ a 
τέλλονται oe υ τῆς πόας 
τῆς ἐκεῖ: λέγεται γὰρ εἶναι βαθεῖα καὶ νομὰς 

3 4 4 3 4 4 ? 
ἀγαθὰς παρέχειν. καὶ λέγουσί ye Κύπριοι εὔγεων 

> a a A “a 
οἰκεῖν χῶρον, καὶ ταῖς Αἰγυπτίων ἀρούραις 
τολμῶσιν ἀντικρίνειν τὰς σφετέρας. ἔλαφοι δὲ 

4 ~ 
- ἕτεραι τήνδε τὴν νῆξιν ἀποδείκνυνται. at γοῦν 
πειρώτιδες ἐς τὴν Κέρκυραν διανήχονται, ἀντί- 

πορθμοὸι δὲ ἀλλήλαις αἵδε εἰσίν. 

1 φύσιν. 7 | 

5. Lacuna: ἡ {δὲ ἡ , , “ ΄ 

: γουμένη πρόσθεν, ὅταν κάμῃ, τελευταί 

Ji a0, comp. Opp. Cyn. 2. 225, Max. Tyr. 12. 3. ὧ ‘ ὦ 




and as soon as they observe that there is a favourable 
and gentle breeze, then they brave the opensea. And 
they swim in single file, holding on to one another, 
the ones behind supporting their chins on the rumps 
of those in front . . .* takes the last place in the 
line, and resting itself upon the one next in front 
of it in the whole troop, brings up the rear. And 
they make for Cyprus in their longing for the mea- 
dows there, for they are said to be deep and to afford 
excellent pasture. The Cypriots indeed claim that 
they live in a fertile country, and venture to compare 
their arable land with that of Egypt. And there 
are Deer from other countries too which show this 

same capacity for swimming. For example, the Deer | 

of Epirus swim across to Corcyra: the two countries 
face each other across a strait. ᾿ 

α Some words have been lost; following Jacobs's suggested. 
filling of-the lacuna we may translate : “When the one that 
has been leading hitherto begins to tire, it drops back to the 
end of the file, and, efc.’ 

358 ΕΣ | | : 359 

pppelivmeseniatimamrnssite erin Mar E 

σφ στο ay 

fa mT a